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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829009/the-morphogenesis-of-cranial-sutures-in-zebrafish
#1
Jolanta M Topczewska, Ramy A Shoela, Joanna P Tomaszewski, Rupa B Mirmira, Arun K Gosain
Using morphological, histological, and TEM analyses of the cranium, we provide a detailed description of bone and suture growth in zebrafish. Based on expression patterns and localization, we identified osteoblasts at different degrees of maturation. Our data confirm that, unlike in humans, zebrafish cranial sutures maintain lifelong patency to sustain skull growth. The cranial vault develops in a coordinated manner resulting in a structure that protects the brain. The zebrafish cranial roof parallels that of higher vertebrates and contains five major bones: one pair of frontal bones, one pair of parietal bones, and the supraoccipital bone...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750268/the-twist2-mutation-causes-setleis-syndrome-a-rare-clinical-case-report
#2
Akif Ayaz, Sinem Yalcintepe, Ozge Ozalp Yuregir, Yavuz Sahin, Ahmet Ozer, Metin Eser, Umit Celik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Clinical Dysmorphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750041/paracrine-il-6-signaling-mediates-the-effects-of-pancreatic-stellate-cells-on-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-stat3-nrf2-pathway-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#3
Yuan Seng Wu, Ivy Chung, Won Fen Wong, Atsushi Masamune, Maw Shin Sim, Chung Yeng Looi
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) secreted interleukin (IL)-6 and promoted pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell proliferation via nuclear factor erythroid 2 (Nrf2)-mediated metabolic reprogramming. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process for the metastatic cascade. To study the mechanism of PDAC progression to metastasis, we investigated the role of PSC-secreted IL-6 in activating EMT and the involvement of Nrf2 in this process...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583933/an-enzyme-and-serum-free-neural-stem-cell-culture-model-for-emt-investigation-suited-for-drug-discovery
#4
Martin H M Sailer, Durga Sarvepalli, Catherine Brégère, Urs Fisch, Marin Guentchev, Michael Weller, Raphael Guzman, Bernhard Bettler, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Gregor Hutter
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) describes the process of epithelium transdifferentiating into mesenchyme. EMT is a fundamental process during embryonic development that also commonly occurs in glioblastoma, the most frequent malignant brain tumor. EMT has also been observed in multiple carcinomas outside the brain including breast cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, gastric cancer. EMT is centrally linked to malignancy by promoting migration, invasion and metastasis formation. The mechanisms of EMT induction are not fully understood...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556926/evolution-of-the-twist-subfamily-vertebrate-proteins-discovery-of-a-signature-motif-and-origin-of-the-twist1-glycine-rich-motifs-in-the-amino-terminus-disordered-domain
#5
Yacidzohara Rodriguez, Ricardo R Gonzalez-Mendez, Carmen L Cadilla
Twist proteins belong to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of multifunctional transcriptional factors. These factors are known to use domains other than the common bHLH in protein-protein interactions. There has been much work characterizing the bHLH domain and the C-terminus in protein-protein interactions but despite a few attempts more focus is needed at the N-terminus. Since the region of highest diversity in Twist proteins is the N-terminus, we analyzed the conservation of this region in different vertebrate Twist proteins and study the sequence differences between Twist1 and Twist2 with emphasis on the glycine-rich regions found in Twist1...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524245/lens-transcriptome-profile-during-cataract-development-in-mip-null-mice
#6
Thomas M Bennett, Yuefang Zhou, Alan Shiels
Major intrinsic protein or aquaporin-0 (MIP/AQP0) functions as a water channel and a cell-junction molecule in the vertebrate eye lens. Loss of MIP function in the lens leads to degraded optical quality and cataract formation by pathogenic mechanisms that are unclear. Here we have used microarray-hybridization analysis to detect lens transcriptome changes during cataract formation in mice that are functionally null for MIP (Mip-/-). In newborn Mip-/- lenses (P1) 11 genes were up-regulated and 18 were down-regulated (>2-fold, p=<0...
September 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500098/anterior-segment-dysgenesis-correlation-with-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-smad4-knockout-mice
#7
Jing Li, Yu Qin, Fang-Kun Zhao, Di Wu, Xue-Fei He, Jia Liu, Jiang-Yue Zhao, Jin-Song Zhang
AIM: To explore the molecular mechanisms in lens development and the pathogenesis of Peters anomaly in Smad4 defective mice. METHODS: Le-Cre transgenic mouse line was employed to inactivate Smad4 in the surface ectoderm selectively. Pathological techniques were used to reveal the morphological changes of the anterior segment in Smad4 defective eye. Immunohistochemical staining was employed to observe the expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and α-SMA in anterior segment of Smad4 defective mice and control mice at embryonic (E) day 16...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443922/talen-and-crispr-enhanced-dna-homologous-recombination-for-gene-editing-in-zebrafish
#8
Y Zhang, H Huang, B Zhang, S Lin
The TALE nuclease and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated systems (Cas) have been developed as important tools for genome editing in zebrafish. Here we describe a CRISPR/Cas9-based approach for generating site-specific gene targeting in zebrafish using DNA double-strand breaks induced homologous recombination (HR)-dependent repair mechanism. Through comicroinjection of Cas9 mRNA, guide RNA targeting genomic DNA sequence corresponding to the twist2 gene and the corresponding double-strand long arm donor template with a point mutation identified in human, HR-mediated knock-in of the expected targeting sequence was obtained...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398792/a-recellularized-human-colon-model-identifies-cancer-driver-genes
#9
Huanhuan Joyce Chen, Zhubo Wei, Jian Sun, Asmita Bhattacharya, David J Savage, Rita Serda, Yuri Mackeyev, Steven A Curley, Pengcheng Bu, Lihua Wang, Shuibing Chen, Leona Cohen-Gould, Emina Huang, Xiling Shen, Steven M Lipkin, Neal G Copeland, Nancy A Jenkins, Michael L Shuler
Refined cancer models are needed to bridge the gaps between cell line, animal and clinical research. Here we describe the engineering of an organotypic colon cancer model by recellularization of a native human matrix that contains cell-populated mucosa and an intact muscularis mucosa layer. This ex vivo system recapitulates the pathophysiological progression from APC-mutant neoplasia to submucosal invasive tumor. We used it to perform a Sleeping Beauty transposon mutagenesis screen to identify genes that cooperate with mutant APC in driving invasive neoplasia...
August 2016: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391798/expression-of-twist2-is-controlled-by-t-cell-receptor-signaling-and-determines-the-survival-and-death-of-thymocytes
#10
S Oh, J Oh, C Lee, S Oh, S Jeon, J Choi, S Hwang, Y Lee, H Lee, R H Seong
Self-reactive thymocytes are eliminated by negative selection, whereas competent thymocytes survive by positive selection. The strength of the T-cell receptor (TCR) signal determines the fate of thymocytes undergoing either positive or negative selection. The TCR signal strength is relatively higher in negative selection than in positive selection and induces pro-apoptotic molecules such as Nur77 and Nor-1, which are members of the orphan nuclear receptor family, that then cause TCR-mediated apoptosis. However, at the molecular level, it remains unclear how positive or negative selection is distinguished based on the TCR signal...
November 1, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27261625/twist2-promotes-kidney-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-via-regulating-itga6-and-cd44-expression-in-the-ecm-receptor-interaction-pathway
#11
Hao-Jie Zhang, Jing Tao, Lu Sheng, Xin Hu, Rui-Ming Rong, Ming Xu, Tong-Yu Zhu
Twist2 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family and plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. Growing evidence proves that Twist2 involves in tumor progression; however, the role of Twist2 in human kidney cancer and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of Twist2 in kidney cancer cells and tissues. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion assay was measured by the Cell Count Kit-8 (CCK8), flow cytometry, wound healing and transwell analysis, respectively...
July 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230280/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-proliferation-and-angiogenesis-in-locally-advanced-cervical-cancer-treated-with-chemoradiotherapy
#12
Leonardo Rojas-Puentes, Andrés F Cardona, Hernán Carranza, Carlos Vargas, Luis F Jaramillo, Delma Zea, Lucely Cetina, Beatriz Wills, Erika Ruiz-Garcia, Oscar Arrieta
We evaluated the association between epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-derived markers and expression of proteins associated with cell proliferation and tumor growth, as well as their prognostic roles, in 61 patients (mean age 52 ± 10 years) with locally advanced cervical cancer, all of whom were treated with chemoradiation and intracavitary brachytherapy. We used immunohistochemical analysis to assess the expression of proteins targeted in our investigation. Various statistical analyses were then conducted to assess protein marker associations with survival outcomes...
August 2016: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27196381/barber-say-syndrome-and-ablepharon-macrostomia-syndrome-an-overview
#13
Beatrice De Maria, Laura Mazzanti, Nathalie Roche, Raoul C Hennekam
Barber-Say syndrome (BSS) and Ablepharon-Macrostomia syndrome (AMS) are congenital malformation syndromes caused by heterozygous mutations in TWIST2. Here we provide a critical review of all patients published with these syndromes. We excluded several earlier reports due to misdiagnosis or insufficient data for reliable confirmation of the diagnosis. There remain 16 reliably diagnosed individuals with BSS and 16 with AMS. Major facial characteristics present in both entities, albeit often in differing frequencies, are excessive facial creases, hypertelorism, underdevelopment of the anterior part of the eyelids (anterior lamella), ectropion, broad nasal ridge and tip, thick and flaring alae nasi, protruding maxilla, wide mouth, thin upper vermillion, and attached ear lobes...
August 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27106720/role-of-notochord-cells-and-sclerotome-derived-cells-in-vertebral-column-development-in-fugu-takifugu-rubripes-histological-and-gene-expression-analyses
#14
Takamasa Kaneko, Khalid Freeha, Xiaoming Wu, Makoto Mogi, Susumu Uji, Hayato Yokoi, Tohru Suzuki
Despite the common structure of vertebrates, the development of the vertebral column differs widely between teleosts and tetrapods in several respects, including the ossification of the centrum and the function of the notochord. In contrast to tetrapods, vertebral development in teleosts is not fully understood, particularly for large fish with highly ossified bones. We therefore examined the histology and gene expression profile of vertebral development in fugu, Takifugu rubripes, a model organism for genomic research...
October 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27099513/twist2-promotes-kidney-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-by-regulating-itga6-and-cd44-expression-in-the-ecm-receptor-interaction-pathway
#15
Hao-Jie Zhang, Jing Tao, Lu Sheng, Xin Hu, Rui-Ming Rong, Ming Xu, Tong-Yu Zhu
Twist2 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family and plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. Growing evidence has proven that Twist2 is involved in tumor progression; however, the role of Twist2 in human kidney cancer and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of Twist2 in kidney cancer cells and tissues. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration, and invasion assay were analyzed using the Cell Count Kit-8, flow cytometry, wound healing, and Transwell analysis, respectively...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27048119/role-of-twist2-e-cadherin-and-vimentin-in-epithelial-ovarian-carcinogenesis-and-prognosis-and-their-interaction-in-cancer-progression
#16
X Li, J Yang, X Wang, X Li, J Liang, H Xing
UNLABELLED: Globally, most patients are at late-stage when they have been diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Investigating the potential mechanisms involved in tumor progression and prognosis is essential for improving treatment options, outcomes, and survival. OBJECTIVE: This study elucidated the clinico-pathological significance of TWIST2 and the relationship of TWIST2, E-cadherin, and Vimentin expression in the progression and prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC)...
2016: European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26996663/collagen-rich-stroma-in-aggressive-colon-tumors-induces-mesenchymal-gene-expression-and-tumor-cell-invasion
#17
T T Vellinga, S den Uil, I H B Rinkes, D Marvin, B Ponsioen, A Alvarez-Varela, S Fatrai, C Scheele, D A Zwijnenburg, H Snippert, L Vermeulen, J P Medema, H B Stockmann, J Koster, R J A Fijneman, J de Rooij, O Kranenburg
Gene expression-based classification systems have identified an aggressive colon cancer subtype with mesenchymal features, possibly reflecting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells. However, stromal fibroblasts contribute extensively to the mesenchymal phenotype of aggressive colon tumors, challenging the notion of tumor EMT. To separately study the neoplastic and stromal compartments of colon tumors, we have generated a stroma gene filter (SGF). Comparative analysis of stroma(high) and stroma(low) tumors shows that the neoplastic cells in stroma(high) tumors express specific EMT drivers (ZEB2, TWIST1, TWIST2) and that 98% of differentially expressed genes are strongly correlated with them...
October 6, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26957038/re-patterning-of-h3k27me3-h3k4me3-and-dna-methylation-during-fibroblast-conversion-into-induced-cardiomyocytes
#18
Ziqing Liu, Olivia Chen, Michael Zheng, Li Wang, Yang Zhou, Chaoying Yin, Jiandong Liu, Li Qian
Direct conversion of fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) offers an alternative strategy for cardiac disease modeling and regeneration. During iCM reprogramming, the starting fibroblasts must overcome existing epigenetic barriers to acquire the CM-like chromatin pattern. However, epigenetic dynamics along this reprogramming process have not been studied. Here, we took advantage of our recently generated polycistronic system and determined the dynamics of two critical histone marks, H3K27me3 and H3K4me3, in parallel with gene expression at a set of carefully selected cardiac and fibroblast loci during iCM reprogramming...
March 2016: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26842802/hif-2%C3%AE-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-through-regulating-twist2-binding-to-the-promoter-of-e-cadherin-in-pancreatic-cancer
#19
Jian Yang, Xu Zhang, Yi Zhang, Dongming Zhu, Lifeng Zhang, Ye Li, Yanbo Zhu, Dechun Li, Jian Zhou
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a dedifferentiation process that mainly involves in mesenchymal marker upregulation, epithelial maker downregulation and cell polarity loss. Related hypoxia factors play a crucial role in EMT, however, it remains few evidence to clarify the role of HIF-2α in EMT in pancreatic cancer. METHOD: In this study, we investigated the expression of HIF-2α and E-cadherin by immunohistochemistry in 70 pancreatic cancer patients, as well as the correlation to the clinicopathologic characteristics...
February 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26616860/alk-inhibitor-resistance-in-alk-f1174l-driven-neuroblastoma-is-associated-with-axl-activation-and-induction-of-emt
#20
D N Debruyne, N Bhatnagar, B Sharma, W Luther, N F Moore, N-K Cheung, N S Gray, R E George
The crizotinib-resistant ALK(F1174L) mutation arises de novo in neuroblastoma (NB) and is acquired in ALK translocation-driven cancers, lending impetus to the development of novel anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors with different modes of action. The diaminopyrimidine TAE684 and its derivative ceritinib (LDK378), which are structurally distinct from crizotinib, are active against NB cells expressing ALK(F1174L). Here we demonstrate acquired resistance to TAE684 and LDK378 in ALK(F1174L)-driven human NB cells that is linked to overexpression and activation of the AXL tyrosine kinase and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
July 14, 2016: Oncogene
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