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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331491/investigating-the-relationship-between-cardiac-interoception-and-autonomic-cardiac-control-using-a-predictive-coding-framework
#1
Andrew P Owens, Karl J Friston, David A Low, Christopher J Mathias, Hugo D Critchley
Predictive coding models, such as the 'free-energy principle' (FEP), have recently been discussed in relation to how interoceptive (afferent visceral feedback) signals update predictions about the state of the body, thereby driving autonomic mediation of homeostasis. This study appealed to 'interoceptive inference', under the FEP, to seek new insights into autonomic (dys)function and brain-body integration by examining the relationship between cardiac interoception and autonomic cardiac control in healthy controls and patients with forms of orthostatic intolerance (OI); to (i) seek empirical support for interoceptive inference and (ii) delineate if this relationship was sensitive to increased interoceptive prediction error in OI patients during head-up tilt (HUT)/symptom provocation...
January 9, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330835/international-guidelines-for-groin-hernia-management
#2
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, more than 20 million patients undergo groin hernia repair annually. The many different approaches, treatment indications and a significant array of techniques for groin hernia repair warrant guidelines to standardize care, minimize complications, and improve results. The main goal of these guidelines is to improve patient outcomes, specifically to decrease recurrence rates and reduce chronic pain, the most frequent problems following groin hernia repair. They have been endorsed by all five continental hernia societies, the International Endo Hernia Society and the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery...
January 12, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328752/literature-review-awareness-of-anaesthesia
#3
Adam Smith
A review of qualitative literature regarding awareness under general anaesthesia was undertaken, this term being defined as full consciousness during surgery with explicit recall of events. This study was designed to explore perioperative practitioner knowledge, skill base and education on the subject of awareness. It also explores the practitioner role in, looking out for and rectification, their obligations to the patient and their statutory bodies, as well as adherence to standards of conduct, performance and ethics...
September 2017: Journal of Perioperative Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327523/association-of-physicians-of-india-position-statement-on-role-of-chirally-pure-molecules-in-clinical-practice
#4
Milind Y Nadkar, Mangesh Tiwaskar, Sanjay Kalra, Siddharth N Shah, B R Bansode, Anjanlal Dutta, Sarita Bajaj, Sameer Aggarwal, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, A K Das, Puneet Dhamija, Y K Gupta, Jubbin Jacob, Sundeep Mishra, S N Narasingan, C K Ponde, Ram Prabhoo, Balakrishnan S, Manisha Sahay, R K Sahay, I Sathyamurthy, Shilpa Tiwaskar, Agam Vora
Chirally pure molecules or enantiomers are non-superimposable mirror images of each other with a chiral center (such as carbon, sulphur, nitrogen or phosphorous atom). An equimolar mixture of enantiomers forms a racemate. Chirally pure molecules (single enantiomers) are important in the field of drug discovery as the drug targets such as enzymes and receptors are enantioselective in nature. Clinical studies have demonstrated that chirally pure drugs exhibit different pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiles, reduced adverse events, improved safety profiles and similar therapeutic activity at lowered drug dosage as compared with the racemate in many therapeutic areas...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323807/impact-of-obesity-on-cesarean-delivery-outcomes
#5
Andrew J Vegel, Dana M Benden, Andrew J Borgert, Kara J Kallies, Shanu N Kothari
BACKGROUND: The rate of cesarean delivery has increased over the last 2 decades. Obesity is a risk factor for complications during pregnancy and cesarean procedures. The objective of this study was to evaluate cesarean delivery outcomes in patients with vs without obesity, and determine the impact of obesity on complications. METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent a cesarean delivery from 2010 to 2014 were reviewed. Patients were grouped by body mass index (BMI) into obese (≥30kg/m²) and non-obese (<30kg/m²) cohorts for comparison...
November 2017: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320449/changing-trends-in-nutritional-behavior-among-university-students-in-greece-between-2006-and-2016
#6
Charikleia Kyrkou, Foteini Tsakoumaki, Maria Fotiou, Aristea Dimitropoulou, Maria Symeonidou, Georgios Menexes, Costas G Biliaderis, Alexandra-Maria Michaelidou
The objective of the present survey was to study the dietary behavior of university students residing away from the family home. In this context, we (a) compared their dietary habits in two time periods, namely 2006 and 2016; and (b) explored the possible impact of gender on the behavioral changes in nutritional choices. A total of four hundred and five university students (2006, n = 242; 2016, n = 163) participated in the study. Dietary assessment was carried out using a qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire, while data about demographic and lifestyle factors were also collected...
January 10, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319567/clinical-epidemiology-of-acute-burn-injuries-at-nepal-cleft-and-burn-centre-kathmandu-nepal
#7
Bishal Karki, Shankar Man Rai, Kiran Kishore Nakarmi, Surendra Jung Basnet, Mangal Gharti Magar, Krishna Kumar Nagarkoti, Sunil Thapa
BACKGROUND: Burn injury is a global health problem mainly occurring in developing countries. The Nepal Cleft and Burn Centre at Kirtipur Hospital, Kathmandu, has been providing the acute burn care since 2013 with 7 intensive care unit beds, 30 general beds, and 2 dedicated operating rooms. A similar descriptive study was performed in this center in 2014. These studies will be helpful for developing prevention strategies and monitoring the progress in the standard of care of acute burn patients...
January 9, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319394/achieving-appropriate-gestational-weight-gain-the-role-of-healthcare-provider-advice
#8
Nicholas P Deputy, Andrea J Sharma, Shin Y Kim, Christine K Olson
BACKGROUND: The Institute of Medicine (IOM) revised gestational weight gain recommendations in 2009. We examined associations between healthcare provider advice about gestational weight gain and inadequate or excessive weight gain, stratified by prepregnancy body mass index category. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from women delivering full-term (37-42 weeks of gestation), singleton infants from four states that participated in the 2010-2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (unweighted n = 7125)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317879/clinical-features-of-anthroponotic-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-a-major-focus-southeastern-iran-1994-2014
#9
Ahmad Khosravi, Iraj Sharifi, Alireza Fekri, Alireza Kermanizadeh, Mehdi Bamorovat, Mahshid Mostafavi, Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian, Alireza Keyhani
Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is associated with a broad and complex clinical spectrum of diseases. The objectives of this study were to assess the clinical features and identification of the causative agents of CL in a well-known focus of anthroponotic CL (ACL) caused by Leishmania tropica, southeast Iran. Methods: This study was performed randomly as a descriptive cross-sectional survey to evaluate 2000 CL patients by active and passive case-detection approaches in Kerman Province from 1994 to 2014...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313156/frequency-of-self-reported-concussion-amongst-professional-and-semi-professional-footballers-in-ireland-during-the-2014-season-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Nicola Coffey, Martin Lawless, Seamus Kelly, Conor Buggy
BACKGROUND: This paper examines the occupational risk of concussion amongst professional and semi-professional footballers in Ireland during the 2014 League of Ireland season. As part of a broader nationally representative study examining occupational safety and health (OSH) awareness amongst professional footballers, this empirical quantitative study, utilising a convenience sample is the first and largest investigation of the frequency of, and attitudes towards, concussion and concussion reporting amongst Irish senior professional and semi-professional footballers...
January 8, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306646/characterizing-surf-zone-injuries-from-the-five-most-populated-beaches-on-the-atlantic-fronting-delaware-coast-delaware-surf-zone-injury-demographics
#11
Matthew B Doelp, Jack A Puleo, Paul Cowan, Michelle Arford-Granholm
INTRODUCTION: Beaches are a popular destination for recreation activities. Surf zone injuries (SZI) can occur resulting from a variety of in-water activities. Little is known regarding the sustained injury types, or demographics of injured persons and activities leading to injuries. METHODS: This study examines the distribution of SZI types, activities and populations occurring on Delaware Beaches as recorded by a local level III trauma center (Department of Emergency Medicine at Beebe Healthcare in Lewes, Delaware)...
December 24, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304438/breast-size-dissatisfaction-but-not-body-dissatisfaction-is-associated-with-breast-self-examination-frequency-and-breast-change-detection-in-british-women
#12
Viren Swami, Adrian Furnham
Studies examining associations between body image and breast self-examination (BSE) have returned mixed findings, but this may be a function of focusing on global body image. Here, we examined the impact of breast size dissatisfaction specifically on BSE and behaviours in relation to breast change detection. A total of 384 British women completed measures of breast size dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, BSE frequency, confidence in detecting breast change, and delay in contacting their doctor upon detecting a breast change...
January 2, 2018: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302687/breast-implants-and-the-risk-of-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma-in-the-breast
#13
Mintsje de Boer, Flora E van Leeuwen, Michael Hauptmann, Lucy I H Overbeek, Jan Paul de Boer, Nathalie J Hijmering, Arthur Sernee, Caroline A H Klazen, Marc B I Lobbes, René R W J van der Hulst, Hinne A Rakhorst, Daphne de Jong
Importance: Breast implants are among the most commonly used medical devices. Since 2008, the number of women with breast implants diagnosed with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma in the breast (breast-ALCL) has increased, and several reports have suggested an association between breast implants and risk of breast-ALCL. However, relative and absolute risks of breast-ALCL in women with implants are still unknown, precluding evidence-based counseling about implants. Objective: To determine relative and absolute risks of breast-ALCL in women with breast implants...
January 4, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301455/body-mass-index-at-11-13%C3%A2-weeks-gestation-and-pregnancy-complications-in-a-southern-chinese-population-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Piya Chaemsaithong, Tak Yeung Leung, Daljit Sahota, Yvonne Kwun Yue Cheng, Wing Cheong Leung, Tsz Kin Lo, Liona Chiu Yee Poon
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between body mass index (BMI) and adverse pregnancy outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicentre retrospective cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in Hong Kong including 67 248 women with singleton pregnancy at 11-13 weeks between 2010-2016. The relationship between maternal BMI and [1] miscarriage or stillbirth, [2] development of preeclampsia (PE), [3] gestational hypertension (GH), [4] development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), [5] spontaneous preterm delivery (sPTD) < 34 and < 37 weeks, [6] delivery of a small for gestational age (SGA) or large for gestational age (LGA) neonate, [7] caesarean section (CS) and [8] postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) were examined after adjusting for confounding factors...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300965/an-evaluation-of-the-target-treat-antibiotics-responsibly-guidance-education-tools-antibiotics-toolkit-to-improve-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-primary-care-is-it-fit-for-purpose
#15
Leah Ffion Jones, Meredith K D Hawking, Rebecca Owens, Donna Lecky, Nick A Francis, Chris Butler, Micaela Gal, Cliodna A M McNulty
Background: The TARGET (Treat Antibiotics Responsibly; Guidance, Education, Tools) Antibiotics Toolkit aims to improve antimicrobial prescribing in primary care through guidance, interactive workshops with action planning, patient facing educational and audit materials. Objective: To explore GPs', nurses' and other stakeholders' views of TARGET. Design: Mixed methods. Method: In 2014, 40 UK GP staff and 13 stakeholders participated in interviews or focus groups...
December 28, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297983/impact-of-training-on-intensive-care-providers-attitudes-and-knowledge-regarding-limitation-of-life-support-treatment-and-organ-donation-after-circulatory-death
#16
Maria Del Mar Lomero, María F Jiménez-Herrera, Mireia Llaurado-Serra, María A Bodí, Nuria Masnou, Eva Oliver, Alberto Sandiumenge
The limitation of life-sustaining treatment is common practice in critical care units, and organ donation after circulatory death has come to be included as an option within this care plan. Lack of knowledge and misunderstandings can raise barriers between health-care providers (e.g., confusion about professional roles, lack of collaboration, doubts about the legality of the process, and not respecting patients' wishes in the decision-making process). The aim of the present study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of intensive care physicians and nurses before and after a multidisciplinary online training program...
January 3, 2018: Nursing & Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297089/cricoid-ridge-ossification-mimicking-ingested-fish-bone-on-plain-radiography-prevalence-in-singapore
#17
Sheldon Jin Keat Ng, Joseph King Tak Lee, Yee Liang Thian
INTRODUCTION: Ossification of the cricoid ridge mimicking impacted upper aerodigestive tract fish bone has been described in several case reports. We performed this study to determine the prevalence of such ossification in an adult population from Singapore and to identify specific imaging features that may be used as aid in differentiating patients with cricoid ridge ossification from those having an upper aerodigestive tract impacted fish bone. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 442 lateral neck radiographs of patients aged 16 years and above that were performed in the adult emergency department at the National University Hospital, Singapore, during the four-month period between 1 September 2014 and 31 December 2014...
January 3, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296264/relative-expression-of-pbmc-microrna-133a-analysis-in-patients-receiving-warfarin-after-mechanical-heart-valve-replacement
#18
Hamid Kabiri Rad, Mahta Mazaheri, Ali Dehghani Firozabadi
Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in various biological processes including anticoagulation. However, the modulation of miRNA by pharmacological intervention such as warfarin treatment in patients receiving warfarin has not been disclosed yet. The aim of this study work was to assess the effect of warfarin drug on expression level of mir-133a-3p in patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. Methods: In this research, the expression level of miRNA-133a-3p was analyzed in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from mechanical valve replacement patients who had received warfarin for at least 3 months continuously...
January 2018: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294756/-if-she-refuses-to-have-sex-with-you-just-make-her-tipsy-a-qualitative-study-exploring-alcohol-facilitated-sexual-violence-against-nigerian-female-students
#19
Emeka W Dumbili, Clare Williams
Most research on alcohol consumption and related sexual violence focuses on Western societies. Drawing on traditional masculinity scripts, this article contributes to the culturally specific understanding of how Nigerian sociocultural constructions of alcohol consumption facilitate sexual violence against women. In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 male and female undergraduate students (aged 19-23 years), exploring how the gendering of alcoholic beverages facilitates men's perpetration of sexual violence against women in a Nigerian university...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294688/is-investigative-awareness-a-distinctive-feature-of-sexual-sadism
#20
Kylie Reale, Eric Beauregard, Melissa Martineau
Sadistic offenders are often described as individuals who are forensically aware, who carefully plan their offenses, and preselect the location of their crime. Despite this emphasis on strategies to avoid police detection, no study has specifically examined whether this behavior or trait was specific to sadistic offenders. Utilizing a sample of 350 cases of sexual homicide from Canada, sadistic sexual homicide offenders (SHOs) are compared with nonsadistic SHOs on their investigative awareness. Results from logistic regression analyses show that sadistic SHOs are more likely to use various precautions to avoid detection and select a deserted location, in comparison with nonsadistic offenders...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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