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Body psychology

Alison Luther, Joseph Gabriel, Richard P Watson, Nader K Francis
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in perioperative care, post-operative clinical and functional outcomes after major abdominal surgery can be suboptimal. Prehabilitation programmes attempt to optimise a patient's preoperative condition to improve outcomes. Total body prehabilitation includes structured exercise, nutritional optimisation, psychological support and cessation of negative health behaviours. This systematic review aims to report on the current literature regarding the impact of total body prehabilitation prior to major abdominal surgery...
March 15, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Hung-Hao Chang, Kannika Saeliw
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the association between eating out and depressive symptoms among elderly people. Potential mediators that may link to elderly eating out and depressive symptoms are also discussed. METHODS: A unique dataset of 1,184 individuals aged 65 and older was drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 2008 in Taiwan. A bivariate probit model and an instrumental variable probit model were estimated to account for correlated, unmeasured factors that may be associated with both the decision and frequency of eating out and depressive symptoms in the elderly...
June 2017: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
L Vincze, M E Rollo, M J Hutchesson, R Callister, C E Collins
BACKGROUND: A tailored approach to nutrition and physical activity advice can support women following childbirth in managing barriers (i.e. time and childcare) to making healthy lifestyle changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the implementation, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a personally tailored nutrition and exercise programme for postpartum women delivered via video-consultations by an accredited practising dietitian (APD) and accredited exercise physiologist (AEP)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Patrycja Klimek, Tom Hildebrandt
OBJECTIVE: Theoretically, legal supplement use precedes and increases the risk for illicit appearance and performance enhancing drug (APED) use-also referred to as the gateway hypothesis. Little is known about associations between the speed of progression, or gap time, from legal to illicit APED use, and psychological risk factors, such as sociocultural influence, eating disorders, body image disturbance, and impulsivity. METHOD: The sample taken from two studies included 172 active steroid users (n = 143) and intense-exercising healthy controls (n = 29) between the ages of 18 and 60 (M = 34...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Sebastian V Nielsen, Martin Kellner, Per G Henriksen, Håkan Olsén, Steen H Hansen, Erik Baatrup
Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors are pharmaceuticals used to treat a range of psychological disorders. They are frequently found in surface waters in populated areas. In recent years, they have been shown to affect the behaviour of various aquatic organisms in a way that can have ecological effects. In this study, we exposed zebrafish of both sexes to nominally 0.00, 0.15 and 1.50 µg L-1 Escitalopram in flow-through tanks for three weeks. Subsequently, ten swimming behaviour parameters were quantified using high-resolution video tracking...
March 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Marie-Laure Amram, Pierre-Yves Dietrich, Florence Rochon, Mylène Bolmont, Francesco Bianchi-Demicheli
Cancer itself and its treatments can result in physical and/or psychological adverse events which include disorders of sexual health. Both clinicians and patients are reluctant to talk about sexual issues, body image or intimacy between partners. Barriers from the clinician's perspective include feeling inadequately trained, lack of time or privacy. On the patients' side, embarrassment or belief that their sexual health are an untreatable complication of their disease and its treatment are the main barriers...
March 14, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
P Cordero, J Li, J A Oben
Obesity is the pandemic of the 21st century. Obesity comorbidities, including hypertension, dyslipidaemia and glucose intolerance define metabolic syndrome, which increases mortality risk and decreases the quality of life. Compared with lifestyles (diet and physical activity) and pharmacological interventions, bariatric surgery is by far the most effective treatment for obesity and its comorbidities. This minimally invasive surgical treatment is based on an increase of satiety (by hormonal regulation and decreasing stomach volume) or a decrease in nutrient retention (gastric and/or intestinal resection)...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Emanuele D'Artibale, Paul B Laursen, John B Cronin
Performance in motorcycle road racing is typically considered as the summation of interactions between rider, motorcycle, tires, and environment. Despite the substantial investments made towards the development of motorcycle technology and the business interests of manufacturers, published research focusing on the riders is relatively sparse, and a bike-centered mentality tends to dominate the sport. This manuscript reviews the known human performance aspects of motorcycle road racing and suggests directions for future research...
March 13, 2018: Sports Medicine
Valentina Cardi, Núria Mallorqui-Bague, Gaia Albano, Alessio Maria Monteleone, Fernando Fernandez-Aranda, Janet Treasure
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric disorder characterized by severe restriction of energy intake and dangerously low body weight. Other domains of functioning are affected, including social functioning. Although difficulties within this domain have started to be acknowledged by the literature, some important gaps remain to be filled. Do social difficulties predate the onset of the illness? What difficulties in particular are relevant for the development and maintenance of the illness? The aim of this study is to combine the use of quantitative and qualitative methods to answer these questions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Marion Waite, Clare Martin, Rachel Franklin, David Duce, Rachel Harrison
BACKGROUND: People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) undertake self-management to prevent short and long-term complications. Advanced technology potentially supports such activities but requires consideration of psychological and behavioral constructs and usability issues. Economic factors and health care provider capacity influence access and uptake of advanced technology. Previous reviews have focused upon clinical outcomes or were descriptive or have synthesized studies on adults with those on children and young people where human factors are different...
March 15, 2018: JMIR Human Factors
Jonathan W Brandon, Justin K Solarczyk, Timur S Durrani
Lead toxicity is an important environmental disease and its effects on the human body can be devastating. Unique exposures to Special Operations Forces personnel may include use of firing ranges, use of automotive fuels, production of ammunition, and bodily retention of bullets. Toxicity may degrade physical and psychological fitness, and cause long-term negative health outcomes. Specific effects on fine motor movements, reaction times, and global function could negatively affect shooting skills and decision-making...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
F Strollo, C Macchi, I Eberini, M A Masini, M Botta, G Vassilieva, I Nichiporuk, M Monici, D Santucci, F Celotti, P Magni, M Ruscica
PURPOSE: The "Mars-500 project" allowed to evaluate the changes in psychological/physiological adaptation over a prolonged confinement, in order to gather information for future missions. Here, we evaluated the impact of confinement and isolation on body composition, glucose metabolism/insulin resistance and adipokine levels. METHODS: The "Mars-500 project" consisted of 520 consecutive days of confinement from June 3, 2010 to Nov 4, 2011. The crew was composed of six male subjects (three Russians, two Europeans, and one Chinese) with a median age of 31 years (range 27-38 years)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Takafumi Monma, Akira Ando, Tohru Asanuma, Yutaka Yoshitake, Goichiro Yoshida, Taiki Miyazawa, Naoyuki Ebine, Satoko Takeda, Naomi Omi, Makoto Satoh, Kumpei Tokuyama, Fumi Takeda
OBJECTIVE: To clarify sleep disorder risk factors among student athletes, this study examined the relationship between lifestyle habits, competition activities, psychological distress, and sleep disorders. METHODS: Student athletes (N = 906; male: 70.1%; average age: 19.1 ± 0.8 years) in five university sports departments from four Japanese regions were targeted for analysis. Survey items were attributes (age, gender, and body mass index), sleep disorders (recorded through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), lifestyle habits (bedtime, wake-up time, smoking, drinking alcohol, meals, part-time jobs, and use of electronics after lights out), competition activities (activity contents and competition stressors), and psychological distress (recorded through the K6 scale)...
April 2018: Sleep Medicine
Cary L Klemmer, Sean Arayasirikul, Henry F Raymond
Psychological processes may mediate the relationship between minority stress and mental health though limited data exist showing this pathway among trans women. Trans women's degree of satisfaction with their body is associated with mental health outcomes. This study used a model of minority stress to explore for indirect effects on the association between transphobia-based victimization and anxiety and depression through one's degree of body satisfaction. Analysis also explored for racial differences. Transgender women ( N = 233) were recruited in 2013 using respondent-driven sampling...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Anne C Wilson, Amelia Aldao, Jennifer Cheavens
OBJECTIVES: A large body of work suggests that cognitive reappraisal is an effective strategy for modifying emotional intensity. In addition, its habitual use has been linked to adaptive psychological functioning, operationalized as low levels of symptoms of psychopathology. However, little is known about the impact of cognitive reappraisal on behavioral aspects of mental disorders. For example, the experience of fear is often accompanied by the behavioral urge to avoid the feared stimuli...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Ruth Ec Evans, Stuart A Taylor, Sandra Beare, Steve Halligan, Alison Morton, Alf Oliver, Andrea Rockall, Anne Miles
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate perceived patient burden and acceptability of whole body MRI (WB-MRI) compared to standard staging investigations, and identify predictors of reduced tolerance.  Methods: Patients recruited to multi-centre trials comparing WB-MRI with standard staging scans for lung and colorectal cancer were invited to complete two questionnaires: a baseline questionnaire at recruitment, measuring demographics, comorbidities, and distress; and a follow-up questionnaire after staging, measuring recovery time, comparative acceptability/satisfaction between WB-MRI and CT (colorectal cancer) and PET-CT (lung cancer), and perceived scan burden (scored 1 low to 7 high)...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Audrey J Gaskins, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Germaine M Buck Louis, Jorge E Chavarro
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the predictors of sexual intercourse frequency (SIF) among couples trying to conceive despite the well-established link between SIF and fecundity. AIM: To evaluate men's and women's demographic, occupational, and lifestyle predictors of SIF among couples. METHODS: 469 Couples without a history of infertility participating in the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment Study (2005-2009) were followed up for ≤1 year while trying to conceive...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Megan Rose Stafford, Mick Cooper, Michael Barkham, Jeni Beecham, Peter Bower, Karen Cromarty, Andrew J B Fugard, Charlie Jackson, Peter Pearce, Rebekah Ryder, Cathy Street
BACKGROUND: One in ten children in Britain have been identified as experiencing a diagnosable mental health disorder. School-based humanistic counselling (SBHC) may help young people identify, address, and overcome psychological distress. Data from four pilot trials suggest that SBHC may be clinically effective. However, a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) is needed to provide a robust test of its effectiveness, to assess its cost-effectiveness, and to determine the process of change...
March 9, 2018: Trials
Yanira Sanchez-De la Torre, Rita Wadeea, Victoria Rosas, Karen L Herbst
Background Lipedema is a chronic disorder presenting in women during puberty or other times of hormonal change such as childbirth or menopause, characterized by symmetric enlargement of nodular, painful subcutaneous adipose tissue (fat) in the limbs, sparing the hands, feet and trunk. Healthcare providers underdiagnose or misdiagnose lipedema as obesity or lymphedema. Materials and methods The benefits (friend) and negative aspects (foe) of lipedema were collected from published literature, discussions with women with lipedema, and institutional review board approved evaluation of medical charts of 46 women with lipedema...
March 9, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Quinn A Conklin, Brandon G King, Anthony P Zanesco, Jue Lin, Anahita B Hamidi, Jennifer J Pokorny, María Jesús Álvarez-López, Marta Cosín-Tomás, Colin Huang, Perla Kaliman, Elissa S Epel, Clifford D Saron
A growing body of evidence suggests that meditation training may have a range of salubrious effects, including improved telomere regulation. Telomeres and the enzyme telomerase interact with a variety of molecular components to regulate cell-cycle signaling cascades, and are implicated in pathways linking psychological stress to disease. We investigated the effects of intensive meditation practice on these biomarkers by measuring changes in telomere length (TL), telomerase activity (TA), and telomere-related gene (TRG) expression during a 1-month residential Insight meditation retreat...
March 5, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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