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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356459/costs-of-immune-responses-are-related-to-host-body-size-and-lifespan
#1
Amber J Brace, Marc J Lajeunesse, Daniel R Ardia, Dana M Hawley, James S Adelman, Katherine L Buchanan, Jeanne M Fair, Jennifer L Grindstaff, Kevin D Matson, Lynn B Martin
A central assumption in ecological immunology is that immune responses are costly, with costs manifesting directly (e.g., increases in metabolic rate and increased amino acid usage) or as tradeoffs with other life processes (e.g., reduced growth and reproductive success). Across taxa, host longevity, timing of maturity, and reproductive effort affect the organization of immune systems. It is reasonable, therefore, to expect that these and related factors should also affect immune activation costs. Specifically, species that spread their breeding efforts over a long lifetime should experience lower immune costs than those that mature and breed quickly and die comparatively early...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356457/seasonal-variation-and-correlation-between-corticosterone-and-the-antioxidant-uric-acid-during-stress-in-the-northern-cardinal-cardinalis-cardinalis
#2
Jonathan W Haskins, Frank A Spizzoucco, Brian G Walker
Glucocorticoids modify metabolism and other physiological processes in order to mount an appropriate response to stress. This stress response is affected by a combination of seasonal changes, life-history events, and environmental factors. Determining seasonal variability and the potential connection between stress hormones and metabolism is fundamental in understanding seasonal physiological changes in animals. Here, we compared an indicator of stress (corticosterone) with an indicator of metabolic activity (uric acid-a non-enzymatic antioxidant and end product of protein metabolism) during capture and restraint in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) during fall, winter, spring, and summer...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356456/mechanisms-underlying-maternal-care-in-a-viviparous-snake-sistrurus-miliarius-does-maternal-body-condition-corticosterone-or-arginine-vasotocin-mediate-post-birth-maternal-investment
#3
Craig M Lind, Fatima Ramis, Donna-Jael G Paredes, Ignacio T Moore, Ben J Vernasco, Terence M Farrell
The level of parental investment in free-living offspring varies greatly within and among vertebrate taxa, and the mechanisms that mediate investment are likely targets of selection in the evolution of reproductive strategies. In mammalian and avian systems, individual investment is adjusted according to parental energetic status, and regulatory mechanisms have been described. Parental care is also a component of the life history of several groups of squamates and archosaurs, but little to nothing is known regarding the mechanisms that underlie individual variation in parental investment in these groups...
August 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356432/interactive-effects-of-algal-level-and-predator-density-asplanchna-sieboldi-on-the-life-history-strategy-and-morphology-of-brachionus-calyciflorus
#4
Ling Pan, Yi-Long Xi, Jing Gu, Shan Jiang, Han Zhu, Bing-Xing Zhang
Predation plays an important role in mediating the coexistence and the community structure of rotifera. In response to predation stresses, prey rotifers develop morphological defenses and change their life-history strategy for the reallocation of energy investment. Yet, how these changes respond to different total energy ingestion remains largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the life-table demographic, population growth and morphological parameters of Brachionus calyciflorus in response to various densities of Asplanchna sieboldi at two food levels (1...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356424/immune-variation-during-pregnancy-suggests-immune-component-specific-costs-of-reproduction-in-a-viviparous-snake-with-disparate-life-history-strategies
#5
Maria G Palacios, Anne M Bronikowski
Growing evidence suggests the existence of trade-offs between immune function and reproduction in diverse taxa. Among vertebrates, however, there is still a taxonomic bias toward studies in endotherms, particularly birds. We tested the hypothesis that reproduction entails immune-related costs in the viviparous garter snake, Thamnophis elegans, from populations that exhibit two life-history strategies, termed ecotypes, with contrasting paces of life. Between the two ecotypes, we predicted lower immune function in gravid than non-gravid females of both strategies, but with relatively larger immunity costs in the ecotype that generally invests more in current reproduction...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356400/dna-nanostructure-based-systems-for-intelligent-delivery-of-therapeutic-oligonucleotides
#6
REVIEW
Qinqin Hu, Sheng Wang, Lihua Wang, Hongzhou Gu, Chunhai Fan
In the beginning of the 21st century, therapeutic oligonucleotides have shown great potential for the treatment of many life-threatening diseases. However, effective delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides to the targeted location in vivo remains a major issue. As an emerging field, DNA nanotechnology is applied in many aspects including bioimaging, biosensing, and drug delivery. With sequence programming and optimization, a series of DNA nanostructures can be precisely engineered with defined size, shape, surface chemistry, and function...
January 22, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356366/choroidal-thickness-at-age-66%C3%A2-years-in-the-danish-high-myopia-study-cohort-1948-compared-with-follow-up-data-on-visual-acuity-over-40%C3%A2-years-a-clinical-update-adding-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography
#7
Hans C Fledelius, Nina Jacobsen, Xiao Q Li, Ernst Goldschmidt
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A population-based Copenhagen birth year 1948 cohort with high myopia recorded since age 14 years (spherical equivalent less than or equivalent to -6 D) has been followed over 50 years. Despite complications, current follow-ups have outlined a better visual prognosis than usually drawn from selected clinical series in the literature. For the present status at age 66 years, focus was on visual ability and choroidal thickness. METHODS: Twenty-eight of the original 39 participants were available in 2014...
February 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356336/exploring-approximate-bayesian-computation-for-inferring-recent-demographic-history-with-genomic-markers-in-non-model-species
#8
Joane S Elleouet, Sally N Aitken
Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is widely used to infer demographic history of populations and species using DNA markers. Genomic markers can now be developed for non-model species using reduced representation library (RRL) sequencing methods that select a fraction of the genome using targeted sequence capture or restriction enzymes (genotyping-by-sequencing, GBS). We explored the influence of marker number and length, knowledge of gametic phase, and tradeoffs between sample size and sequencing depth on the quality of demographic inferences performed with ABC...
January 22, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356318/standardisation-of-inactivated-influenza-vaccines-learning-from-history
#9
John M Wood, Jerry P Weir
The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world-wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high level of reproducibility and its applicability to the different types of influenza vaccine being produced at that time. Clinical evidence indicated the relevance of SRID as a potency assay. Unique features of the SRID assay are likely responsible for its longevity even as newer technologies for vaccine characterization have been developed and refined...
January 21, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356170/t-cell-papulosis-associated-with-b-cell-malignancy-a-distinctive-clinicopathologic-entity
#10
L V Visseaux, A D Durlach, S B Barete, M B B Beylot-Barry, N B Bonnet, A F C Chassine, N F Franck, G H Herve, C L Leclec'h, L M Machet, S I O Ingen-Housz-Oro, T P Petrella, B V Vergier, N O Ortonne, F G Grange
BACKGROUND: A distinctive eruption referred to as "insect bite-like reaction", or "eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy" has been described during the course of hematological B-cell malignancies (BCM). However, its clinical evolution, histopathological features and pathogenesis remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To characterize this eruption and to investigate its pathogenesis and relationship with the underlying BCM. METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective study of the French Study Group on Cutaneous Lymphomas, 37 patients with a BCM and a cutaneous eruption consisting in chronic and/or recurrent papules, papulo-vesicles and/or nodules were included...
January 22, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356169/role-of-dental-hardware-in-oral-cavity-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-the-low-risk-nonsmoker-nondrinker-population
#11
Jessica A Yesensky, Rifat Hasina, Kristen E Wroblewski, Joseph Bellairs, Zhen Gooi, Vassiliki Saloura, Nicole A Cipriani, Everett E Vokes, Louis G Portugal, Tanguy Y Seiwert, Elizabeth D Blair, Nishant Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in nonsmokers and nondrinkers remains poorly characterized. We hypothesized that these patients had prior exposure to metallic dental hardware. METHODS: We utilized a questionnaire querying the lifetime oral health status of 54 patients. Demographics and extensive oral health history were collected. RESULTS: The majority of patients (74%) had prior exposure to metallic dental hardware...
January 22, 2018: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356136/effects-of-uncertainty-and-variability-on-population-declines-and-iucn-red-list-classifications
#12
Pamela Rueda-Cediel, Kurt E Anderson, Tracey J Regan, Helen M Regan
The IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria is a quantitative framework for classifying species according to extinction risk. Population models may be used to estimate extinction risk or population declines. Uncertainty and variability arise in threat classifications through measurement and process error in empirical data and uncertainty in the models used to estimate extinction risk and population declines. Furthermore, species traits are known to affect extinction risk. We investigated the effects of measurement and process error, model type, population growth rate, and age at first reproduction on the reliability of risk classifications based on projected population declines on IUCN Red List classifications...
January 22, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356072/flash-forward-a-review-of-flash-glucose-monitoring
#13
REVIEW
L Leelarathna, G Wilmot
The FreeStyle Libre flash glucose monitor became available on prescription (subject to local health authority approval) in all four nations of the UK from November 2017, a watershed moment in the history of diabetes care. Calibration free, the FreeStyle Libre is a disc worn on the arm for 14 days which is designed largely to replace the recommended 4-10 painful finger-stick blood glucose tests required each day for the self-management of diabetes. This review discusses clinical data from randomized and observational studies, considers device accuracy metrics and deliberates its popularity and the potential challenges that this new device brings to diabetes care in the UK...
January 22, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356066/the-morality-of-disordered-eating-and-recovery-in-southern-italy
#14
Ann M Cheney, Steve Sullivan, Kathleen Grubbs
Scholars have traced the processes through which moral subjectivities are constituted in culturally meaningful ways through eating disorder and recovery practices, demonstrating how subjective meanings of eating disorders and recovery from them are imbued with moral undertones and become meaningful ways of existing within specific historical and cultural contexts. Drawing on ethnographic insights and interviews with young women with disordered eating histories in southern Italy, we show how suffering from eating disorders and recovery from them enables women to retool their identities and craft moral selves...
January 22, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356059/signs-and-symptoms-that-distinguish-detrusor-underactivity-from-mixed-detrusor-underactivity-and-bladder-outlet-obstruction-in-male-patients
#15
Andrew Gammie, Mathilde Kaper, Achim Steup, Satoshi Yoshida, Caroline Dorrepaal, Ton Kos, Paul Abrams
AIMS: This study aimed to identify signs and symptoms which show differences between men with detrusor underactivity (DU) compared to those with both DU and bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). METHODS: One thousand six hundred and twelve urodynamic tests on male patients were analyzed retrospectively. Signs and symptoms which showed a statistically significant difference between patients with DU alone and patients with both DU+BOO were identified. RESULTS: In the DU only group, considering only patients without a history of bladder outlet surgery, the number of daytime micturitions was lower, maximum voided volume on the bladder diary was higher, and slow stream was reported less often, whereas urinary tract infections were reported more often than for DU+BOO males...
January 22, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356000/generalized-reactions-during-skin-testing-with-clindamycin-in-drug-hypersensitivity-a-report-of-3-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Eleni Papakonstantinou, Sabine Müller, Jan H Röhrbein, Dorothea Wieczorek, Alexander Kapp, Thilo Jakob, Bettina Wedi
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic approach to drug hypersensitivity includes a detailed medical history, clinical examination, and skin testing and/or oral challenge with a culprit or alternative drug, depending on the type of reaction and the suspected drugs. Although skin testing is considered to be rather safe, cutaneous and systemic, including fatal, reactions have been described. OBJECTIVES: To report 3 cases with generalized delayed reactions after skin testing with clindamycin, and to review the existing literature...
January 22, 2018: Contact Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355996/lymphatic-vessel-diameter-in-female-pelvic-cancer-related-lower-extremity-lymphedematous-limbs
#17
Takumi Yamamoto, Mitsunaga Narushima, Isao Koshima
BACKGROUND: Lymphaticovenular anastomosis (LVA) has become one of the useful surgical treatments for compression-refractory lower extremity lymphedema (LEL). It is important to anastomose larger lymphatic vessels with abundant lymph flows in LVA surgery. This study aimed to clarify factors associated with lymphatic vessel diameter. METHODS: One hundred thirty-four LEL patients who underwent pre-operative indocyanine green (ICG) lymphography and LVA from June 2009 to August 2014 in a single institution were included in this retrospective observational study...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355971/leiomyoma-in-the-nasal-cavity-of-a-dog
#18
M Hamon, B Dequeant, A Decambron, E Reyes-Gomez, M Manassero
A 7-year-old, 34-kg, neutered male Labrador retriever was presented with a 1-year history of intermittent sneezing with occasional left-sided epistaxis. CT revealed a mass in the left nasal cavity. Histopathological analysis of rhinoscopy-guided tissue biopsies was consistent with chronic necrotic and ulcerative rhinitis. Surgical debridement by ventral rhinotomy was subsequently performed and histopathological diagnosis was leiomyoma. Complete resolution of the nasal discharge and reduced sneezing frequency were observed after surgery...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355966/predictors-for-30-day-readmission-after-pulmonary-resection-for-lung-cancer
#19
Florencio Quero-Valenzuela, Inmaculada Piedra-Fernández, María Martínez-Ceres, Pedro J Romero-Palacios, Abel Sánchez-Palencia, Antonio Cueto-Ladrón De Guevara, Pablo Torné-Poyatos
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the rate, cause, and factors associated with readmissions following pulmonary resection for lung cancer and their relationship with 90-day mortality. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted of 379 patients who underwent surgery for lung cancer at the university hospitals Granada, Spain between 2012 and 2016. RESULTS: The rate of readmissions within 30 postoperative days was 6.2%...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355963/evolutionary-history-of-mycorrhizal-symbioses-and-global-host-plant-diversity
#20
Mark C Brundrett, Leho Tedersoo
Contents I. II. III. IV. References SUMMARY: The majority of vascular plants are mycorrhizal: 72% are arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM), 2.0% are ectomycorrhizal (EcM), 1.5% are ericoid mycorrhizal and 10% are orchid mycorrhizal. Just 8% are completely nonmycorrhizal (NM), whereas 7% have inconsistent NM-AM associations. Most NM and NM-AM plants are nutritional specialists (e.g. carnivores and parasites) or habitat specialists (e.g. hydrophytes and epiphytes). Mycorrhizal associations are consistent in most families, but there are exceptions with complex roots (e...
January 22, 2018: New Phytologist
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