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Dopamine adrenal

Sarah A Jablonski, Devon L Graham, Charles V Vorhees, Michael T Williams
Neonatal exposure to methamphetamine (MA) and developmental chronic stress significantly alter neurodevelopmental profiles that show a variety of long-term physiological and behavioral effects. In the current experiment, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of two housing conditions along with MA. Rats were given 0 (saline), 5, or 7.5 mg/kg MA, four times per day from postnatal day (P)11 to 15 or P11 to 20. Half of the litters were reared in cages with standard bedding and half with no bedding. Separate litters were assessed at P15 or P20 for organ weights (adrenals, spleen, thymus); corticosterone; and monoamine assessments (dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine) and their metabolites within the neostriatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex...
November 5, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Yusuke Matsuda, Noriko Kimura, Takanobu Yoshimoto, Yoshihiro Sekiguchi, Junzo Tomoishi, Ichiro Kasahara, Yoshihito Hara, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, which exclusively produce dopamine, are very rare. Herein, we report for the first time a Japanese case of an exclusively dopamine-producing paraganglioma accompanied by detailed immunohistochemical analyses. A 70-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital for functional examination of her left retroperitoneal mass. Her adrenal functions were normal, except for excessive dopamine secretion. After the tumorectomy, her dopamine level normalized. The histopathological diagnosis of the tumor was paraganglioma; this was confirmed by positive immunostaining of chromogranin A (CgA), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), and succinate dehydrogenase gene subunit B (SDHB)...
October 14, 2016: Endocrine Pathology
Laura Arroyo, Ricard Carreras, Daniel Valent, Raquel Peña, Eva Mainau, Antonio Velarde, Josefa Sabrià, Anna Bassols
Chemical neurotransmitters (NT) are principal actors in all neuronal networks of animals. The central nervous system plays an important role in stress susceptibility and organizes the response to a stressful situation through the interaction of the dopaminergic and the serotonergic pathways, leading to the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). This study was designed to investigate: a) the effects of stressful handling of pigs at the slaughterhouse on the neurotransmitter profile in four brain areas: amygdala, prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and hypothalamus, and b) whether the alterations in the brain NT profile after stressful handling were associated with fear, determined by the tonic immobility (TI) test...
October 11, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
A Monica Agoston, Maria Teresa Gonzalez-Bolanos, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Nancy Vanderburg, Kyriakie Sarafoglou
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a disorder characterized by impaired cortisol synthesis leading to excessive production of adrenal androgens. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to excess androgens may increase neural vulnerability to insult and affect cognitive functions, particularly dopamine-dependent neural circuits responsible for executive functioning (EF). Our study aimed to investigate relationship between more pronounced androgen exposure and EF-related behaviors in children with CAH, as well as sex differences in these associations...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Mary R Lee, Elise M Weerts
There is growing interest in the use of oxytocin (OT) as a potential treatment for alcohol and other substance-use disorders. OT is a neuropeptide that modulates adaptive processes associated with addiction including reward, tolerance, associative learning, memory, and stress responses. OT exerts its effects through interactions with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and multiple neurotransmitter systems including the dopamine mesolimbic reward and corticotrophin-releasing factor stress systems. The effects of OT on stress systems are of high interest, given the strong link between stress, drug use and relapse, and known dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity associated with substance-use disorders...
December 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, David Macías, Konstantin L Levitsky, José A Rodríguez-Gómez, Patricia González-Rodríguez, Victoria Bonilla-Henao, Ignacio Arias-Mayenco, José López-Barneo
KEY POINTS: Biotin, a vitamin whose main role is as a coenzyme for carboxylases, accumulates at unusually large amounts within cells of the carotid body (CB). In biotin-deficient rats biotin rapidly disappears from the blood; however, it remains at relatively high levels in CB glomus cells. The CB contains high levels of mRNA for SLC5a6, a biotin transporter, and SLC19a3, a thiamine transporter regulated by biotin. Animals with biotin deficiency exhibit pronounced metabolic lactic acidosis...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Alejandra Boronat-García, Marcela Palomero-Rivero, Magdalena Guerra-Crespo, Diana Millán-Aldaco, René Drucker-Colín
Cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) aims at re-establishing dopamine neurotransmission in the striatum by grafting dopamine-releasing cells. Chromaffin cell (CC) grafts produce some transitory improvements of functional motor deficits in PD animal models, and have the advantage of allowing autologous transplantation. However, CC grafts have exhibited low survival, poor functional effects and dopamine release compared to other cell types. Recently, chromaffin progenitor-like cells were isolated from bovine and human adult adrenal medulla...
2016: PloS One
Christine G Yedinak, Isabelle Cetas, Alp Ozpinar, Shirley McCartney, Aclan Dogan, Maria Fleseriu
Our objective was to compare prevalence and rates of recovery of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in prolactinoma patients before and after dopamine agonist therapy with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma patients pre-transsphenoidal and post-transsphenoidal surgery. We retrospectively compared hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in patients with prolactinomas naïve to dopamine agonist therapy with a cohort of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma patients matched for gender and tumor size by classification (n = 57; 30 male/27 female; 27 microadenoma/30 macroadenoma)...
October 2016: Endocrine
Tanveer Singh, Rajesh Kumar Goel
The present study aimed to develop a neurochemistry-based single or adjuvant therapy approach for comprehensive management of epilepsy and associated depression employing pentylenetetrazole-kindled animals. Kindling was induced in two-month-old male Swiss albino mice by administering a subconvulsant pentylenetetrazole dose (35mg/kg, i.p.) at an interval of 48±2h. These kindled animals were treated with saline and sodium valproate (300mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 15days. Except for the naïve group, all other groups were challenged with pentylenetetrazole (35mg/kg, i...
August 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Sushil K Mahata, Hong Zheng, Sumana Mahata, Xuefei Liu, Kaushik P Patel
One of the key mechanisms involved in sympathoexcitation in chronic heart failure (HF) is the activation of the adrenal glands. Impact of the elevated catecholamines on the hemodynamic parameters has been previously demonstrated. However, studies linking the structural effects of such overactivation with secretory performance and cell metabolism in the adrenomedullary chromaffin cells in vivo have not been previously reported. In this study, HF was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by ligation of the left coronary artery...
September 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Maria E Barmpari, Christos Savvidis, Anastasia D Dede, Haridimos Markogiannakis, Christina Dikoglou, Paraskevi Xekouki, Constantine A Stratakis, Andreas Manouras, Sofia Malaktari-Skarantavou
OBJECTIVE: Adrenal masses usually represent benign and nonfunctional adrenal adenomas; however, primary or metastatic malignancy should also be considered. Discovery of an adrenal mass needs further evaluation in order to exclude malignancy and hormonal secretion. We present a rare case of a possibly primary adrenal malignant melanoma with imaging and biochemical features of a pheochromocytoma. CASE REPORT: A 61-year-old male farmer was referred for evaluation of a mass in the right supraclavicular region and a left adrenal lesion...
April 2016: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Motoshi Komatsubara, Takayuki Hara, Takeshi Hosoya, Kishio Toma, Naoko Tsukamoto-Yamauchi, Nahoko Iwata, Kenichi Inagaki, Jun Wada, Fumio Otsuka
Melatonin is functionally involved in the control of circadian rhythm and hormonal secretion. In the present study, we investigated the roles of melatonin in the interaction of catecholamine synthesis with adrenocortical steroids by focusing on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 expressed in the adrenal medulla using rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Melatonin treatment significantly reduced the mRNA expression of catecholamine synthases, including the rate-limiting enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase and dopamine-β-hydroxylase expressed in PC12 cells...
January 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Sophie Leclercq, Paul Forsythe, John Bienenstock
Gut bacteria strongly influence our metabolic, endocrine, immune, and both peripheral and central nervous systems. Microbiota do this directly and indirectly through their components, shed and secreted, ranging from fermented and digested dietary and host products to functionally active neurotransmitters including serotonin, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid. Depression has been associated with enhanced levels of proinflammatory biomarkers and abnormal responses to stress. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to be marked in addition by low cortisol responses, and these factors seem to predict and predispose individuals to develop PTSD after a traumatic event...
April 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Yevhen V Moiseyenko, Viktor I Sukhorukov, Georgiy Yu Pyshnov, Iryna M Mankovska, Kateryna V Rozova, Olena A Miroshnychenko, Olena E Kovalevska, Stefan-Arpad Y Madjar, Rostyslav V Bubnov, Anatoliy O Gorbach, Kostiantyn M Danylenko, Olga I Moiseyenko
BACKGROUND: Antarctica is a unique place to study the health condition under the influence of environmental factors on the organism in pure form. Since the very beginning of the scientific presence of Ukraine in the Antarctic, biomedical research has been developed for the monitoring of individual biomarkers of winterers and medical accompaniment in Antarctic expeditions. The aim of the study was to analyze and discuss the retrospective data of long-term monitoring and observations in Ukrainian Antarctica station "Akademik Vernadsky," providing multi-scale biomedical information with regard to conditions of a perfect isolation from technological and social influences and under extreme environmental factors...
2016: EPMA Journal
Josipa Vlainić, Jelena Šuran, Toni Vlainić, Antonella Letizia Vukorep
Major depressive disorder is a common, debilitating psychiatric disorder, which originates from the interaction of susceptibility genes and noxious environmental events, in particular stressful events. It has been shown that dysregulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, imbalance between anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines, depletion of neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine and/or dopamine) in the central nervous system, altered glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission have an important role in the pathogenesis of depression...
May 26, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf, Anne Beck, Carolin Wackerhagen
It has been questioned that the more than 300 mental disorders currently listed in international disease classification systems all have a distinct neurobiological correlate. Here, we support the idea that basic dimensions of mental dysfunctions, such as alterations in reinforcement learning, can be identified, which interact with individual vulnerability and psychosocial stress factors and, thus, contribute to syndromes of distress across traditional nosological boundaries. We further suggest that computational modeling of learning behavior can help to identify specific alterations in reinforcement-based decision-making and their associated neurobiological correlates...
August 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Jacob Ninan, Gemy Maria George
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients, in particular, have been reported to develop psychiatric side effects from antibiotics. Clarithromycin, quinolones, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, isoniazid, penicillin, and cephalosporins have been reported to cause psychosis. This case report bridges a void in the medical literature with regards to the psychiatric adverse effects of imipenem-cilastatin. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old Hispanic man in septic shock due to urinary tract infection was initiated on imipenem-cilastatin and mechanically ventilated, following admission to hospital...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Eleanor Longden, John Read
Despite increasing evidence for the role of psychosocial factors in the onset and continuance of psychosis, the experiences involved are still largely considered the result of a biogenetic anomaly for which medication is the first-line treatment response. This review summarizes the extensive literature demonstrating that adverse events involving trauma, loss, stress, and disempowerment have a central etiological role in psychosis. Evidence is further presented to show that many neurological changes traditionally considered indicative of a disease process can in fact be accounted for as secondary effects to the physiology of stress or the residual of long-term neuroleptic prescription...
2016: American Journal of Psychotherapy
Hei Zhang, Guozhen Zhao, Desheng Wang, Baixiao Zhao, Bo Ji, Yan Song, Ping Zhang, Yali Liu, Yinghui Li
OBJECTIVE: To explore the change pattern of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and related neurotransmitters under simulated weightlessness. METHODS: A total of 40 clean-grade male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a tail-suspension group, an electroacupuncture (EA) at Neiguan (PC 6) group, an EA at Sanyinjiao (SP 6) group, 10 rats in each group. Rats in the tail-suspension group, EA at "Neiguan" (PC 6) group and EA at "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) group were treated with tail suspension to simulate weightlessness effect...
December 2015: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Eleana Gkioka, Laskarina Maria Korou, Afrodite Daskalopoulou, Angelica Misitzi, Eleni Batsidis, Ioannis Bakoyiannis, Vasilios Pergialiotis
It is estimated that approximately 0.5%-3% of fetuses are prenatally exposed to cocaine (COC). The neurodevelopmental implications of this exposure are numerous and include motor skill impairments, alterations of social function, predisposition to anxiety, and memory function and attention deficits; these implications are commonly observed in experimental studies and ultimately affect both learning and IQ. According to previous studies, the clinical manifestations of prenatal COC exposure seem to persist at least until adolescence...
July 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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