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Infective risk

Wai-Kay Seto, Yasuhiro Asahina, Todd T Brown, Cheng-Yuan Peng, Carol Stanciu, Dzhamal Abdurakhmanov, Fehmi Tabak, Tuan T Nguyen, Wan-Long Chuang, Tetsuro Inokuma, Fusao Ikeda, Teresa Antonia Santantonio, François Habersetzer, Alnoor Ramji, Audrey H Lau, Vithika Suri, John F Flaherty, Hongyuan Wang, Anuj Gaggar, G Mani Subramanian, Shrikant Mukewar, Maurizia R Brunetto, Scott Fung, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Long-term use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) reduces bone mineral density (BMD). Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a new prodrug of tenofovir, has shown non-inferior efficacy to TDF in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, with improved bone effects at 48 weeks. We performed a randomized trial to evaluate the bone safety of TAF compared with TDF over 2 years, assessing baseline risk factors for bone loss, were evaluated after 2 years of treatment...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Mr Edward Jeans, Mr Richard Holleyman, Dr David Tate, Mr Mike Reed, Mr Ajay Malviya
AIMS: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a catastrophic and potentially life threatening complication following arthroplasty. In addition to the resulting impact on patient morbidity and mortality, PJI is associated with significant financial cost, which is estimated at £21,937 per case. Methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) is a common isolate in PJI and colonisation is a proven risk factor for subsequent infection. The aims of this study were: 1) to determine if MSSA screening and decolonisation reduced MSSA PJI rate in primary joint replacement and 2) to determine cost effectiveness of such a screening program...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Infection
Dong Jiang, Mengmeng Hao, Fangyu Ding, Jingying Fu, Meng Li
Zika virus, which has been linked to severe congenital abnormalities, is exacerbating global public health problems with its rapid transnational expansion fueled by increased global travel and trade. Suitability mapping of the transmission risk of Zika virus is essential for drafting public health plans and disease control strategies, which are especially important in areas where medical resources are relatively scarce. Predicting the risk of Zika virus outbreak has been studied in recent years, but the published literature rarely includes multiple model comparisons or predictive uncertainty analysis...
June 19, 2018: Acta Tropica
Jill A Bell, Aaron Galaznik, Marlo Blazer, Eileen Farrelly, Augustina Ogbonnaya, Aditya Raju, Michael Eaddy, Robert J Fram, Douglas V Faller
Most higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (HR-MDS) patients will become transfusion-dependent, leading to potential complications, including infections or end-organ dysfunction. Data correlating achievement of transfusion-free intervals (TFIs) during first-line therapy (1LT) with survival are sparse. We evaluated HR-MDS patients receiving 1LT diagnosed from 1/1/2008 to 7/31/2015 and the impact of a TFI (≥60-day interval without transfusions) on progression-free and overall survival (PFS, OS) using Cox proportional-hazard models...
June 22, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Maria Lina Tornesello, Clorinda Annunziata, Anna Lucia Tornesello, Luigi Buonaguro, Franco Maria Buonaguro
Viral oncogenesis is a multistep process largely depending on the complex interplay between viruses and host factors. The oncoviruses are capable of subverting the cell signaling machinery and metabolic pathways and exploit them for infection, replication, and persistence. Several viral oncoproteins are able to functionally inactivate the tumor suppressor p53, causing deregulated expression of many genes orchestrated by p53, such as those involved in apoptosis, DNA stability, and cell proliferation. The Epstein⁻Barr virus (EBV) BZLF1, the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6, and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5 proteins have shown to directly bind to and degrade p53...
June 22, 2018: Cancers
Leonardo A Frizon, Sean J Nagel, Francis J May, Jianning Shao, Andres L Maldonado-Naranjo, Hubert H Fernandez, Andre G Machado
OBJECTIVE The number of patients who benefit from deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) has increased significantly since the therapy was first approved by the FDA. Suboptimal outcomes, infection, or device failure are risks of the procedure and may require lead removal or repositioning. The authors present here the results of their series of revision and reimplantation surgeries. METHODS The data were reviewed from all DBS intracranial lead removals, revisions, or reimplantations among patients with PD over a 6-year period at the authors' institution...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Julia Champey, Clément Mourey, Gilles Francony, Patricia Pavese, Emmanuel Gay, Laurent Gergele, Romain Manet, Lionel Velly, Nicolas Bruder, Jean-François Payen
OBJECTIVE Various strategies have been proposed to reduce the incidence of external ventricular drain (EVD)-related infections. The authors retrospectively studied the impact of EVD care management on EVD-related infections at 3 French university hospital intensive care units. METHODS Between 2010 and 2014, 462 consecutive adult patients with no evidence of a preexisting CSF infection received EVDs as part of their care at one of the following sites: Grenoble (221 patients), Saint-Etienne (130 patients), and Marseille (111 patients)...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Brian J Dlouhy, Arnold H Menezes
OBJECT Techniques for combined extradural and intradural decompression with expansile duraplasty for Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) have been well described, with various allogenic and autologous materials used for duraplasty. However, the approach and surgical technique used for duraplasty in our treatment of CM-I and developed by the senior author in the 1990s has not been described. METHODS A prospective database was initiated in March 2003 to denote the use of cervical fascia for duraplasty and incorporate an ongoing detailed record of complications during the surgical treatment of children and adults with CM-I with and without syringomyelia...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Orgest Lajthia, Jerry W Chao, Max Mandelbaum, John S Myseros, Chima Oluigbo, Suresh N Magge, Christopher S Zarella, Albert K Oh, Gary F Rogers, Robert F Keating
OBJECTIVE Intracranial empyema is a life-threatening condition associated with a high mortality rate and residual deleterious neurological effects if not diagnosed and managed promptly. The authors present their institutional experience with immediate reimplantation of the craniotomy flap and clarify the success of this method in terms of cranial integrity, risk of recurrent infection, and need for secondary procedures. METHODS A retrospective analysis of patients admitted for management of intracranial empyema during a 19-year period (1997-2016) identified 33 patients who underwent emergency drainage and decompression with a follow-up duration longer than 6 months, 23 of whom received immediate bone replacement...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Kyoichi Adachi, Takumi Notsu, Tomoko Mishiro, Hiroo Yoshikawa, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
AIM: The relationship of H. pylori infection with periodontitis was examined. METHODS: The study subjects were 686 individuals (males 504, females 182; mean age 53.8 years) who underwent a screening test for periodontitis between April 2015 and March 2018 and whose H. pylori infection status could be determined. The periodontitis test was performed by examining saliva concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and hemoglobin (Hb), with an LDH level ≥350 U/L and/or Hb level ≥2 μg/mL defined as positive for periodontitis...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Imelda Martínez-Ramírez, Adela Carrillo-García, Adriana Contreras-Paredes, Elizabeth Ortiz-Sánchez, Alfredo Cruz-Gregorio, Marcela Lizano
The alteration of glucose metabolism is one of the first biochemical characteristics associated with cancer cells since most of these cells increase glucose consumption and glycolytic rates even in the presence of oxygen, which has been called “aerobic glycolysis” or the Warburg effect. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with approximately 5% of all human cancers worldwide, principally to cervical cancer. E6 and E7 are the main viral oncoproteins which are required to preserve the malignant phenotype...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Angel A Escobedo, Gustavo Acosta-Ballester, Pedro Almirall, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Cecilia Ortíz, Alfredo Laffita, Elaine Chirino
We present four cases in which probable sexual transmission of Giardia lamblia was suspected. Diagnosing this mode of transmission in endemic areas is often difficult and should be considered only as possible, because exposure to poor sanitation and a potentially contaminated environment are always latent. However, as patients reported, there was no history of drinking tap water, exposure to recreational water, eating contaminated food, or other potential sources of infection but anilingus with an infected partner...
June 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Nina Yancheva, Dimitar Strashimirov, Vasil Hrischev, Tatyana Tchervenyakova, Maria Nikolova, Ivaylo Aleksiev
HIV-associated lymphoma was first classified as an AIDS-defining disease by the American Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1985. Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) are frequent malignancies in AIDS patients. The risk of NHL in the case of an underlying HIV infection is estimated to be 100 times greater than in the general population, and it increases with the progression of the retrovirus-related immunosuppression. Cases of HIV-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are widely documented in the literature...
June 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Fabiola Mancini, Fenicia Vescio, Stefania Mochi, Luisa Accardi, Paola di Bonito, Alessandra Ciervo
Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the most common sexually transmitted pathogens. Whereas it is well known that infection with oncogenic HPV genotypes increases the risk of cervical cancer (CC), the implication of Ct in the pathogenesis of CC is still controversial. Hence, to investigate the possible implication of Ct infection alone, or with concomitant HPV infection, in the severity of cervical lesions, we conducted a study in 164 Caucasian HIV-negative women with abnormal Pap...
June 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Ferhat Arslan, Bahadir Ceylan, Ahmet Riza Sahin, Özgür Günal, Bircan Kayaaslan, Kenan Uğurlu, Alpaslan Tanoğlu, Gülsen Iskender, Selma Tosun, Aynur Atilla, Fatma Sargin, Ayse Batirel, Ergenekon Karagöz, Abdullah Sonsuz, Ali Mert
In this study, we aimed to determine the late relapse rate in hepatitis C patients with sustained virological response after interferon-based regimens, and evaluated the predictors of late relapse while comparing the real-life data of our country with that of others. A multicenter retrospective study was performed to investigate the data of patients infected with HCV who obtained sustained virological response after classical or pegylated interferon alpha (PegIFNα) and ribavirin (RBV) for 48 weeks. Sustained virological response was based on negative HCV RNA level by PCR at the end of six months after the therapy...
June 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Luca Pio, Stefano Avanzini, Irene Paraboschi, Michela Wong, Aldo Naselli, Alberto Garaventa, Massimo Conte, Ubaldo Rosati, Giuseppe Losurdo, Giuseppe Fratino, Giuseppe Martucciello, Girolamo Mattioli, Elio Castagnola
Little is known about the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs) in paediatric abdominopelvic surgical oncology. A retrospective analysis was performed upon the incidence of SSIs in children receiving a 24-hour antibiotic prophylaxis with cefazolin for abdominopelvic oncological surgery. In all, 145 patients (57% females) with a median age of 4 years underwent surgical procedures for abdominopelvic tumours. No SSIs were detected, despite the various risk factors known to be associated with their occurrence (such as pre- and post- surgical chemotherapy, long hospitalization, intensive care unit admission and drain placement)...
June 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
I Kastirr, M Reichardt, R Andresen, S Radmer, G Schröder, T Westphal, T Mittlmeier, H C Schober
The absence of osseous consolidation of a fracture for 9 or more months with no potential to heal is defined as nonunion. Both for the patient and from a socioeconomic point of view, nonunions represent a major problem. Hypertrophic, vital nonunions are distinguished from atrophic avital ones. Risk factors for a delayed fracture healing are insufficient immobilisation, poor adaptation of the fracture surfaces or residual instability, interposition of soft tissue within the fracture gap, as well as circulation disturbances and infections...
June 21, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Cyriac Abby Philips, Nikhil Phadke, Karthik Ganesan, Shatakshi Ranade, Philip Augustine
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol-induced intestinal dysbiosis is central to the development of the severe alcoholic liver disease. We present the first study to compare outcomes in patients of severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) on nutritional therapy, corticosteroids, pentoxifylline, and healthy donor fecal transplantation (FMT) and discuss distinct microbial community and microbiome metabolic functional changes after FMT. METHODS: Out of 1271 liver disease patients, 809 (63...
June 21, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Grace John-Stewart
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to describe areas in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs that could benefit from ehealth and to summarize current evidence of ehealth effectiveness in PMTCT. RECENT FINDINGS: PMTCT programs require maternal retention, adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART), and return for infant diagnosis of HIV. eHealth systems for PMTCT could either be integrated within MCH ehealth systems or within HIV adherence ehealth systems...
June 22, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Jonathan P Moorman, Matthew R Krolikowski, Stephanie M Mathis, Robert P Pack
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to address infection with HIV and hepatitis C in the Appalachian region of the USA and the driving forces underlying this epidemic. We seek to discuss epidemiology of disease and the possible interventions to reduce incidence and burden of disease in this resource-limited area. RECENT FINDINGS: The rise of the opioid crisis has fueled a rise in new hepatitis C infection, and a rise in new HIV infection is expected to follow...
June 21, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
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