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Twist2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644763/methyltransferase-g9a-regulates-osteogenesis-via-twist-gene-repression
#1
N Higashihori, B Lehnertz, A Sampaio, T M Underhill, F Rossi, J M Richman
Here we investigate the role of epigenetic factors in controlling the timing of cranial neural crest cell differentiation. The gene coding for histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase G9A was conditionally deleted in neural crest cells with Wnt1-Cre. The majority of homozygous-null animals survived to birth but thereafter failed to thrive. Phenotypic analysis of postnatal animals revealed that the mutants displayed incomplete ossification and 20% shorter jaws as compared to their wild-type littermates. At E13...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599281/hif-2%C3%AE-promotes-the-formation-of-vasculogenic-mimicry-in-pancreatic-cancer-by-regulating-the-binding-of-twist1-to-the-ve-cadherin-promoter
#2
Jian Yang, Dong-Ming Zhu, Xiao-Gang Zhou, Ni Yin, Yi Zhang, Zi-Xiang Zhang, De-Chun Li, Jian Zhou
Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is a blood supply modality that occurs independently of endothelial cell angiogenesis. Hypoxia and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induce VM formation by remodeling the extracellular matrix. Our previous study demonstrated that hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha (HIF-2α) promotes the progress of EMT in pancreatic cancer; however, whether HIF-2α promotes VM formation in pancreatic cancer remains unknown. In this study, we investigated HIF-2α expression and VM by immunohistochemistry in 70 pancreatic cancer patients as well as the role of Twist1and Twist2 in HIF-2α-induced VM in vitro and in vivo...
May 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549095/klf4-plays-an-essential-role-in-corneal-epithelial-homeostasis-by-promoting-epithelial-cell-fate-and-suppressing-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#3
Anil Tiwari, Chelsea L Loughner, Sudha Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K Swamynathan
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that KLF4 promotes corneal epithelial (CE) cell fate by suppressing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), using spatiotemporally regulated CE-specific ablation of Klf4 in Klf4Δ/ΔCE (Klf4LoxP/LoxP/Krt12rtTA/rtTA/Tet-O-Cre) mice. Methods: CE-specific ablation of Klf4 was achieved by feeding Klf4Δ/ΔCE mice with doxycycline chow. The wild-type (WT; normal chow-fed littermates) and the Klf4Δ/ΔCE histology was compared by hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections; EMT marker expression was quantified by quantitative PCR, immunoblots, and immunofluorescent staining; and wound healing rate was measured by CE debridement using Algerbrush...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397045/celastrol-protects-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition
#4
Fei Gong, Fang Zhao, Xue-Dong Gan
The endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in endothelial cells contributes to the development of cardiac fibrosis, ultimately leading to cardiac remodeling. In this study, the effects and molecular mechanisms of celastrol (CEL) on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced EndMT in human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC-12) cells were investigated. The presented data demonstrated that CEL significantly blocked the morphology change of HUVEC-12 cells induced by TGF-β1 without cell cytotoxicity...
April 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369379/localized-twist1-and-twist2-basic-domain-substitutions-cause-four-distinct-human-diseases-that-can-be-modeled-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Sharon Kim, Stephen R F Twigg, Victoria A Scanlon, Aditi Chandra, Tyler J Hansen, Arwa Alsubait, Aimee L Fenwick, Simon J McGowan, Helen Lord, Tracy Lester, Elizabeth Sweeney, Astrid Weber, Helen Cox, Andrew O M Wilkie, Andy Golden, Ann K Corsi
Twist transcription factors, members of the basic helix-loop-helix family, play crucial roles in mesoderm development in all animals. Humans have two paralogous genes, TWIST1 and TWIST2, and mutations in each gene have been identified in specific craniofacial disorders. Here, we describe a new clinical entity, Sweeney-Cox syndrome, associated with distinct de novo amino acid substitutions (p.Glu117Val and p.Glu117Gly) at a highly conserved glutamic acid residue located in the basic DNA binding domain of TWIST1, in two subjects with frontonasal dysplasia and additional malformations...
June 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350298/oncogenic-braf-disrupts-thyroid-morphogenesis-and-function-via-twist-expression
#6
Viviana Anelli, Jacques A Villefranc, Sagar Chhangawala, Raul Martinez-McFaline, Eleonora Riva, Anvy Nguyen, Akanksha Verma, Rohan Bareja, Zhengming Chen, Theresa Scognamiglio, Olivier Elemento, Yariv Houvras
Thyroid cancer is common, yet the sequence of alterations that promote tumor formation are incompletely understood. Here, we describe a novel model of thyroid carcinoma in zebrafish that reveals temporal changes due to BRAF(V600E). Through the use of real-time in vivo imaging, we observe disruption in thyroid follicle structure that occurs early in thyroid development. Combinatorial treatment using BRAF and MEK inhibitors reversed the developmental effects induced by BRAF(V600E). Adult zebrafish expressing BRAF(V600E) in thyrocytes developed invasive carcinoma...
March 28, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270406/akr1b1-promotes-basal-like-breast-cancer-progression-by-a-positive-feedback-loop-that-activates-the-emt-program
#7
Xuebiao Wu, Xiaoli Li, Qiang Fu, Qianhua Cao, Xingyu Chen, Mengjie Wang, Jie Yu, Jingpei Long, Jun Yao, Huixin Liu, Danping Wang, Ruocen Liao, Chenfang Dong
Basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) is associated with high-grade, distant metastasis and poor prognosis. Elucidating the determinants of aggressiveness in BLBC may facilitate the development of novel interventions for this challenging disease. In this study, we show that aldo-keto reductase 1 member B1 (AKR1B1) overexpression highly correlates with BLBC and predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Mechanistically, Twist2 transcriptionally induces AKR1B1 expression, leading to nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248307/twist-of-fate-for-skeletal-muscle-mesenchymal-cells
#8
Natalya A Goloviznina, Michael Kyba
Skeletal muscles are composed of different types of fibres. Can these be thought of as distinct lineages with specific lineage-restricted progenitors? A provocative study now proposes that mesenchymal cells expressing the transcription factor Twist2 act as myogenic progenitors with selective type IIb fibre-differentiation potential.
March 1, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218909/a-twist2-dependent-progenitor-cell-contributes-to-adult-skeletal-muscle
#9
Ning Liu, Glynnis A Garry, Stephen Li, Svetlana Bezprozvannaya, Efrain Sanchez-Ortiz, Beibei Chen, John M Shelton, Priscilla Jaichander, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Eric N Olson
Skeletal muscle possesses remarkable regenerative potential due to satellite cells, an injury-responsive stem cell population located beneath the muscle basal lamina that expresses Pax7. By lineage tracing of progenitor cells expressing the Twist2 (Tw2) transcription factor in mice, we discovered a myogenic lineage that resides outside the basal lamina of adult skeletal muscle. Tw2(+) progenitors are molecularly and anatomically distinct from satellite cells, are highly myogenic in vitro, and can fuse with themselves and with satellite cells...
March 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208580/twist2-is-upregulated-in-early-stages-of-repair-following-acute-kidney-injury
#10
Elizabeth A Grunz-Borgmann, LaNita A Nichols, Xinhui Wang, Alan R Parrish
The aging kidney is a marked by a number of structural and functional changes, including an increased susceptibility to acute kidney injury (AKI). Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that aging male Fischer 344 rats (24 month) are more susceptible to apoptosis-mediated injury than young counterparts. In the current studies, we examined the initial injury and early recovery phases of mercuric chloride-induced AKI. Interestingly, the aging kidney had decreased serum creatinine compared to young controls 1 day following mercuric chloride injury, but by day 4, serum creatinine was significantly elevated, suggesting that the aging kidney did not recover from injury...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829009/the-morphogenesis-of-cranial-sutures-in-zebrafish
#11
Jolanta M Topczewska, Ramy A Shoela, Joanna P Tomaszewski, Rupa B Mirmira, Arun K Gosain
Using morphological, histological, and TEM analyses of the cranium, we provide a detailed description of bone and suture growth in zebrafish. Based on expression patterns and localization, we identified osteoblasts at different degrees of maturation. Our data confirm that, unlike in humans, zebrafish cranial sutures maintain lifelong patency to sustain skull growth. The cranial vault develops in a coordinated manner resulting in a structure that protects the brain. The zebrafish cranial roof parallels that of higher vertebrates and contains five major bones: one pair of frontal bones, one pair of parietal bones, and the supraoccipital bone...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750268/the-twist2-mutation-causes-setleis-syndrome-a-rare-clinical-case-report
#12
Akif Ayaz, Sinem Yalcintepe, Ozge Ozalp Yuregir, Yavuz Sahin, Ahmet Ozer, Metin Eser, Umit Celik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Clinical Dysmorphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750041/paracrine-il-6-signaling-mediates-the-effects-of-pancreatic-stellate-cells-on-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-stat3-nrf2-pathway-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#13
Yuan Seng Wu, Ivy Chung, Won Fen Wong, Atsushi Masamune, Maw Shin Sim, Chung Yeng Looi
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) secreted interleukin (IL)-6 and promoted pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell proliferation via nuclear factor erythroid 2 (Nrf2)-mediated metabolic reprogramming. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process for the metastatic cascade. To study the mechanism of PDAC progression to metastasis, we investigated the role of PSC-secreted IL-6 in activating EMT and the involvement of Nrf2 in this process...
February 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583933/an-enzyme-and-serum-free-neural-stem-cell-culture-model-for-emt-investigation-suited-for-drug-discovery
#14
Martin H M Sailer, Durga Sarvepalli, Catherine Brégère, Urs Fisch, Marin Guentchev, Michael Weller, Raphael Guzman, Bernhard Bettler, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Gregor Hutter
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) describes the process of epithelium transdifferentiating into mesenchyme. EMT is a fundamental process during embryonic development that also commonly occurs in glioblastoma, the most frequent malignant brain tumor. EMT has also been observed in multiple carcinomas outside the brain including breast cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, gastric cancer. EMT is centrally linked to malignancy by promoting migration, invasion and metastasis formation. The mechanisms of EMT induction are not fully understood...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556926/evolution-of-the-twist-subfamily-vertebrate-proteins-discovery-of-a-signature-motif-and-origin-of-the-twist1-glycine-rich-motifs-in-the-amino-terminus-disordered-domain
#15
Yacidzohara Rodriguez, Ricardo R Gonzalez-Mendez, Carmen L Cadilla
Twist proteins belong to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of multifunctional transcriptional factors. These factors are known to use domains other than the common bHLH in protein-protein interactions. There has been much work characterizing the bHLH domain and the C-terminus in protein-protein interactions but despite a few attempts more focus is needed at the N-terminus. Since the region of highest diversity in Twist proteins is the N-terminus, we analyzed the conservation of this region in different vertebrate Twist proteins and study the sequence differences between Twist1 and Twist2 with emphasis on the glycine-rich regions found in Twist1...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524245/lens-transcriptome-profile-during-cataract-development-in-mip-null-mice
#16
Thomas M Bennett, Yuefang Zhou, Alan Shiels
Major intrinsic protein or aquaporin-0 (MIP/AQP0) functions as a water channel and a cell-junction molecule in the vertebrate eye lens. Loss of MIP function in the lens leads to degraded optical quality and cataract formation by pathogenic mechanisms that are unclear. Here we have used microarray-hybridization analysis to detect lens transcriptome changes during cataract formation in mice that are functionally null for MIP (Mip-/-). In newborn Mip-/- lenses (P1) 11 genes were up-regulated and 18 were down-regulated (>2-fold, p=<0...
September 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500098/anterior-segment-dysgenesis-correlation-with-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-smad4-knockout-mice
#17
Jing Li, Yu Qin, Fang-Kun Zhao, Di Wu, Xue-Fei He, Jia Liu, Jiang-Yue Zhao, Jin-Song Zhang
AIM: To explore the molecular mechanisms in lens development and the pathogenesis of Peters anomaly in Smad4 defective mice. METHODS: Le-Cre transgenic mouse line was employed to inactivate Smad4 in the surface ectoderm selectively. Pathological techniques were used to reveal the morphological changes of the anterior segment in Smad4 defective eye. Immunohistochemical staining was employed to observe the expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and α-SMA in anterior segment of Smad4 defective mice and control mice at embryonic (E) day 16...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443922/talen-and-crispr-enhanced-dna-homologous-recombination-for-gene-editing-in-zebrafish
#18
Y Zhang, H Huang, B Zhang, S Lin
The TALE nuclease and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated systems (Cas) have been developed as important tools for genome editing in zebrafish. Here we describe a CRISPR/Cas9-based approach for generating site-specific gene targeting in zebrafish using DNA double-strand breaks induced homologous recombination (HR)-dependent repair mechanism. Through comicroinjection of Cas9 mRNA, guide RNA targeting genomic DNA sequence corresponding to the twist2 gene and the corresponding double-strand long arm donor template with a point mutation identified in human, HR-mediated knock-in of the expected targeting sequence was obtained...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398792/a-recellularized-human-colon-model-identifies-cancer-driver-genes
#19
Huanhuan Joyce Chen, Zhubo Wei, Jian Sun, Asmita Bhattacharya, David J Savage, Rita Serda, Yuri Mackeyev, Steven A Curley, Pengcheng Bu, Lihua Wang, Shuibing Chen, Leona Cohen-Gould, Emina Huang, Xiling Shen, Steven M Lipkin, Neal G Copeland, Nancy A Jenkins, Michael L Shuler
Refined cancer models are needed to bridge the gaps between cell line, animal and clinical research. Here we describe the engineering of an organotypic colon cancer model by recellularization of a native human matrix that contains cell-populated mucosa and an intact muscularis mucosa layer. This ex vivo system recapitulates the pathophysiological progression from APC-mutant neoplasia to submucosal invasive tumor. We used it to perform a Sleeping Beauty transposon mutagenesis screen to identify genes that cooperate with mutant APC in driving invasive neoplasia...
August 2016: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391798/expression-of-twist2-is-controlled-by-t-cell-receptor-signaling-and-determines-the-survival-and-death-of-thymocytes
#20
S Oh, J Oh, C Lee, S Oh, S Jeon, J Choi, S Hwang, Y Lee, H Lee, R H Seong
Self-reactive thymocytes are eliminated by negative selection, whereas competent thymocytes survive by positive selection. The strength of the T-cell receptor (TCR) signal determines the fate of thymocytes undergoing either positive or negative selection. The TCR signal strength is relatively higher in negative selection than in positive selection and induces pro-apoptotic molecules such as Nur77 and Nor-1, which are members of the orphan nuclear receptor family, that then cause TCR-mediated apoptosis. However, at the molecular level, it remains unclear how positive or negative selection is distinguished based on the TCR signal...
November 1, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
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