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Ramya Ganesan, Karen M Henkels, Lucile E Wrenshall, Yasunori Kanaho, Gilbert Di Paolo, Michael A Frohman, Julian Gomez-Cambronero
The uptake of cholesterol carried by low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is tightly controlled in the body. Macrophages are not well suited to counteract the cellular consequences of excess cholesterol leading to their transformation into "foam cells," an early step in vascular plaque formation. We have uncovered and characterized a novel mechanism involving phospholipase D (PLD) in foam cell formation. Utilizing bone marrow-derived macrophages from genetically PLD deficient mice, we demonstrate that PLD2 (but not PLD1)-null macrophages cannot fully phagocytose aggregated oxidized LDL (Agg-Ox-LDL), which was phenocopied with a PLD2-selective inhibitor...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Nigel H Brookes
It is important to assess the viability of eye-banked corneas prior to transplantation due to inherent senescence and known loss of endothelial cells during surgical manipulation. Corneal endothelial cells have a complex basal and paracellular shape making them challenging to accurately measure, particularly in oedematous ex vivo tissue. This study used calibrated centroidal Voronoi Diagrams to segment cells in images of these human corneas, in order to characterize endothelial geometry, topology, and phase...
April 12, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Kenichi Fujii, Rika Kawakami, Seiichi Hirota
Optical coherence tomography (OCT), a catheter-based imaging modality for the visualization of coronary arteries, is widely used during percutaneous coronary intervention to improve the understanding of the anatomy of coronary artery stenosis and to elucidate the mechanisms of atherosclerosis. In this review, we provide a short description of the histopathological validations of OCT for visualizing atherosclerotic plaques and vascular healing response after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. Because OCT measures the intensity of light returning from within a tissue, tissue having a higher heterogeneity of optical index of refraction, such as microcalcification deposition and foam cell accumulation on the luminal surface, may exhibit stronger optical scattering that appears as a thin-cap fibroatheroma image...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Guowen Tang, Mengyang Liu, Qian Zhou, Haixia He, Kai Chen, Haibo Zhang, Jiahui Hu, Qinghui Huang, Yongming Luo, Hongwei Ke, Bin Chen, Xiangrong Xu, Minggang Cai
Microplastics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated to study the influence of human activities and to find their possible relationship on the coastal environments, where the coastal areas around Xiamen are undergoing intensive processes of industrialization and urbanization in the southeast China. The abundance of microplastics in Xiamen coastal areas was 103 to 2017particles/m3 in surface seawater and 76 to 333 particles/kg in sediments. Concentrations of dissolved PAHs varied from 18...
April 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jan Egil Brattgjerd, Martin Loferer, Sanyalak Niratisairak, Harald Steen, Knut Strømsøe
BACKGROUND: In undisplaced femoral neck fractures, internal fixation remains the main treatment, with mechanical failure as a frequent complication. As torsional stable fixation promotes femoral neck fracture healing, the Hansson Pinloc® System with a plate interlocking pins, was developed from the original hook pins. Since its effect on torsional stability is undocumented, the novel implant was compared with the original configurations. METHODS: Forty-two proximal femur models custom made of two blocks of polyurethane foam were tested...
March 27, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Jia-Hui Gao, Meng-Ya Zeng, Xiao-Hua Yu, Gao-Feng Zeng, Lin-Hao He, Xi-Long Zheng, Da-Wei Zhang, Xin-Ping Ouyang, Chao-Ke Tang
Atherosclerosis is a dyslipidemia disease characterized by foam cell formation driven by the accumulation of lipids. Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) is known to suppress the development of atherosclerosis via its anti-inflammatory properties, but it is not yet known whether vaspin affects cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. Here, we investigated the effects of vaspin on ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux, and further explored the underlying mechanism...
April 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
S Vähäaho, K Halmesmäki, A Albäck, E Saarinen, M Venermo
BACKGROUND: New treatment methods have challenged open surgery as a treatment for great saphenous vein (GSV) insufficiency, the most common being ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS) and endovenous laser ablation (EVLA). This study evaluated the long-term results of surgery, EVLA and UGFS in the treatment of GSV reflux. METHODS: Patients with symptomatic GSV reflux were randomized to undergo either open surgery, EVLA or UGFS. The main outcome measure was the occlusion rate of the GSV at 5 years after operation...
May 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Y L Lam, J A Lawson, I M Toonder, N H Shadid, A Sommer, M Veenstra, A M J van der Kleij, R P Ceulen, E de Haan, F Ibrahim, T van Dooren, F H Nieman, C H A Wittens
BACKGROUND: This was an 8-year follow-up of an RCT comparing ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS) with high ligation and surgical stripping (HL/S) of the great saphenous vein (GSV). METHODS: Patients were randomized to UGFS or HL/S of the GSV. The primary outcome was the recurrence of symptomatic GSV reflux. Secondary outcomes were patterns of reflux according to recurrent varices after surgery, Clinical Etiologic Anatomic Pathophysiologic (CEAP) classification, Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) and EuroQol Five Dimensions (EQ-5D™) quality-of-life scores...
May 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Scott W Cheatham
BACKGROUND: In sports medicine, the interprofessional care of athletes has become a frequent practice. This type of care often involves different interventions used among professionals. One common intervention prescribed is roller massage (RM) or self-myofascial release. The trends in the use of RM among allied health professionals is non-existent. The surveillance of such responses has not been documented. PURPOSE: To survey and document responses in the knowledge, clinical application, and use of RM devices among allied health professionals in the United States...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Joseph O Okeme, Congqiao Yang, Atousa Abdollahi, Suman Dhal, Shelley A Harris, Liisa M Jantunen, Dina Tsirlin, Miriam L Diamond
Passive air samplers (PAS) were evaluated for measuring indoor concentrations of phthalates, novel brominated flame retardants (N-BFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organophosphate esters (OPEs). Sampling rates were obtained from a 50-day calibration study for two newly introduced PAS, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or silicone rubber PAS (one with and one without a coating of styrene divinyl benzene co-polymer, XAD) and the commonly used polyurethane foam (PUF) PAS. Average sampling rates normalized to PAS surface area were 1...
April 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Zhicheng Cai, Aiping Wu, Haijing Yan, Yinglu Xiao, Congfang Chen, Chungui Tian, Lei Wang, Ruihong Wang, Honggang Fu
We have reported the synthesis of hierarchical whisker-on-sheet (HWS) NiCoP anchored on Ni foam with adjustable surface structure for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The HWS NiCoP was obtained by controllable phosphidation of HWS Ni-Co-carbonates hydroxide precursor grown on Ni foam (NF). The experimental parameters were optimally tuned to understand the formation process of the precursor and to regulate the microstructure of the materials. The test results indicated that the HWS NiCoP/NF can produce a current density of 10 mA cm-2 (η10) at a low overpotential of 59 mV and a current density of 100 mA cm-2 (η100) at an overpotential of 220 mV for HER...
April 12, 2018: Nanoscale
K Rustomji, R Abdeddaim, J Achard, M Chmiaa, E Georget, M Goniche, W Helou, J Hillairet, S Enoch, G Tayeb
This paper reports a fishnet hyperbolic metamaterial that mimics the electromagnetic properties of magnetically confined plasma. These electromagnetic properties are strongly anisotropic and different from any conventional material, therefore cannot be mimicked by bulk materials. The structure is made of a stack of thin copper grids spaced by Rohacell foam. We numerically and experimentally show that this kind of structuration matches well the properties of a homogeneous plasma. This solution breaks a long-lasting bottleneck and will accelerate the development of high-frequency heating systems to be used in nuclear fusion...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fangqing Liu, Yi Zhuang, Mingliang Guo, Yongjun Chen, Jinchun Tu, Lei Ding
CuCo₂O₄ anchored on Cu foam (CuCo₂O₄/CF) with polycrystalline features was fabricated by a mild process based on solvothermal reaction and subsequent calcination in this work. The structure and morphology of the obtained materials were thoroughly characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. According to the above analysis, the morphology of the CuCo₂O₄ was nanosheet arrays. Meanwhile, the CuCo₂O₄ was grown on Cu foam successfully...
April 8, 2018: Sensors
Qiaomei Chen, Zhiqiang Pei, Yanshuang Xu, Zhen Li, Yang Yang, Yen Wei, Yan Ji
Efficient and cost-effective solar steam generation requires self-floating evaporators which can convert light into heat, prevent unnecessary heat loss and greatly accelerate evaporation without solar concentrators. Currently, the most efficient evaporators (efficiency of ∼80% under 1 sun) are invariably built from inorganic materials, which are difficult to mold into monolithic sheets. Here, we present a new polymer which can be easily solution processed into a self-floating monolithic foam. The single-component foam can be used as an evaporator with an efficiency at 1 sun comparable to that of the best graphene-based evaporators...
January 21, 2018: Chemical Science
Chao Li, Dan Wang, Yan Wang, Guode Li, Guijuan Hu, Shiwei Wu, Zhongqiu Cao, Ke Zhang
In this work, nanostructured Co-W-B films are successfully synthesized on the foam sponge by electroless plating method and employed as the catalysts with enhanced catalytic activity towards hydrogen evolution from the hydrolysis of ammonia borane (NH3 BH3 , AB) at room temperature. The particle size of the as-prepared Co-W-B film catalysts is varied by adjusting the depositional pH value to identify the most suitable particle size for hydrogen evolution of AB hydrolysis. The Co-W-B film catalyst with the particle size of about 67...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
D Simón, A M Borreguero, A de Lucas, J F Rodríguez
The recycling of any kind of plastic to convert it in valuable products is one of the main challenges of today's society. Besides, if the recycling process is itself green, then it would be a great achievement. This paper reviews the way covered from the first attempts of reusing the polyurethane (PU) scraps as a filler for cushions to the last chemical routes employing green recycling agents. Polyurethane is the 6th most used polymer all over the world with a production of 18 millions tons per year, which means a daily production of PU specialties greater than 1 million of cubic meters, equivalent to the volume of the Empire State Building...
April 3, 2018: Waste Management
Minmin Hou, Yan Wang, Hongxia Zhao, Qiaonan Zhang, Qing Xie, Xiaojing Zhang, Ruize Chen, Jingwen Chen
In this study, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), and dechlorane plus (DPs) were analyzed in seven categories of building and decoration materials. The total concentrations of analyzed FRs ranged from 1.19 ng/g (diatomite powder) to 9532 ng/g (expanded polystyrene panel). Relatively high concentrations were detected in foam samples and PVC materials, followed by sealing materials, boards, wallpaper, paints, and wall decoration powders. BDE209 was the most detected compound with the highest concentrations in almost all materials, followed by decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), which was consistent with their productions and consumptions in China...
March 28, 2018: Chemosphere
Pingping Meng, Shubo Deng, Ayiguli Maimaiti, Bin Wang, Jun Huang, Yujue Wang, Ian T Cousins, Gang Yu
Aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) used in fire-fighting are one of the main contamination sources of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to the subterranean environment, requiring high costs for remediation. In this study, a method that combined aeration and foam collection was presented to remove PFOS from a commercially available AFFF solution. The method utilized the strong surfactant properties of PFOS that cause it to be highly enriched at air-water interfaces. With an aeration flow rate of 75 mL/min, PFOS removal percent reached 96% after 2 h, and the PFOS concentration in the collected foam was up to 6...
March 29, 2018: Chemosphere
Fen Cui, Yunpeng Huang, Le Xu, Yan Zhao, Jiabiao Lian, Jian Bao, Huaming Li
A 3D hierarchical NiCo2O4/PANI/MF composite foam with a macroporous 3D skeleton, a conductive PANI coating and highly electrochemically active NiCo2O4 nanosheets is synthesized as a lightweight and low-cost electrode material. Due to the collaborative contribution of all the components, the prepared composite foam exhibits excellent capacitive performances when incorporated into an asymmetric supercapacitor.
April 6, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Kazunori Nakagawa, Yutaka Nakashima
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pathologic intimal thickening (PIT) is an important stage of atherosclerosis that leads to atheroma. The present study aimed to clarify the pathogenesis of PIT in humans. METHODS: Coronary arteries were obtained from 43 autopsy subjects aged 15-49 years. Non-atherosclerotic intima and atherosclerotic intimal lesions were classified into four groups, i.e. diffuse intimal thickening, fatty infiltration, fatty streak, and PIT, and the number and density of macrophages and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were determined...
March 26, 2018: Atherosclerosis
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