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Dopamine adrenal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072491/paradoxical-bradycardia-during-surgical-caudal-vena-cava-occlusion-in-an-anesthetized-dog
#1
Jennifer Davis, Anthea L Raisis, Hildegriet Haitjema, Eleanor A Drynan, Giselle L Hosgood
OBJECTIVE: To describe the anesthetic management of a dog undergoing caudal vena cava (CVC) occlusion during adrenalectomy, and to discuss a reflex bradycardia that was observed during the procedure. CASE SUMMARY: General anesthesia of a 10-year-old Rhodesian ridgeback for excision of an adrenal mass and associated CVC tumor thrombus was performed. The dog was premedicated with IV methadone and anesthesia was induced with IV alfaxalone and maintained with isoflurane in 100% oxygen...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044445/the-background-signal-as-an-in-situ-predictor-of-dopamine-oxidation-potential-improving-interpretation-of-fast-scan-cyclic-voltammetry-data
#2
Carl J Meunier, James G Roberts, Gregory S McCarty, Leslie A Sombers
Background-subtracted fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has emerged as a powerful analytical technique for monitoring sub-second molecular fluctuations in live brain tissue, particularly when combined with principal component regression (PCR) for data analysis. Despite increasing utilization of FSCV, efforts to advance data analysis have been limited. It is clear that variable electrode performance renders calibration necessary for accurate quantification; however, the nature of in vivo measurements can make conventional post-calibration difficult, or even impossible...
January 3, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#3
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013353/changes-in-stress-stimulated-allopregnanolone-levels-induced-by-neonatal-estradiol-treatment-are-associated-with-enhanced-dopamine-release-in-adult-female-rats-reversal-by-progesterone-administration
#4
Patrizia Porcu, Valeria Lallai, Andrea Locci, Sandro Catzeddu, Valeria Serra, Maria Giuseppina Pisu, Mariangela Serra, Laura Dazzi, Alessandra Concas
BACKGROUND: Allopregnanolone plays a role in the stress response and homeostasis. Alterations in the estrogen milieu during the perinatal period influence brain development in a manner that persists into adulthood. Accordingly, we showed that a single administration of estradiol benzoate (EB) on the day of birth decreases brain allopregnanolone concentrations in adult female rats. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether the persistent decrease in allopregnanolone concentrations, induced by neonatal EB treatment, might affect sensitivity to stress during adulthood...
December 24, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008793/social-isolation-alters-central-nervous-system-monoamine-content-in-prairie-voles-following-acute-restraint
#5
Neal McNeal, Eden M Anderson, Deirdre Moenk, Diane Trahanas, Leslie Matuszewich, Angela J Grippo
Animal models have shown that social isolation and other forms of social stress lead to depressive- and anxiety-relevant behaviors, as well as neuroendocrine and physiological dysfunction. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of prior social isolation on neurotransmitter content following acute restraint in prairie voles. Animals were either paired with a same-sex sibling or isolated for four weeks. Plasma adrenal hormones and ex vivo tissue concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites were measured following an acute restraint stressor in all animals...
December 23, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959576/effects-of-transgenic-expression-of-dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-dbh-gene-on-blood-pressure-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#6
M Pravenec, V Landa, V Zídek, P Mlejnek, J Šilhavý, S A Mir, S M Vaingankar, J Wang, T W Kurtz
The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is the most widely used animal model of essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Catecholamines play an important role in the pathogenesis of both essential hypertension in humans and in the SHR. Recently, we obtained evidence that the SHR harbors a variant in the gene for dopamine beta hydroxylase (Dbh) that is associated with reduced adrenal expression of Dbh mRNA and reduced DBH enzymatic activity which correlated negatively with blood pressure. In the current study, we used a transgenic experiment to test the hypothesis that reduced Dbh expression predisposes the SHR to hypertension and that augmentation of Dbh expression would reduce blood pressure...
December 13, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956050/the-exercise-glucocorticoid-paradox-how-exercise-is-beneficial-to-cognition-mood-and-the-brain-while-increasing-glucocorticoid-levels
#7
REVIEW
Chong Chen, Shin Nakagawa, Yan An, Koki Ito, Yuji Kitaichi, Ichiro Kusumi
Exercise is known to have beneficial effects on cognition, mood, and the brain. However, exercise also activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increases levels of the glucocorticoid cortisol (CORT). CORT, also known as the "stress hormone," is considered a mediator between chronic stress and depression and to link various cognitive deficits. Here, we review the evidence that shows that while both chronic stress and exercise elevate basal CORT levels leading to increased secretion of CORT, the former is detrimental to cognition/memory, mood/stress coping, and brain plasticity, while the latter is beneficial...
December 9, 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951520/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-and-dopamine-release-in-healthy-individuals
#8
Doris Payer, Belinda Williams, Esmaeil Mansouri, Suzanna Stevanovski, Shinichiro Nakajima, Bernard Le Foll, Stephen Kish, Sylvain Houle, Romina Mizrahi, Susan R George, Tony P George, Isabelle Boileau
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a key component of the neuroendocrine response to stress. In animal models, CRH has been shown to modulate dopamine release, and this interaction is believed to contribute to stress-induced relapse in neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we investigated whether CRH administration induces dopamine release in humans, using positron emission tomography (PET). Eight healthy volunteers (5 female, 22-48 years old) completed two PET scans with the dopamine D2/3 receptor radioligand [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO: once after saline injection, and once after injection of corticorelin (synthetic human CRH)...
December 1, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936175/effects-of-neonatal-dexamethasone-exposure-on-adult-neuropsychiatric-traits-in-rats
#9
Nathanael J Yates, Donald Robertson, Jennifer Rodger, Mathew T Martin-Iverson
The effects of early life stress in utero or in neonates has long-term consequences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis function and neurodevelopment. These effects extend into adulthood and may underpin a variety of mental illnesses and be related to various developmental and cognitive changes. We examined the potential role of neonatal HPA axis activation on adult psychopathology and dopamine sensitivity in the mature rat using neonatal exposure to the synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist and stress hormone, dexamethasone...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924137/exercise-induced-stress-behavior-gut-microbiota-brain-axis-and-diet-a-systematic-review-for-athletes
#10
REVIEW
Allison Clark, Núria Mach
Fatigue, mood disturbances, under performance and gastrointestinal distress are common among athletes during training and competition. The psychosocial and physical demands during intense exercise can initiate a stress response activating the sympathetic-adrenomedullary and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, resulting in the release of stress and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and microbial molecules. The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including metabolism, endocrine, neuronal and immune function...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817108/effects-of-neonatal-methamphetamine-and-stress-on-brain-monoamines-and-corticosterone-in-preweanling-rats
#11
Sarah A Jablonski, Devon L Graham, Charles V Vorhees, Michael T Williams
Neonatal exposure to methamphetamine (MA) and developmental chronic stress significantly alter neurodevelopmental profiles that show a variety of long-term physiological and behavioral effects. In the current experiment, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of two housing conditions along with MA. Rats were given 0 (saline), 5, or 7.5 mg/kg MA, four times per day from postnatal day (P)11 to 15 or P11 to 20. Half of the litters were reared in cages with standard bedding and half with no bedding. Separate litters were assessed at P15 or P20 for organ weights (adrenals, spleen, thymus); corticosterone; and monoamine assessments (dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine) and their metabolites within the neostriatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex...
November 5, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743246/dopamine-secreting-paraganglioma-in-the-retroperitoneum
#12
Yusuke Matsuda, Noriko Kimura, Takanobu Yoshimoto, Yoshihiro Sekiguchi, Junzo Tomoishi, Ichiro Kasahara, Yoshihito Hara, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, which exclusively produce dopamine, are very rare. Herein, we report for the first time a Japanese case of an exclusively dopamine-producing paraganglioma accompanied by detailed immunohistochemical analyses. A 70-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital for functional examination of her left retroperitoneal mass. Her adrenal functions were normal, except for excessive dopamine secretion. After the tumorectomy, her dopamine level normalized. The histopathological diagnosis of the tumor was paraganglioma; this was confirmed by positive immunostaining of chromogranin A (CgA), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), and succinate dehydrogenase gene subunit B (SDHB)...
October 14, 2016: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737780/effect-of-handling-on-neurotransmitter-profile-in-pig-brain-according-to-fear-related-behaviour
#13
Laura Arroyo, Ricard Carreras, Daniel Valent, Raquel Peña, Eva Mainau, Antonio Velarde, Josefa Sabrià, Anna Bassols
Chemical neurotransmitters (NT) are principal actors in all neuronal networks of animals. The central nervous system plays an important role in stress susceptibility and organizes the response to a stressful situation through the interaction of the dopaminergic and the serotonergic pathways, leading to the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). This study was designed to investigate: a) the effects of stressful handling of pigs at the slaughterhouse on the neurotransmitter profile in four brain areas: amygdala, prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and hypothalamus, and b) whether the alterations in the brain NT profile after stressful handling were associated with fear, determined by the tonic immobility (TI) test...
December 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634643/executive-functioning-in-children-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#14
A Monica Agoston, Maria Teresa Gonzalez-Bolanos, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Nancy Vanderburg, Kyriakie Sarafoglou
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a disorder characterized by impaired cortisol synthesis leading to excessive production of adrenal androgens. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to excess androgens may increase neural vulnerability to insult and affect cognitive functions, particularly dopamine-dependent neural circuits responsible for executive functioning (EF). Our study aimed to investigate relationship between more pronounced androgen exposure and EF-related behaviors in children with CAH, as well as sex differences in these associations...
January 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603752/oxytocin-for-the-treatment-of-drug-and-alcohol-use-disorders
#15
Mary R Lee, Elise M Weerts
There is growing interest in the use of oxytocin (OT) as a potential treatment for alcohol and other substance-use disorders. OT is a neuropeptide that modulates adaptive processes associated with addiction including reward, tolerance, associative learning, memory, and stress responses. OT exerts its effects through interactions with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and multiple neurotransmitter systems including the dopamine mesolimbic reward and corticotrophin-releasing factor stress systems. The effects of OT on stress systems are of high interest, given the strong link between stress, drug use and relapse, and known dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity associated with substance-use disorders...
December 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570189/selective-accumulation-of-biotin-in-arterial-chemoreceptors-requirement-for-carotid-body-exocytotic-dopamine-secretion
#16
Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, David Macías, Konstantin L Levitsky, José A Rodríguez-Gómez, Patricia González-Rodríguez, Victoria Bonilla-Henao, Ignacio Arias-Mayenco, José López-Barneo
KEY POINTS: Biotin, a vitamin whose main role is as a coenzyme for carboxylases, accumulates at unusually large amounts within cells of the carotid body (CB). In biotin-deficient rats biotin rapidly disappears from the blood; however, it remains at relatively high levels in CB glomus cells. The CB contains high levels of mRNA for SLC5a6, a biotin transporter, and SLC19a3, a thiamine transporter regulated by biotin. Animals with biotin deficiency exhibit pronounced metabolic lactic acidosis...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525967/intrastriatal-grafting-of-chromospheres-survival-and-functional-effects-in-the-6-ohda-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Alejandra Boronat-García, Marcela Palomero-Rivero, Magdalena Guerra-Crespo, Diana Millán-Aldaco, René Drucker-Colín
Cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) aims at re-establishing dopamine neurotransmission in the striatum by grafting dopamine-releasing cells. Chromaffin cell (CC) grafts produce some transitory improvements of functional motor deficits in PD animal models, and have the advantage of allowing autologous transplantation. However, CC grafts have exhibited low survival, poor functional effects and dopamine release compared to other cell types. Recently, chromaffin progenitor-like cells were isolated from bovine and human adult adrenal medulla...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460005/dopamine-agonist-therapy-induces-significant-recovery-of-hpa-axis-function-in-prolactinomas-independent-of-tumor-size-a-large-single-center-experience
#18
Christine G Yedinak, Isabelle Cetas, Alp Ozpinar, Shirley McCartney, Aclan Dogan, Maria Fleseriu
Our objective was to compare prevalence and rates of recovery of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in prolactinoma patients before and after dopamine agonist therapy with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma patients pre-transsphenoidal and post-transsphenoidal surgery. We retrospectively compared hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in patients with prolactinomas naïve to dopamine agonist therapy with a cohort of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma patients matched for gender and tumor size by classification (n = 57; 30 male/27 female; 27 microadenoma/30 macroadenoma)...
October 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423076/evidence-in-support-of-using-a-neurochemistry-approach-to-identify-therapy-for-both-epilepsy-and-associated-depression
#19
Tanveer Singh, Rajesh Kumar Goel
The present study aimed to develop a neurochemistry-based single or adjuvant therapy approach for comprehensive management of epilepsy and associated depression employing pentylenetetrazole-kindled animals. Kindling was induced in two-month-old male Swiss albino mice by administering a subconvulsant pentylenetetrazole dose (35mg/kg, i.p.) at an interval of 48±2h. These kindled animals were treated with saline and sodium valproate (300mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 15days. Except for the naïve group, all other groups were challenged with pentylenetetrazole (35mg/kg, i...
August 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402067/effect-of-heart-failure-on-catecholamine-granule-morphology-and-storage-in-chromaffin-cells
#20
Sushil K Mahata, Hong Zheng, Sumana Mahata, Xuefei Liu, Kaushik P Patel
One of the key mechanisms involved in sympathoexcitation in chronic heart failure (HF) is the activation of the adrenal glands. Impact of the elevated catecholamines on the hemodynamic parameters has been previously demonstrated. However, studies linking the structural effects of such overactivation with secretory performance and cell metabolism in the adrenomedullary chromaffin cells in vivo have not been previously reported. In this study, HF was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by ligation of the left coronary artery...
September 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
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