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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535669/acute-hepatitis-a-b-and-c-but-not-d-is-still-prevalent-in-mongolia-a-time-trend-analysis
#1
Oidov Baatarkhuu, Hye Won Lee, Jacob George, Dashchirev Munkh-Orshikh, Baasankhuu Enkhtuvshin, Sosorbaram Ariunaa, Mohammed Eslam, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang-Hyub Han, Do Young Kim
Background/Aims: Mongolia has one of the highest hepatitis A, C, B and D infection incidences worldwide. We sought to investigate changes in the proportion of acute viral hepatitis types in Mongolia over the last decade. Methods: The cohort comprised 546 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis from January 2012 to December 2014 in Ulaanbaatar Hospital, Mongolia. A time trend analysis investigating the change in proportion of acute hepatitis A virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection among the cohort with respect to a previous published study was undertaken...
May 2, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535630/-analysis-of-risk-factors-and-prognosis-for-bleeding-in-very-old-male-patients-with-stage-5-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
X Shen, Q G Ao, Q L Cheng, S Liu, J H Zhao, Q Ma, G Yang, Y Liu
Objective: To analyze the risk factors and prognosis of bleeding in very old male patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: The clinical data of 143 very old male patients with stage 5 CKD was retrospectively analyzed. According to the occurrence of bleeding, the patients were divided into two groups including the hemorrhage group and the non-hemorrhage group. The history of diseases, renal function, blood cell parameters and coagulation index were compared and analyzed between the two groups...
May 16, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535529/looking-into-the-graft-without-a-biopsy-biomarkers-of-acute-rejection-in-renal-transplantation
#3
Andrea Angeletti, Paolo Cravedi
Immunosuppression in kidney transplantation is still largely driven by center-specific protocols and adjusted according to the presence of graft dysfunction, drug toxicity or infection. Due to the current inability to titrate immunosuppression to the needs of every single patient, this approach is burdened by an increased risk of under or over-immunosuppression. To extend allograft survival, immunosuppression should be decided based on reliable biomarkers capable of quantifying the alloimmune response and/or noninvasively diagnosing acute rejection...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535467/molecular-approaches-to-the-diagnosis-and-monitoring-of-production-diseases-in-pigs
#4
REVIEW
Timothy A Giles, Aouatif Belkhiri, Paul A Barrow, Neil Foster
Production disease in pigs is caused by a variety of different pathogens, mainly enteric and respiratory and can result in significant economic loss. Other factors such as stress, poor husbandry and nutrition can also contribute to an animal's susceptibility to disease. Molecular biomarkers of production disease could be of immense value by improving diagnosis and risk analysis to determine best practice with an impact on increased economic output and animal welfare. In addition to the use of multiplex PCR or microarrays to detect individual or mixed pathogens during infection, these technologies can also be used to monitor the host response to infection via gene expression...
May 17, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535404/placental-inflammation-and-its-relationship-to-cervicovaginal-fetal-fibronectin-in-preterm-birth
#5
Laura van der Krogt, Alexandra E Ridout, Paul T Seed, Andrew H Shennan
OBJECTIVE: Late miscarriage and preterm birth are frequently thought to be associated with inflammation and infection, although in most cases the underlying cause of early delivery remains unknown. The placenta is the organ that links mother and fetus during pregnancy, and postnatal examination may provide useful information about pathophysiology. The relationship between placental pathological lesions and predictive markers of early delivery has not been explored. We sought to characterize preterm deliveries according to placental pathology and relate these to the performance of reliable predictive markers, fetal fibronectin and cervical length...
May 3, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535400/comparison-of-the-cervista-hpv-hr-test-and-luminex-xmap-technology-for-the-diagnosis-of-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia
#6
Pei-Yu Zhao, Hui-Ci Jiang, Yue Li, Jin-Bo Wang, Ting-Ting Zhang, Cheng-Hua Liu, Li-Wen Song, Jia-Jing Cheng
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to compare the Cervista high risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) test with Luminex XMAP technology for the detection of the relationship between HPV infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. METHODS: In total, 3280 patients in a cervical specialty clinic were divided into two groups for either Cervista (1855 patients) or Luminex (1425 patients). Subsequent colposcopy examinations were performed in 1270 women with cytologic results showing ASCUS or higher level lesions...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535293/invited-commentary-a-landmark-study-launched-in-a-public-health-maelstrom
#7
Eric A Engels, Charles S Rabkin, James J Goedert
The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic was first recognized in 1981, and it quickly became a public health emergency. In a 1987 paper in the American Journal of Epidemiology (Am J Epidemiol. 1987;126(2): 310-318), Richard Kaslow et al. described the launch of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), a cohort study of homosexual men in 4 US cities, the purpose of which was to better understand the natural history of AIDS and its determinants. The MACS enrolled participants through a range of community contacts...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535026/tetanus-%C3%A2-n%C3%A3-stan-bortgl%C3%A3-md-men-allvarlig-sjukdom-%C3%A3-ldre-kvinnor-%C3%A3-r-en-riskgrupp-diagnosen-kan-vara-en-utmaning
#8
Bernhard Hozgraefe, Akad Koria, Victoria Sem, Joak Johansson
Tetanus, an almost forgotten but serious disease Tetanus is the systemic consequence of a local infection with Clostridium tetani, that produces toxin which spreads in the systemic circulation. In developed countries, it is extremely rare. Women born before 1950 are a group at risk due to lower prevalence of immunisation. This report describes a case of tetanus. The patient is a previously healthy 82-year-old woman. She presented to primary care with a complaint of stiffness in the neck and jaw. A physical exam and basic laboratory tests were normal apart from a slightly increased blood pressure...
May 22, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534890/hypertension-in-hiv-management-and-treatment
#9
Claudio Ucciferri, Katia Falasca, Jacopo Vecchiet
Hypertension is among the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease and accounts for 6% of adult deaths worldwide. It is estimated that in 2013, hypertension was responsible for at least 45% of deaths due to heart disease and 51% of deaths due to stroke. Accordingly, management of hypertension and its long-term complications in HIV-infected subjects is a significant component of routine care. The choice of an effective anti-hypertensive therapy in HIV-infected patients is important and must be made carefully in order to prevent cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in these patients...
May 23, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534885/modeling-combination-hcv-prevention-among-hiv-infected-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-people-who-inject-drugs
#10
Natasha K Martin, Britt Skaathun, Peter Vickerman, David Stuart
People who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are key risk groups for HCV transmission. Mathematical modeling studies can help elucidate what level and combination of prevention intervention scale-up is required to control or eliminate epidemics among these key populations. We discuss the evidence surrounding HCV prevention interventions and provide an overview of the mathematical modeling literature projecting the impact of scaled-up HCV prevention among PWID and HIV-infected MSM...
May 23, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534544/-factors-predicting-failure-in-empirical-antibiotic-treatment
#11
REVIEW
E J García-Lamberechts, J González-Del Castillo, A I Hormigo Sánchez, M J Núñez-Orantos, F J Candel, F J Martín-Sánchez
Infections are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the population. The choice of empirical treatment is one of the most common decisions facing the physician. This first decision has consequences in the prognosis of the patient and the costs associated with the process. This review attempts to summarize the aspects that can lead to failure of antibiotic treatment by considering microbiological and pharmacological aspects, patient profile and infectious focus control. In addition, a series of recommendations are established to minimize this risk, from the point of view of diagnostic accuracy, adequate severity stratification of the patient, knowledge of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of antibiotics and control of the infectious focus...
April 30, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534540/-characterising-people-who-demanded-the-rapid-hiv-test-in-andalusia-between-2013-and-2014
#12
N Lorusso, F Lozano de León-Naranjo, C Zamora Fuentes
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to describe people who demanded the HIV screening test in Andalusia (Spain). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study carried out by social organisation collaborating with the Program for early diagnosis of HIV in Andalusia. Participants underwent an oral HIV test and answered a survey beforehand, from September 2013 to August 2014. The study included a descriptive analysis of data and a logistic regression in order to determine the risk factors associated with a reactive test result...
April 30, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534526/impact-of-genetic-polymorphisms-determining-leukocyte-neutrophil-count-on-chemotherapy-toxicity
#13
S J Glisovic, Y D Pastore, V Gagne, M Plesa, C Laverdière, J M Leclerc, D Sinnett, M Krajinovic
Neutropenia and infection are major dose-limiting side effects of chemotherapy. The risk of initial infection and subsequent complications are directly related to the depth and duration of neutropenia. Recent genome-wide association studies identified variants in DARC and CXCL2 genes, and in ORMDL3-GSDMA-CSF3 locus on chromosome 17q21 that influence white blood cell and neutrophil counts in healthy individuals. To investigate whether polymorphisms in these loci in conjunction with chemotherapy may modulate risk of treatment complications, we analyzed 21 SNPs across these genes for an association with chemotherapy-related neutropenia and infection in 286 Caucasian children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia...
May 23, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534427/increased-risk-of-hepatitis-b-virus-reactivation-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-receiving-immunosuppressants-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
W T Lin, Y M Chen, D Y Chen, J L Lan, C S Chang, H Z Yeh, S S Yang
Objective We aimed to investigate risk of hepatitis B virus reactivation in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with different hepatitis B virus infection statuses receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Methods We retrospectively analyzed systemic lupus erythematosus patients with positive hepatitis B surface antigen or anti-hepatitis B core IgG antibody who underwent immunosuppressive therapies from January 2001 to December 2012 at a medical center in Taiwan for evidence of hepatitis B virus reactivation. Results During this period, 906 out of 3125 patients who were diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus received screening tests for hepatitis B virus...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534346/the-use-of-inexpensive-broad-spectrum-lower-toxicity-therapeutics-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#15
Goran Marjanovic
The use of new and highly efficient targeted therapies for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is costly and out of reach for many health care systems. On the other hand, in recent years, few inexpensive, broad-spectrum low-toxicity therapeutics have proven to be effective both in the preclinical and clinical settings. In early-stage CLL, the use of 2000 mg of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from the green tea extract twice a day was able to reduce the absolute leukocyte count. Supplementation of >2000 IU/day of Vitamin D in early low-risk CLL patients is able to delay disease progression and postpone the moment of initiation of the first treatment...
March 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534258/closed-incision-prophylactic-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-in-patients-undergoing-major-complex-abdominal-wall-repair
#16
F E E de Vries, J J Atema, O Lapid, M C Obdeijn, M A Boermeester
PURPOSE: To evaluate if incisional prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy (pNPWT) reduces wound infections and other wound complications in high-risk patients undergoing major complex ventral abdominal wall repair. METHODS: Retrospective before-after comparison nested in a consecutive series of patients undergoing elective major complex abdominal wall repair. Starting January 2014, pNPWT was applied on the closed incisional wound for a minimum of 5 days. To minimize selection bias, we compared two periods of 14 months before and after January 2014...
May 23, 2017: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534175/-aseptic-loosening-of-total-ankle-replacement-two-stage-revision-with-bone-augmentation-of-osseous-defects-and-secondary-prosthesis-implantation
#17
A Barg, M Wiewiorski, V Valderrabano
OBJECTIVE: To remove loosened ankle prosthesis components, perform osseous defect augmentation, and reimplant definitive prosthesis components to preserve ankle range of motion. INDICATIONS: Aseptic loosening of the tibial and/or talar ankle prosthesis components with substantial bone defect. CONTRAINDICATIONS: General surgical/anesthesiological risks, infections, critical soft tissue conditions, nonmanageable hindfoot instability, neurovascular impairment of the lower extremity, neuroarthropathy, substantial nonreconstructable osseous defects with or without cysts on the tibial and/or talar side, noncompliance, primary total ankle replacement (TAR) using intramedullary fixation (stem fixation), severely reduced bone quality, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, smoking, unrealistic patients' expectations, high activity in sports...
May 22, 2017: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534090/tooth-loss-and-liver-cancer-incidence-in-a-finnish-cohort
#18
Baiyu Yang, Jessica L Petrick, Christian C Abnet, Barry I Graubard, Gwen Murphy, Stephanie J Weinstein, Satu Männistö, Demetrius Albanes, Katherine A McGlynn
PURPOSE: Periodontal disease, a major cause of tooth loss in adults, may have systemic effects and has been associated with higher risk of several cancer types. However, the associations of periodontal disease or tooth loss with liver cancer have only been examined prospectively in two studies, neither of which had sufficient statistical power. In addition, no studies assessed the potential confounding by viral hepatitis or Helicobacter pylori infection status. METHODS: In this study, we examined the association between tooth loss and primary liver cancer incidence in a prospective cohort of Finnish male smokers (n = 29,096)...
May 22, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534030/combining-slaughterhouse-surveillance-data-with-cattle-tracing-scheme-and-environmental-data-to-quantify-environmental-risk-factors-for-liver-fluke-in-cattle
#19
Giles T Innocent, Lucy Gilbert, Edward O Jones, James E McLeod, George Gunn, Iain J McKendrick, Steve D Albon
Liver fluke infection causes serious disease (fasciolosis) in cattle and sheep in many regions of the world, resulting in production losses and additional economic consequences due to condemnation of the liver at slaughter. Liver fluke depends on mud snails as an intermediate host and infect livestock when ingested through grazing. Therefore, environmental factors play important roles in infection risk and climate change is likely to modify this. Here, we demonstrate how slaughterhouse data can be integrated with other data, including animal movement and climate variables to identify environmental risk factors for liver fluke in cattle in Scotland...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533919/combination-therapy-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
REVIEW
Keith S Sultan, Joshua C Berkowitz, Sundas Khan
Biologic therapies such as infliximab and adalimumab have become mainstays of treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. Early studies suggested that combination therapy (CT) with infliximab and an immunomodulator drug such as azathioprine may help optimize biologic pharmacokinetics, minimize immunogenicity, and improve outcomes. The landmark SONIC trial in Crohn's disease and the UC SUCCESS trial in ulcerative colitis demonstrated CT with infliximab and azathioprine to be superior to monotherapy with either agent alone at inducing clinical remission in treatment naïve patients with moderate to severe disease...
May 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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