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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732397/combined-sewer-overflow-events-and-childhood-emergency-department-visits-a-case-crossover-study
#1
Cole Brokamp, Andrew F Beck, Louis Muglia, Patrick Ryan
In localities with combined sewer systems, combined sewer overflow (CSO) events frequently occur following high precipitation and can result in the release of untreated sewage and industrial wastewater into surface waters. We hypothesized that either direct contact with or proximity to aerosolized CSO effluent would increase the risk for childhood emergency department (ED) visits for asthma, gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses, and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in Cincinnati, OH, USA. ED visits for 2010-2014 due to GI diseases, asthma, and SSTIs were extracted from the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center electronic health records...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732190/comparison-of-the-acc-aha-and-framingham-algorithms-to-assess-cardiovascular-risk-in-hiv-infected-patients
#2
Lauro Ferreira da Silva Pinto Neto, Fernanda Rezende Dias, Flavia Feres Bressan, Carolina Rocio Oliveira Santos
The aim of this study was to compare the predictions of Framingham cardiovascular (CV) risk score (FRS) and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) risk score in an HIV outpatient clinic in the city of Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. In a cross-sectional study 341 HIV infected patients over 40 years old consecutively recruited were interviewed. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to assess agreement between the two algorithms. 61.3% were stratified as low risk by Framingham score, compared with 54% by ACC/AHA score (Spearman correlation 0...
July 18, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732148/trends-of-hospitalization-for-serious-infections-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-the-us-between-1993-and-2013
#3
Sadao Jinno, Na Lu, S Reza Jafarzadeh, Maureen Dubreuil
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Epidemiology of hospitalizations with infection among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unknown despite an increase in RA treatments that confer infection risk. METHODS: We examined National Inpatient Sample data from 1993-2013. We identified adults RA hospitalizations, defined by having ICD-9-CM codes (714.xx) in any secondary diagnosis field. We evaluated 5 infections as the primary diagnosis: pneumonia, sepsis, urinary tract infection (UTI), skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), and opportunistic infections (OIs)...
July 21, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732086/risk-of-stomach-cancer-in-aotearoa-new-zealand-a-m%C3%A4-ori-population-based-case-control-study
#4
Lis Ellison-Loschmann, Andrew Sporle, Marine Corbin, Soo Cheng, Pauline Harawira, Michelle Gray, Tracey Whaanga, Parry Guilford, Jonathan Koea, Neil Pearce
Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, experience disproportionate rates of stomach cancer, compared to non-Māori. The overall aim of the study was to better understand the reasons for the considerable excess of stomach cancer in Māori and to identify priorities for prevention. Māori stomach cancer cases from the New Zealand Cancer Registry between 1 February 2009 and 31 October 2013 and Māori controls, randomly selected from the New Zealand electoral roll were matched by 5-year age bands to cases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732048/wolbachia-and-dengue-virus-infection-in-the-mosquito-aedes-fluviatilis-diptera-culicidae
#5
Jéssica Barreto Lopes Silva, Debora Magalhães Alves, Vanessa Bottino-Rojas, Thiago Nunes Pereira, Marcos Henrique Ferreira Sorgine, Eric Pearce Caragata, Luciano Andrade Moreira
Dengue represents a serious threat to human health, with billions of people living at risk of the disease. Wolbachia pipientis is a bacterial endosymbiont common to many insect species. Wolbachia transinfections in mosquito disease vectors have great value for disease control given the bacterium's ability to spread into wild mosquito populations, and to interfere with infections of pathogens, such as dengue virus. Aedes fluviatilis is a mosquito with a widespread distribution in Latin America, but its status as a dengue vector has not been clarified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732033/spatial-and-simultaneous-representative-seroprevalence-of-anti-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-owners-and-their-domiciled-dogs-in-a-major-city-of-southern-brazil
#6
Aline do Nascimento Benitez, Felippe Danyel Cardoso Martins, Marcelle Mareze, Nelson Jessé Rodrigues Santos, Fernanda Pinto Ferreira, Camila Marinelli Martins, João Luis Garcia, Regina Mitsuka-Breganó, Roberta Lemos Freire, Alexander Welker Biondo, Italmar Teodorico Navarro
Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, has traditionally been considered an important water and foodborne protozoonosis with important public health considerations. Although felids play a well-established role as definitive hosts, canine epidemiological involvement in the parasite's life cycle remains questionable and controversial. The increasing closeness of the human-dog bond, particularly seen in urban settings, has been recognized as a historically unprecedented worldwide movement. Sharing daily lives in the same households, dogs may be exposed to similar associated risks of T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731903/hepatitis-transmission-risk-in-kidney-transplantation-the-hint-study-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-transplant-clinicians-in-australian-and-new-zealand
#7
Karen M J Waller, Kate R Wyburn, Nicholas A Shackel, Michael J O'Leary, Patrick J Kelly, Angela C Webster
BACKGROUND: Interpreting hepatitis serology and virus transmission risk in transplantation can be challenging. Decisions must balance opportunity to transplant against potential infection transmission. We aimed to survey understanding among the Australian and New Zealand medical transplant workforce of hepatitis risk in kidney donors and recipients. METHODS: An anonymous, self-completed, cross-sectional survey was distributed via electronic mailing lists to Australian and New Zealand clinicians involved in kidney transplantation (2014-2015)...
July 21, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731899/current-perspectives-on-invasive-nontyphoidal-salmonella-disease
#8
Andrea H Haselbeck, Ursula Panzner, Justin Im, Stephen Baker, Christian G Meyer, Florian Marks
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We searched PubMed for scientific literature published in the past 2 years for relevant information regarding the burden of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease and host factors associated with nontyphoidal Salmonella infection and discuss current knowledge on vaccine development. The following search terms were used: Salmonella, non typhoidal/nontyphoidal, NTS, disease, bloodstream infection, invasive, sepsis/septicaemia/septicemia, bacteraemia/bacteremia, gastroenteritis, incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality, case fatality, host/risk factor, vaccination, and prevention/control...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731786/high-post-treatment-%C3%AE-fetoprotein-levels-and-aspartate-aminotransferase-to-platelet-ratio-index-predict-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hepatitis-c-virus-decompensated-cirrhotic-patients-with-sustained-virological-response-after-antiviral-therapy
#9
Fanpu Ji, Rui Zhou, Wenjun Wang, Dan Bai, Caini He, Zhifang Cai, Yuan Shen, Shengbang Wang, Hong Deng, Zongfang Li
Although eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) decreases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, a considerable level of risk remains in cirrhotic patients with advanced liver disease. Yet, data for the effect of serum markers on HCC development in this population after viral eradication are still lacking. Seventy-eight consecutive patients with HCV infection and decompensated cirrhosis were administered interferon-based regimens at our hospital between August 2008 and December 2013. Thirty-four achieved sustained virological response and were enrolled in the study...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731725/skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-active-component-u-s-armed-forces-2013-2016
#10
Shauna Stahlman, Valerie F Williams, Gi-Taik Oh, Eugene V Millar, Jason W Bennett
During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 282,571 incident cases of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) among active component U.S. military members diagnosed in inpatient or outpatient settings, corresponding to an overall incidence of 558.2 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). An additional 10,904 cases occurred in theater of operations (460.0 per 10,000 p-yrs). Approximately half (49.4%) were classified as "other SSTI" (e.g., folliculitis, impetigo); 45.9% were cellulitis/abscess; 4.6% were carbuncles/furuncles; and 0...
July 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731656/are-red-blood-cell-transfusions-associated-with-nosocomial-infections-in-critically-ill-children
#11
Omar E Naveda Romero, Andrea F Naveda Meléndez
Although the transfusionofblood products is common practice, its effects on the immune system have not been adequately studied. A prospective cohort study was conducted in critically ill children followed up until their death, transfer or discharge to establish an association between red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs) and nosocomial infections. A nosocomial infection was considered to be post-transfusional if it occurred within 14 days after RBCT. A total of 162 children were included in the study, 35 (21...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731654/validation-of-the-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-specific-comorbidity-index-in-a-retrospective-cohort-of-children-and-adolescents-who-received-an-allogeneic-transplantation-in-argentina
#12
Carlos M Figueroa Turienzo, Carolina Cernadas, Mariana Roizen, Silvia Pizzi, Raquel Staciuk
INTRODUCTION: Hematopoietic cell transplantationis a therapy with a risk of transplant-related mortality (TRM), which may vary depending on prior comorbidities. The Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) is an instrument developed to measure this risk. There are very few reports on its use in pediatrics. The objective of this study was to validate the HCT-CI in a pediatric cohort of allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation recipients in Argentina. POPULATION AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort made up of 140 transplant patients at Hospital J...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731539/interleukin-17a-gene-polymorphism-rs2275913-is-associated-with-osteitis-after-the-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination
#13
Milla Liehu-Martiskainen, Matti Korppi, Johanna Teräsjärvi, Juho Vuononvirta, Heini Huhtala, Kirsi Nuolivirta, Liisa Kröger, Ville Peltola, Laura Pöyhönen, Qiushui He
AIM: Interleukin-17 (IL-17) appears to promote the host's defense against mycobacterial infections. This study evaluated the association between IL17A gene polymorphism and the risk of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) osteitis after newborn vaccination and between IL17A gene polymorphism and IL-17A concentrations in serum. METHODS: IL17A rs2275913 gene polymorphisms and serum IL-17A concentrations were studied in 132 adults aged 21-49 years from across Finland, who had BCG osteitis in infancy after a newborn BCG vaccination...
July 21, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731488/contamination-risk-of-synovial-biopsy-cultures-in-total-hip-arthroplasty-a-prospective-review-of-100-cases
#14
Christophe Pattyn, Thomas De Bo, Joris Anthonissen, Philippe Willekens, Geert Claeys, Emmanuel A Audenaert
INTRODUCTION: Cultures of deep synovial biopsies remain an important tool in diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection, a devastating complication following total hip arthroplasty (THA). Recent reports of unexpected positive intraoperative cultures in aseptic revision arthroplasty, however, challenge the validity and interpretation of these cultures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination risk of synovial biopsy cultures collected intraoperatively during primary THA of healthy subjects...
July 19, 2017: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731409/assessment-of-the-probability-of-autochthonous-transmission-of-chikungunya-virus-in-canada-under-recent-and-projected-climate-change
#15
Victoria Ng, Aamir Fazil, Philippe Gachon, Guillaume Deuymes, Milka Radojević, Mariola Mascarenhas, Sophiya Garasia, Michael A Johansson, Nicholas H Ogden
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging pathogen transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The ongoing Caribbean outbreak is of concern due to the potential for infected travelers to spread the virus to countries where vectors are present and the population is susceptible. Although there has been no autochthonous transmission of CHIKV in Canada, there is concern that both Ae. albopictus and CHIKV will become established, particularly under projected climate change...
June 5, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731395/nasoseptal-flap-necrosis-a-rare-complication-of-endoscopic-endonasal-surgery
#16
Joseph D Chabot, Chirag R Patel, Marion A Hughes, Eric W Wang, Carl H Snyderman, Paul A Gardner, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda
OBJECTIVE The vascularized nasoseptal flap (NSF) has become the workhorse for skull base reconstruction during endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) of the ventral skull base. Although infrequently reported, as with any vascularized flap the NSF may undergo ischemic necrosis and become a nidus for infection. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center's experience with NSF was reviewed to determine the incidence of necrotic NSF in patients following EES and describe the clinical presentation, imaging characteristics, and risk factors associated with this complication...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731372/exploring-the-effect-of-vitamin-d3-supplementation-on-the-anti-ebv-antibody-response-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Linda Rolf, Anne-Hilde Muris, Amandine Mathias, Renaud Du Pasquier, Inga Koneczny, Giulio Disanto, Jens Kuhle, Sreeram Ramagopalan, Jan Damoiseaux, Joost Smolders, Raymond Hupperts
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and vitamin D insufficiency are potentially interacting risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of high-dose vitamin D3 supplements on antibody levels against the EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and to explore any underlying mechanism affecting anti-EBNA-1 antibody levels. METHODS: This study utilized blood samples from a randomized controlled trial in RRMS patients receiving either vitamin D3 (14,000 IU/day; n = 30) or placebo ( n = 23) over 48 weeks...
July 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731281/glycaemic-control-and-the-risk-of-hospitalisation-for-infection-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-hong-kong-diabetes-registry
#18
Andrea O Y Luk, Eric S H Lau, Kitty K T Cheung, Alice P Kong, Ronald C W Ma, Risa Ozaki, Francis C C Chow, Wing-Yee So, Juliana C N Chan
BACKGROUND: Infection occurs more commonly in diabetic compared to general population and is an under-recognised but important morbidity in patients with diabetes. We examined the impact of glycaemic control on hospitalisation for infection in a large prospective cohort of Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Between July 1994 and June 2014, 22,846 patients with type 2 diabetes underwent detailed assessment of metabolic control and diabetes complications...
July 21, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731207/polyclonal-and-monoclonal-antibodies-for-treating-acute-rejection-episodes-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#19
REVIEW
Angela C Webster, Sunny Wu, Krishna Tallapragada, Min Young Park, Jeremy R Chapman, Sue J Carr
BACKGROUND: Registry data shows that the incidence of acute rejection has been steadily falling. Approximately 10% to 35% of kidney recipients will undergo treatment for at least one episode of acute rejection within the first post-transplant year. Treatment options include pulsed steroid therapy, the use of an antibody preparation, the alteration of background immunosuppression, or combinations of these options. Over recent years, new treatment strategies have evolved, and in many parts of the world there has been an increase in use of tacrolimus and mycophenolate and a reduction in the use of cyclosporin and azathioprine use as baseline immunosuppression to prevent acute rejection...
July 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730969/the-battle-for-iron-between-humans-and-microbes
#20
Peggy L Carver
Iron is an essential micronutrient for bacteria, fungi, and humans; as such, each has evolved specialized iron uptake systems to acquire iron from the extracellular environment and a complex 'tug of war' has evolved between human hosts and pathogenic microorganisms in the battle for this vital nutrient. In humans, sequestration (hiding) of iron from invading pathogens is often successful; however, many pathogens have evolved mechanisms to circumvent this approach. Clinically, controversy continues whether iron overload or administration of iron results in an increased risk of infection...
July 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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