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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437469/virtual-race-transformation-reverses-racial-in-group-bias
#1
Béatrice S Hasler, Bernhard Spanlang, Mel Slater
People generally show greater preference for members of their own racial group compared to racial out-group members. This type of 'in-group bias' is evident in mimicry behaviors. We tend to automatically mimic the behaviors of in-group members, and this behavior is associated with interpersonal sensitivity and empathy. However, mimicry is reduced when interacting with out-group members. Although race is considered an unchangeable trait, it is possible using embodiment in immersive virtual reality to engender the illusion in people of having a body of a different race...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437149/the-effects-of-yoga-on-positive-mental-health-among-healthy-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Tom Hendriks, Joop de Jong, Holger Cramer
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to present an overview of the research on the effects of yoga on positive mental health (PMH) among non-clinical adult populations. METHODS: This was a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, including a risk of bias assessment. The electronic databases PubMed/Medline, Scopus, IndMED, and the Cochrane Library were searched from 1975 to 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of yoga interventions on PMH among a healthy adult population were selected...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437148/autism-and-mind-body-therapies-a-systematic-review
#3
Sarah Hourston, Rachel Atchley
BACKGROUND: Mind-body therapies are often used by people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, there has been little examination into which types of mind-body therapies have been investigated for people with ASD and for what purposes. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the existing evidence for mind-body therapies for people with ASD, particularly to determine the types of mind-body therapies used and the outcomes that are targeted. METHODS: PubMed, PsychInfo, and Scopus were searched using terms for ASD and mind-body therapies...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436244/a-systematic-review-and-meta-synthesis-of-the-qualitative-literature-exploring-the-experiences-and-quality-of-life-of-survivors-of-a-cardiac-arrest
#4
Gunilla Haydon, Pamela van der Riet, Kerry Inder
BACKGROUND: Survival following cardiac arrest and subsequent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is increasing worldwide, mainly due to greater awareness of the symptoms of cardiac events and an increased attention to CPR training. Although patient outcomes remain unpredictable and quantitative studies suggest that the overall quality of life (QOL) is acceptable, it is valuable to synthesise qualitative studies exploring these phenomena in depth, providing a deeper knowledge of survivors' experiences and QOL...
April 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433458/linking-the-biological-underpinnings-of-depression-role-of-mitochondria-interactions-with-melatonin-inflammation-sirtuins-tryptophan-catabolites-dna-repair-and-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-with-consequences-for-classification-and-cognition
#5
REVIEW
George Anderson
The pathophysiological underpinnings of neuroprogressive processes in recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) are reviewed. A wide array of biochemical processes underlie MDD presentations and their shift to a recurrent, neuroprogressive course, including: increased immune-inflammation, tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), mitochondrial dysfunction, aryl hydrocarbonn receptor activation, and oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), as well as decreased sirtuins and melatonergic pathway activity. These biochemical changes may have their roots in central, systemic and/or peripheral sites, including in the gut, as well as in developmental processes, such as prenatal stressors and breastfeeding consequences...
April 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431971/influence-of-stress-associated-with-chronic-alcohol-exposure-on-drinking
#6
REVIEW
Howard C Becker
Stress is commonly regarded as an important trigger for relapse and a significant factor that promotes increased motivation to drink in some individuals. However, the relationship between stress and alcohol is complex, likely changing in form during the transition from early moderated alcohol use to more heavy uncontrolled alcohol intake. A growing body of evidence indicates that prolonged excessive alcohol consumption serves as a potent stressor, producing persistent dysregulation of brain reward and stress systems beyond normal homeostatic limits...
April 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429582/obesity-and-addiction-can-a-complication-of-surgery-help-us-understand-the-connection
#7
REVIEW
V Ivezaj, L E Stoeckel, N M Avena, S C Benoit, A Conason, J F Davis, A N Gearhardt, R Goldman, J E Mitchell, C N Ochner, K K Saules, K J Steffen, E Stice, S Sogg
Obesity is a multifactorial, chronic disease that has proven difficult to treat. An increased understanding of aetiological mechanisms is critical to the development of more effective obesity prevention and treatment strategies. A growing body of empirical evidence has demonstrated parallels between obesity, overeating and substance abuse, including shared behavioural, psychological and neurophysiological factors implicated in the excessive intake of both food and substances of abuse. Several different lines of research have recently emerged that hold the potential to shed light on the connection between obesity, food reward and addiction, with studies examining changes in alcohol use/misuse after weight loss surgery providing a particularly interesting perspective on these interrelationships...
April 21, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429386/relationship-between-desired-weight-and-eating-disorder-pathology-in-youth
#8
Hope K Boyd, Andrea E Kass, Erin C Accurso, Andrea B Goldschmidt, Jennifer E Wildes, Daniel Le Grange
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with eating disorders (ED), particularly anorexia nervosa (AN), and bulimia nervosa (BN), often wish to reduce their body weight in pursuit of a thin ideal, but no study has examined the relation between desired weight and ED pathology in a clinical population of youth. Given the potential impact of desired weight on normalization of eating patterns and weight restoration, we examined the relation between desired weight and ED pathology in youth with AN or BN. METHODS: Participants were 340 youth presenting to an outpatient ED clinical research program...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427051/subjective-time-perceptions-and-aging-well-a-review-of-concepts-and-empirical-research-a-mini-review
#9
Martina Gabrian, Anne J Dutt, Hans-Werner Wahl
Human beings impose subjective, time-related interpretations on their existence, and the experience of time is a major aspect of lifespan development. In this mini-review, we understand subjective time as the way individuals subjectively perceive and evaluate the passing of their personal "objective" lifetime. A broad range of constructs and operationalizations has been developed in (gero-) psychology to capture subjective time, including future time perspective, personal goals, or autobiographical memories...
April 21, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425618/classifying-adults-with-binge-eating-disorder-based-on-severity-levels
#10
Antonios Dakanalis, Giuseppe Riva, Silvia Serino, Fabrizia Colmegna, Massimo Clerici
The clinical utility of the severity criterion for binge eating disorder (BED), introduced in the DSM-5 as a means of addressing heterogeneity and variability in the severity of this disorder, was evaluated in 189 treatment-seeking adults with (DSM-5) BED. Participants classified with mild, moderate, severe and extreme severity of BED, based on their weekly frequency of binge eating episodes, differed significantly from each other in body mass index (BMI), eating disorder features, putative factors involved in the maintenance process of the disorder, comorbid mood, anxiety and personality disorders, psychological distress, social maladjustment and illness-specific functional impairment (medium-to-large effect sizes)...
April 20, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424379/-risk-factors-of-eating-disorders-in-the-narratives-of-fashion-models
#11
Nikolett Bogár, Ferenc Túry
INTRODUCTION: The risk of eating disorders is high in populations who are exposed to slimness ideal, so among fashion models. The present qualitative study evaluates the risk factors of eating disorders in a group of fashion models with semistructured interview. Moreover, the aim of the study was to examine the impact of professional requirements on the health of models. METHODS: The study group was internationally heterogeneous. The models were involved by personal professional relationship...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423931/comparative-effectiveness-of-two-walking-interventions-on-participation-step-counts-and-health
#12
Aaron Smith-McLallen, Debbie Heller, Kristin Vernisi, Diana Gulick, Samantha Cruz, Richard L Snyder
PURPOSE: To (1) compare the effects of two worksite-based walking interventions on employee participation rates; (2) compare average daily step counts between conditions, and; (3) examine the effects of increases in average daily step counts on biometric and psychologic outcomes. DESIGN: We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in which six employer groups were randomly selected and randomly assigned to condition. SETTING: Four manufacturing worksites and two office-based worksite served as the setting...
March 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422704/influencing-factors-on-high-risk-sexual-behaviors-in-young-people-an-ecological-perspective
#13
Hoda Arabi-Mianrood, Zeinab Hamzehgardeshi, Elham Khoori, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Zohreh Shahhosseini
Background In recent years, high-risk sexual behaviors due to their negative consequences both for the individual and society have received more attention than other high-risk behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to review the influencing factors of high-risk sexual behaviors among young people from an ecological point of view. Methods This review was conducted through searching databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library with keywords such as sexual risk-taking behavior, high-risk sex, unprotected sex and unsafe sex...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420918/the-role-of-psychological-eating-styles-in-obesity-among-turkish-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Nalan Hakime Nogay
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between eating behaviours and adiposity indicators including body mass index, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio in adolescents. METHODS: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at Kirklareli University Health College, Kirklareli, Turkey, from April to June 2014, and comprised students of the 2013-14 academic year. Height and weight were measured and students' body mass indexes were calculated. Waist and hip circumferences were measured...
April 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419648/the-role-of-body-image-dissatisfaction-in-the-association-between-treatment-related-scarring-or-disfigurement-and-psychological-distress-in-adult-survivors-of-childhood-cancer
#15
Stefanie C Vuotto, Rohit P Ojha, Chenghong Li, Cara Kimberg, James L Klosky, Kevin R Krull, Deo Kumar Srivastava, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Tara M Brinkman
PURPOSE: To examine the potential mediating role of body image dissatisfaction on the association between treatment-related scarring/disfigurement and psychological distress in adult survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: Participants included 1,714 adult survivors of childhood cancer (mean[SD] age at evaluation = 32.4[8.0] years, time since diagnosis = 24.1[8.1] years) enrolled in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study. Survivors completed measures of body image, emotional distress and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS)...
April 18, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416329/weight-stigma-predicts-inhibitory-control-and-food-selection-in-response-to-the-salience-of-weight-discrimination
#16
Ashley M Araiza, Joseph D Wellman
OBJECTIVE: Fear and stigmatization are often used to motivate individuals with higher body weight to engage in healthy behaviors, but these strategies are sometimes counterproductive, leading to undesirable outcomes. In the present study, the impact of weight-based stigma on cognition (i.e., inhibitory control) and food selection (i.e., calories selected) was examined among individuals who consider themselves to be overweight. It was predicted that participants higher in perceived weight stigma would perform more poorly on an inhibitory control task and order more calories on a food selection task when they read about discrimination against individuals with higher weight versus discrimination against an out-group...
April 14, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413210/acute-pulmonary-thromboembolism-in-a-case-of-fatal-child-abuse
#17
R Rahimi, Z F Zulkifli, E Omar, H Ismail, S Md Noor
Child abuse is a worldwide problem. The four major types of abuse include physical abuse, child neglect, psychological maltreatment and sexual violence. We describe a fatal case of child abuse which presented with numerous old and recent soft tissue injuries all over the body. The injuries on the legs have immobilized the victim for quite some time, giving rise to deep vein thrombosis, leading to death as a result of acute pulmonary thromboembolism. This case demonstrates presence of both elements of abuse and neglect in one victim...
April 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412890/three-problems-with-current-digital-mental-health-research-and-three-things-we-can-do-about-them
#18
David C Mohr, Ken R Weingardt, Madhu Reddy, Stephen M Schueller
An increasingly large body of randomized controlled trials has demonstrated the efficacy of mental health technologies, such as Web-based and mobile interventions, to prevent and treat mental disorders and increase psychological well-being. However, there is little evidence that these tools can be successfully implemented in clinical settings. The authors highlight three widely held misconceptions that they believe are holding back the field, and they reconceptualize the issues to strengthen the path toward implementation and accelerate innovation...
April 17, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407292/internalized-stigma-in-psoriasis-a-multicenter-study
#19
Erkan Alpsoy, Mualla Polat, Bilge FettahlıoGlu-Karaman, Ayse Serap Karadag, Pelin Kartal-Durmazlar, Basak YalCın, Selma Emre, Didem Didar-Balcı, Asli Bilgic-Temel, Ercan Arca, Rafet Koca, Kamer Gunduz, Murat Borlu, Tulin Ergun, Seval Dogruk-Kacar, Ayca Cordan-Yazici, Pınar Dursun, Ozlem BilgiC, Serap Gunes-Bilgili, Neslihan Sendur, Ozge Baysal, Ibrahim Halil-Yavuz, Gizem Yagcioglu, Ertan Yilmaz, Ufuk Kavuzlu, Yesim Senol
Internalized stigma is the adoption of negative attitudes and stereotypes of the society regarding a person's illness. It causes decreased self-esteem and life-satisfaction, increased depression and suicidality, and difficulty in coping with the illness. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the internalized stigma state of psoriatic patients and to identify the factors influencing internalized stigma. The secondary aim was to identify the correlation of internalized stigma with quality of life and perceived health status...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406871/effects-of-breathing-based-meditation-on-earthquake-affected-health-professionals
#20
Miho Iwakuma, Daien Oshita, Akihiro Yamamoto, Yuka Urushibara-Miyachi
On March 11, 2013, the Great East Japan Earthquake (magnitude 9) hit the northern part of Japan (Tohoku), killing more than 15 000 people and leaving long-lasting scars, including psychological damage among evacuees, some of whom were health professionals. Little is known about meditation efficacy on disaster-affected health professionals. The present study investigated the effects of breathing-based meditation on seminar participants who were health professionals who had survived the earthquake. This study employed a mixed methods approach, using both survey data and handwritten qualitative data...
May 2017: Holistic Nursing Practice
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