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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792447/the-source-model-of-group-threat-responding-to-internal-and-external-threats
#1
Katharine H Greenaway, Tegan Cruwys
We introduce a model of group threat that articulates the opposing effects of intergroup (between-groups) and intragroup (within-group) threat on identity processes and group relations. The source model of group threat argues that the perceived source of a threat is critical in predicting its consequences, such that perceptions of intergroup threat will strengthen (in)group identity processes and relations, whereas perceptions of intragroup threat has the potential to undermine the same. In addition to reviewing the large literature on intergroup threat and a smaller body of unsynthesized work on intragroup threat, we discuss how these processes are captured in representations of monsters (aliens, vampires, and zombies) in popular media and how these ideas can inform interpretation of current political debates, such as those around homegrown terrorism...
May 24, 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792067/application-of-machine-learning-to-predict-dietary-lapses-during-weight-loss
#2
Stephanie P Goldstein, Fengqing Zhang, John G Thomas, Meghan L Butryn, James D Herbert, Evan M Forman
BACKGROUND: Individuals who adhere to dietary guidelines provided during weight loss interventions tend to be more successful with weight control. Any deviation from dietary guidelines can be referred to as a "lapse." There is a growing body of research showing that lapses are predictable using a variety of physiological, environmental, and psychological indicators. With recent technological advancements, it may be possible to assess these triggers and predict dietary lapses in real time...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791651/relationship-between-adiponectin-and-leptin-on-osteocalcin-in-obese-adolescents-during-weight-loss-therapy
#3
Raquel Munhoz da Silveira Campos, Deborah Cristina Landi Masquio, Flávia Campos Corgosinho, Joana Pereira de Carvalho-Ferreira, Bárbara Dal Molin Netto, Ana Paula Grotti Clemente, Lian Tock, Sergio Tufik, Marco Túlio de Mello, Ana Raimunda Dâmaso
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the presence of the pro-inflammatory state associated with the development of many comorbidities, including bone turnover marker alterations. This study aimed to investigate the role of the inflammatory state on bone turnover markers in obese adolescents undergoing interdisciplinary weight loss treatment for one year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty four post-pubescent obese adolescents with primary obesity, a body mass index (BMI) greater than > 95th percentile of the CDC reference growth charts, participated in the present investigation...
May 17, 2018: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790653/the-impact-of-living-with-morbid-obesity-on-psychological-need-frustration-a-study-with-bariatric-patients
#4
Ángel Megías, David González-Cutre, Vicente J Beltrán-Carrillo, José M Gomis-Díaz, Eduardo Cervelló, Kimberley J Bartholomew
Guided by self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the previous experiences of living with morbid obesity of 10 postbariatric patients enrolled in a physical activity programme. Qualitative data were collected through interviews and diarized observations. A thematic analysis revealed that participants suffered from health and mobility troubles in their daily life and experienced stigmatization and discrimination in most areas of their social functioning. Participants described how these experiences resulted in the thwarting of their basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness...
May 23, 2018: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790135/-spiritual-care-of-patients-with-depression
#5
Chia-Chan Kao, Yu-Hua Lin
Spiritual care is a component of holistic care. Patients with depression often experience body-mind-spirit health problems and may suffer from spiritual crises, particularly during the acute stage of a diseases, due to low self-esteem, negative attitudes toward life goals, daily life issues, and beliefs caused by physical, psychological, and occupational dysfunctions. Nonetheless, psychical care is the main treatment for patients with depression. This paper focuses on patients with depression and addresses the concepts of spiritual needs and spiritual care, identifying the factors that influence spiritual needs, the essentials of spiritual intervention, and the health effects of spiritual intervention outcomes on patients with depression...
June 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788473/enhancing-psychosis-spectrum-nosology-through-an-international-data-sharing-initiative
#6
Anna R Docherty, Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Martin Debbané, Raymond C K Chan, Richard J Linscott, Katherine G Jonas, David C Cicero, Melissa J Green, Leonard J Simms, Oliver Mason, David Watson, Ulrich Ettinger, Monika Waszczuk, Alexander Rapp, Phillip Grant, Roman Kotov, Colin G DeYoung, Camilo J Ruggero, Nicolas R Eaton, Robert F Krueger, Christopher Patrick, Christopher Hopwood, F Anthony O'Neill, David H Zald, Christopher C Conway, Daniel E Adkins, Irwin D Waldman, Jim van Os, Patrick F Sullivan, John S Anderson, Andrey A Shabalin, Scott R Sponheim, Stephan F Taylor, Rachel G Grazioplene, Silviu A Bacanu, Tim B Bigdeli, Corinna Haenschel, Dolores Malaspina, Diane C Gooding, Kristin Nicodemus, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Christine Mohr, William T Carpenter, Alex S Cohen
The latent structure of schizotypy and psychosis-spectrum symptoms remains poorly understood. Furthermore, molecular genetic substrates are poorly defined, largely due to the substantial resources required to collect rich phenotypic data across diverse populations. Sample sizes of phenotypic studies are often insufficient for advanced structural equation modeling approaches. In the last 50 years, efforts in both psychiatry and psychological science have moved toward (1) a dimensional model of psychopathology (eg, the current Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology [HiTOP] initiative), (2) an integration of methods and measures across traits and units of analysis (eg, the RDoC initiative), and (3) powerful, impactful study designs maximizing sample size to detect subtle genomic variation relating to complex traits (the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium [PGC])...
May 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788221/predictive-factors-of-life-quality-among-packaging-workers-in-taiwan
#7
Shang-Yu Yang, Der-Jen Hsu, Chun-Ming Yen, Jer-Hao Chang
The semiconductor plants on the top of high-tech industrial chain hire many packaging workers to carry out miscellaneous packing tasks for various product orders from different companies and countries. Under tremendous workload the quality of life (QoL) of such packaging workers need to be concerned. The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing their QoL. This study recruited 247 packing workers (162 male and 85 female; mean age: 35.6 years old) in 2015 and 2016 from a semiconductor plant in Taiwan by convenience sampling...
May 16, 2018: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788071/educating-australian-musicians-are-we-playing-it-safe
#8
Suzanne Wijsman, Bronwen J Ackermann
The effectiveness of health promotion through arts engagement, and the health benefits and social importance of music in particular, are becoming increasingly recognized. However, like sport, music-making is an athletic endeavour, one that often involves high physiological and psychological loadings on the bodies and minds of musicians. Research over the past 30 years has revealed alarming rates of injury among musicians, and has identified health risk factors associated with music performance faced by professional and student musicians...
May 17, 2018: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787612/psychosocial-needs-of-young-breast-cancer-survivors-in-mexico-city-mexico
#9
Harper G Hubbeling, Shoshana M Rosenberg, Maria Cecilia González-Robledo, Julia G Cohn, Cynthia Villarreal-Garza, Ann H Partridge, Felicia M Knaul
OBJECTIVE: Young breast cancer survivors in Mexico face distinct psychosocial challenges that have not been characterized. This study aims to describe the psychosocial needs of young breast cancer survivors in Mexico at 5 or more years of survivorship, identifying areas of focus for early interventions. METHODS: Breast cancer patients diagnosed at age 40 or prior with 5 or more years since diagnosis were invited to participate in one-on-one 30-60 minute semi-structured audio-recorded interviews at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología in Mexico City...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786629/anthropometric-parameters-age-and-agility-as-performance-predictors-in-elite-female-basketball-players
#10
Maria Garcia-Gil, Jon Torres-Unda, Izaro Esain, Iratxe Duñabeitia, Susana M Gil, Javier Gil, Jon Irazusta
Garcia-Gil, M, Torres-Unda, J, Esain, I, Duñabeitia, I, Gil, SM, Gil, J, and Irazusta, J. Anthropometric parameters, age, and agility as performance predictors in elite female basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1723-1730, 2018-In addition to technical, tactical, and psychological skills, performance in playing basketball depends on anthropometry and physical fitness. However, limited information is available regarding such features in women. We hypothesized that anthropometry and physical fitness are associated with female basketball performance, and consequently, performance could be predicted using the results of certain anthropometric measures and fitness tests...
June 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784890/assessment-of-the-efficacy-of-physical-activity-level-and-lifestyle-behavior-interventions-applying-social-cognitive-theory-for-overweight-and-obese-girl-adolescents
#11
Mohammad Bagherniya, Firoozeh Mostafavi Darani, Manoj Sharma, Mohammad Reza Maracy, Ramesh Allipour Birgani, Golnaz Ranjbar, Ali Taghipour, Mohammad Safraian, Seyed Ali Keshavarz
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic and physical inactivity and considered as one of the most important contributing factors. We aimed to evaluate a school-based physical activity intervention using social cognitive theory (SCT) to increase physical activity behavior in order to prevent obesity among overweight and obese adolescent girls. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial study. METHODS: A seven-month randomized controlled trial based on SCT was implemented with 172 overweight and obese girl students (87 in intervention and 85 in control group), with the presence of their parents and teachers...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781918/health-self-empowerment-theory-predicting-health-behaviors-and-bmi-in-culturally-diverse-adults
#12
Carolyn M Tucker, Julia Roncoroni, Guillermo M Wippold, Michael Marsiske, Delphia J Flenar, Kristin Hultgren
Health Self-Empowerment Theory asserts that 5 controllable psychological variables predict engagement in health-promoting behaviors. This study tests the theoretical integrity of Health Self-Empowerment Theory and its usefulness in predicting health-promoting behaviors and body mass index. Results from surveying 189 predominantly low-income, overweight/obese, and culturally diverse adults showed that most Health Self-Empowerment Theory variables were positively correlated. Structural equation modeling showed that 4 variables significantly predicted engagement in health-promoting behaviors, which mediated the relationships between body mass index and (a) motivation, (b) health self-efficacy, and (c) self-praise...
July 2018: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779187/dualism-and-its-place-in-a-philosophical-structure-for-psychiatry
#13
Hane Htut Maung
It is often claimed in parts of the psychiatric literature that neuroscientific research into the biological basis of mental disorder undermines dualism in the philosophy of mind. This paper shows that such a claim does not apply to all forms of dualism. Focusing on Kenneth Kendler's discussion of the mind-body problem in biological psychiatry, I argue that such criticism of dualism often conflates the psychological and phenomenal concepts of the mental. Moreover, it fails to acknowledge that there are different varieties of dualism, and so overlooks the important metaphysical insights of contemporary dualist philosophers...
May 19, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777605/ethics-and-or-aesthetics-reflections-on-cosmetic-surgery-for-adolescents
#14
Gianluca Montanari Vergallo, Enrico Marinelli, Simona Napoletano, Natale Mario Di Luca, Simona Zaami
Cosmetic surgery entails various ethical issues, even more so in cases involving adolescent patients. Cosmetic surgeons need to take into account how modern societies consider physical appearance an essential component of everyday life, as well as the vulnerability of youths and adolescents. For that reason, it is imperative to thoroughly assess the psychological and emotional states, in addition to the motivations, of minor patients. That goal can be achieved through the use of the DAS-59, (the Derriford Appearance Scale)1 , an effective and dependable tool devised to evaluate the psychological difficulties and distress experienced by people living with problems of appearance...
May 2018: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776012/evolving-self-view-and-body-image-concerns-in-female-post-operative-bariatric-surgery-patients
#15
Tamara O Perdue, Ann Schreier, Melvin Swanson, Janice Neil, Robert Carels
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This research study explores the experience of post-operative bariatric surgery patients as they adjust to diminished weight and differentiates that adjustment from the more general concept of body image. BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is an effective way to reduce weight and co-morbidities associated with obesity. Complete success requires that patients must adjust psychologically as they lose weight. If this does not occur, bariatric patients may experience a 'mind-body lag' in which the patient's internal body image lags behind the external changes...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775873/psychosocial-stress-and-inflammation-driving-tryptophan-breakdown-in-children-and-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-two-cohorts
#16
Nathalie Michels, Gerard Clarke, Loreto Olavarria-Ramirez, Sonia Gómez-Martínez, Ligia Esperanza Díaz, Ascensión Marcos, Kurt Widhalm, Livia A Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Tryptophan breakdown is an important mechanism in several diseases e.g. inflammation and stress-induced inflammation have been associated with the development of depression via enhanced tryptophan breakdown. Depression is a major public health problem which commonly starts during adolescence, thus identifying underlying mechanisms during early life is crucial in prevention. The aim of this work was to verify whether independent and interacting associations of psychosocial stress and inflammation on tryptophan breakdown already exist in children and adolescents as a vulnerable age group...
May 15, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772464/factor-structure-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-body-appreciation-scale-2-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-in-danish-portuguese-and-swedish
#17
J E Lemoine, H Konradsen, A Lunde Jensen, C Roland-Lévy, P Ny, A Khalaf, S Torres
In recent years, the study of body image shifted from focusing on the negative aspects to a more extensive view of body image. The present study seeks to validate a measure of positive body image, the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015a) in Denmark, Portugal, and Sweden. Participants (N = 1012) were adolescents and young adults aged from 12 to 19. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the one-dimensional factor structure of the scale. Multi-group confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the scale was invariant across sex and country...
May 14, 2018: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772450/understanding-one-s-body-and-movements-from-the-perspective-of-young-adults-with-autism-a-mixed-methods-study
#18
Ingrid Bertilsson, Amanda Lundvik Gyllensten, Arve Opheim, Gunvor Gard, Catharina Sjödahl Hammarlund
BACKGROUND: There are but a few studies of how persons with autism perceive their bodies and movements. Difficulties in perceiving the surrounding world along with disturbed motor coordination and executive functions may affect physical and psychological development. AIMS: To explore the experiences of body and movements in young adults with autism and how two physiotherapeutic instruments may capture these experiences. PROCEDURES: Eleven young adults (16-22 years) with autism were interviewed and assessed using Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT2) and Body Awareness Scale Movement Quality and Experience (BAS MQ-E)...
May 14, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771841/integrating-a-profile-of-frontal-face-with-its-mirror-image-for-facial-reconstruction
#19
Paramjit Kaur, Kewal Krishan, Suresh K Sharma, Tanuj Kanchan
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Face recognition plays an important role in the field of biometrics, bioinformatics, and forensic identification. Human faces appear bilaterally symmetric. However, asymmetry is a norm in the human body and careful morphological and metric examination of the human face gives an exact idea of the asymmetry present in the face of an individual. Most of the studies on asymmetry of human face have been carried out with regard to evaluation of expressions in psychology, anthropology, and biometrics...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771744/sleep-quality-during-and-after-cardiothoracic-intensive-care-and-psychological-health-during-recovery
#20
Nittaya Caruana, Sharon McKinley, Rosalind Elliott, Leila Gholizadeh
BACKGROUND: Intensive care patients experience poor sleep quality. Psychological distress and diminished health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are also common among former intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is a frequent reason adults require treatment in ICU. The effect of on- versus off-pump surgery on sleep and recovery has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess sleep quality of CABG patients during and after ICU, psychological well-being, HRQOL during recovery, and whether on- versus off-pump surgery affects sleep and recovery...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
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