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Lei Mai, Lian-Jun Bao, Lei Shi, Liang-Ying Liu, Eddy Y Zeng
Microplastics (MPs) sized between 0.33 and 5 mm were collected using Manta trawls from ten surface seawater sites in Bohai and Huanghai Seas, China. A total of 1024 (Bohai Sea) and 132 (Huanghai Sea) microplastic pieces were classified, including polystyrene foams, polyethylene films and lines, and other plastic pellets, with concentrations of MPs ranging from 3 to 162 particles per 100 m3 (0.012-2.96 mg m-3 ). A pretreatment of MPs with 30% H2 O2 in water did not significantly lower polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations on MPs compared to no H2 O2 pretreatment...
June 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Annette E Neele, Marion J J Gijbels, Saskia van der Velden, Marten A Hoeksema, Marieke C S Boshuizen, Koen H M Prange, Hung-Jen Chen, Jan Van den Bossche, Cindy P P A van Roomen, Annelie Shami, Johannes H M Levels, Jeffrey Kroon, Tina Lucas, Stefanie Dimmeler, Esther Lutgens, Menno P J de Winther
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Atherosclerosis is a lipid-driven chronic inflammatory disorder of the arteries, and monocytes and macrophages play a central role in this process. Within the atherosclerotic lesion, macrophages can scavenge modified lipids and become the so-called foam cells. We previously reported that the epigenetic enzyme Kdm6b (also known as Jmjd3) controls the pro-fibrotic transcriptional profile of peritoneal foam cells. Given the importance of these cells in atherosclerosis, we now studied the effect of myeloid Kdm6b on disease progression...
June 1, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Seema Sharma, Dharmesh C Saxena, Charanjit S Riar
β-glucan extracted from raw and germinated foxtail and kodo millets were evaluated for its functional, rheological and in vitro antioxidant characteristics. The in vitro activity determined in terms of diphenyl-p-picryl hydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activity was found higher in germinated kodo millet (78.74%, 48.98%) compared to foxtail millet (34.96%, 38.67%), respectively. Water binding capacity and swelling power of β-glucan extract of foxtail millet increased from 2...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Gabriele Romano, Serena Reggi, Barbara Kutryb-Zajac, Amanda Facoetti, Elisa Chisci, Mariateresa Pettinato, Maria Rita Giuffrè, Federica Vecchio, Silvia Leoni, Marco De Giorgi, Federica Avezza, Massimiliano Cadamuro, Luca Crippa, Biagio Eugenio Leone, Marialuisa Lavitrano, Ilaria Rivolta, Donatella Barisani, Ryszard Tomasz Smolenski, Roberto Giovannoni
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a slowly progressing, chronic multifactorial disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids, inflammatory cells, and fibrous tissue that drives to the formation of asymmetric focal thickenings in the tunica intima of large and mid-sized arteries. Despite the high therapeutic potential of ApoA-1 proteins, the purification and delivery into the disordered organisms of these drugs is still limited by low efficiency in these processes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report here a novel production and delivery system of anti-atherogenic APOA-1Milano muteins (APOA-1M) by means of genetically modified rice plants...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Yan He, Minggang Zhao, Meiyan Yu, Yunpeng Zhuang, Frank Cheng, Shougang Chen
3D NiO/polyaniline p-p junction foam was prepared and applied for electrochemical detection of Cr6+ . The electrochemical detection using interfacial potential barrier was illustrated and a mature theoretical model was built to demonstrate the mechanism. Electrochemical sensing signals of targets can be revealed by changing the height of potential barrier after specific adsorption. The extra high sensitivity (0.78 μA nM-1 ) and low detection limit (3.96 × 10-4  nM) of Cr6+ were achieved by applying the p-p junction interfacial potential barrier as driven factors...
October 31, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
V Langlois, V H Trinh, C Lusso, C Perrot, X Chateau, Y Khidas, O Pitois
In this paper, we study how the permeability of solid foam is modified by the presence of membranes that close partially or totally the cell windows connecting neighboring pores. The finite element method (FEM) simulations computing the Stokes problem are performed at both pore and macroscopic scales. For foam with fully interconnected pores, we obtain a robust power-law relationship between permeability and aperture size. This result is due to the local pressure drop mechanism through the aperture as described by Sampson for fluid flow through a circular orifice in a thin plate...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Yingjie Xu, Jie Xu, Keli Ge, Qingwu Tian, Peng Zhao, Yunliang Guo
Atherosclerosis (AS) is the key cause of many cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The inflammatory response and lipid metabolism disorders contribute to the development and progression of AS. This work aims to study the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) obtained from Saccharina japonica on atherosclerosis in apoE-knockout mice. The experimental results showed that LMWF statistically decreased the levels of triglyceride (TRIG) and oxidative low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) and stabilized established atherosclerotic lesions...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Gill Norman, Maggie J Westby, Amber D Rithalia, Nikki Stubbs, Marta O Soares, Jo C Dumville
BACKGROUND: Venous leg ulcers are open skin wounds on the lower leg which can be slow to heal, and are both painful and costly. The point prevalence of open venous leg ulcers in the UK is about 3 cases per 10,000 people, and many people experience recurrent episodes of prolonged ulceration. First-line treatment for venous leg ulcers is compression therapy, but a wide range of dressings and topical treatments are also used. This diversity of treatments makes evidence-based decision-making challenging, and a clear and current overview of all the evidence is required...
June 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Mohammed Rehaan Chandan, Nilanjon Naskar, Anuja Das, Rabibrata Mukherjee, Gopalakrishna Pillai Harikrishnan
Several interfacial phenomena are active during polymeric foaming, the dynamics of which significantly influence terminal stability, cell structure and in turn the thermo-mechanical properties of temporally evolved foam. Understanding these dynamics is important in achieving desired foam properties. Here, we introduce a method to simultaneously portray the time evolution of bubble growth, lamella thinning and Plateau border drainage, occurring during reactive polymeric foaming. In this method, we initially conduct bulk and surface shear rheology under polymerizing and non-foaming conditions...
June 15, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ahmed M Hafez, Yucong Jiao, Jianjian Shi, Yi Ma, Daxian Cao, Yuanyue Liu, Hongli Zhu
Lithium (Li) metal anodes have attracted much interest recently for high-energy battery applications. However, low coulombic efficiency, infinite volume change, and severe dendrite formation limit their reliable implementation over a wide range. Here, an outstanding stability for a Li metal anode is revealed by designing a highly porous and hollow Li foam. This unique structure is capable of tackling many Li metal problems simultaneously: first, it assures uniform electrolyte distribution over the inner and outer electrode's surface; second, it reduces the local current density by providing a larger electroactive surface area; third, it can accommodate volume expansion and dissipate heat efficiently...
June 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
Luciano Di Maio, Bartolomeo Coppola, Luc Courard, Frédéric Michel, Loredana Incarnato, Paola Scarfato
The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Hygro-thermal and durability properties of a lightweight mortar made with foamed plastic waste aggregates" (Coppola et al., 2018) [1]. This article focuses the attention on thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability and water absorption of a lightweight cementitious mortar containing foamed end-of-waste plastic aggregates, produced via foam extrusion process [2]. Thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability and water absorption data are made available to allow comparison and/or extend the analysis...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Qing Wang, Chaoyue Cai, Mingyan Wang, Qian Guo, Biao Wang, Weina Luo, Yujuan Wang, Chenyan Zhang, Lihua Zhou, Dongen Zhang, Zhiwei Tong, Yuqing Liu, Jun Chen
A hybrid of ZnO nanorods grown onto three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide (RGO)@Ni foam (ZnO/RGO@NF) is synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The as-prepared hybrid material is physically characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). When the as-prepared 3D hybrid is investigated as a photocatalyst, it demonstrates significant high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB), rhodamine (RhB), and mixed MB/RhB as organic dye pollutants. In addition, the practical application and the durability of the as-prepared catalyst to degradation of malachite green (MG) in seawater are firstly assessed in a continuous flow system...
June 13, 2018: Materials
Rishikesh Bajagain, Yoonsu Park, Seung-Woo Jeong
This study evaluated surface foam spraying technology, which avoids disturbing the soil, to deliver chemical oxidant and oil-degrading microbes to unsaturated soil for 30 days. Hydrogen peroxide foam was sprayed once onto diesel contaminated soil for oxidation of soil total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). Periodic bioaugmentation foam was sprayed every three days for biodegradation of soil TPH. Foam spraying employing oxidation-bioaugmentation serial application significantly reduced soil TPH concentrations to 550 mg·kg-1 from an initial 7470 mg·kg-1 ...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Seyedali Seyedmajidi, Maryam Seyedmajidi, Ebrahim Zabihi, Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki
Considering to the possibility of cellular and genetic damage by the implant materials in the patient and the clinician, the safety of the biomaterials should be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by two nanocomposites, hydroxyapatite/bioactive glass (HA/BG) and fluorapatite/bioactive glass (FA/BG) in vitro. Biomaterial extracts (BMEX, 100%) were prepared by incubating 100 mg/mL of each biomaterial powder in complete culture medium (RPMI1640 + 10% FBS) for 72 hours...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Matthew L Costa, Juul Achten, Julie Bruce, Elizabeth Tutton, Stavros Petrou, Sarah E Lamb, Nick R Parsons
Importance: Open fractures of the lower limb occur when a broken bone penetrates the skin. There can be major complications from these fractures, which can be life-changing. Objectives: To assess the disability, rate of deep infection, and quality of life in patients with severe open fracture of the lower limb treated with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) vs standard wound management after the first surgical debridement of the wound. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter randomized trial performed in the UK Major Trauma Network, recruiting 460 patients aged 16 years or older with a severe open fracture of the lower limb from July 2012 through December 2015...
June 12, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Li-Na Gao, Xin Zhou, Yu-Ren Lu, Kefeng Li, Shan Gao, Chun-Quan Yu, Yuan-Lu Cui
Atherosclerosis is the major worldwide cause of mortality for patients with coronary heart disease. Many traditional Chinese medicine compound prescriptions for atherosclerosis treatment have been tried in patients. Dan-Lou prescription, which is improved from Gualou-Xiebai-Banxia decoction, has been used to treat chest discomfort (coronary atherosclerosis) for approximately 2,000 years in China. Although the anti-inflammatory activities of Dan-Lou prescription have been proposed previously, the mechanism remains to be explored...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Qiyong Yu, Yan Zhao, Anqi Dong, Ye Li
The present study focuses on the preparation and characterization of lab-scale aluminum syntactic foams (ASFs) filled with hollow carbon spheres (HCSs). A new and original process for the fabrication of HCSs was explored. Firstly, expanded polystyrene beads with an average diameter of 6 mm and coated with carbon fibers/thermoset phenolic resin were produced by the “rolling ball” method. In the next step, the spheres were cured and post-cured, and then carbonized at 1050 °C under vacuum to form the HCSs...
June 12, 2018: Materials
R M Barros, M C H Clemente, G A V Martins, L P Silva
Recent advances in nanotechnology applied in forensic sciences have contributed to consider new approaches including chemical evaluation of latent fingermarks. Significant improvement to the detection of small organic molecules has been reached with matrix-free methods associated to laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. The present study investigated the application of mesocellular siliceous foam (MCF) as an ionizing agent for laser desorption/ionization (LDI-MS) analysis of fingermarks as a proof of concept research...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
D Demir, M S Yılmaz, M Güven, A Kara, H Elden, Ü Erkorkmaz
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical outcomes of biodegradable synthetic polyurethane foam versus ribbon gauze and ear wick in the treatment of severe acute otitis externa. METHODS: Ninety-two adults with severe acute otitis externa were randomly assigned to groups receiving ear wick (n = 28), ribbon gauze (n = 34) or biodegradable synthetic polyurethane foam (n = 30). Clinical efficacy, in terms of otalgia, oedema, erythema and tenderness of the external auditory canal, was assessed before packing was applied and at follow up on the 3rd and 7th days of presentation...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Eric Anson, Robin T Bigelow, Stephanie Studenski, Nandini Deshpande, Yuri Agrawal
OBJECTIVES: Standing on foam with eyes closed (FOEC) has been characterized as a measure of vestibular function; however, the relative contribution of vestibular function and proprioceptive function to the FOEC test has not been well described. In this study, the authors investigate the relationship between peripheral sensory systems (vestibular and proprioception) and performance on the FOEC test in a cohort of healthy adults. DESIGN: A total of 563 community-dwelling healthy adults (mean age, 72...
June 11, 2018: Ear and Hearing
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