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Nutrition and diabetes

Shao-Hua Xie, Jesper Lagergren
The Chinese famine in 1958-1962 was one of the worst in human history, but its potential influence on cancer risks is uncertain. Using cancer incidence data in Shanghai, China, during 1983-2007, we calculated age-specific incidence rates of gastrointestinal cancers in birth cohorts exposed to the Chinese famine in different periods of life and a non-exposed reference cohort. Age-period-cohort regressions estimated the overall relative risks of gastrointestinal cancers in each birth cohort. A total of 212,098 new cases of gastrointestinal cancer were identified during the study period (129,233 males and 82,865 females), among whom 18,146 had esophageal cancer, 71,011 gastric cancer, 55,864 colorectal cancer, 42,751 liver cancer, 9,382 gallbladder cancer, and 14,944 had pancreatic cancer...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Jun Woo Kim, Sang Hoo Park, Yoojin Kim, Minji Im, Heon-Seok Han
PURPOSE: The prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and percentile distribution of insulin resistance (IR) among Korean children and adolescents were investigated. The cutoff values of IR were calculated to identify high-risk MetS groups. METHODS: Data from 3,313 Korean subjects (1,756 boys and 1,557 girls, aged 10-18 years) were included from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted during 2007-2010. Three different sets of criteria for MetS were used...
September 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Allison C Sylvetsky, Rebecca J Brown, Jenny E Blau, Mary Walter, Kristina I Rother
BACKGROUND: Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS), especially in form of diet soda, have been linked to metabolic derangements (e.g. obesity and diabetes) in epidemiologic studies. We aimed to test acute metabolic effects of NNS in isolation (water or seltzer) and in diet sodas. METHODS: We conducted a four-period, cross-over study at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (Bethesda, Maryland). Thirty healthy adults consumed 355 mL water with 0 mg, 68 mg, 170 mg, and 250 mg sucralose, and 31 individuals consumed 355 mL caffeine-free Diet Rite Cola™, Diet Mountain Dew™ (18 mg sucralose, 18 mg acesulfame-potassium, 57 mg aspartame), and seltzer water with NNS (68 mg sucralose and 41 mg acesulfame-potassium, equivalent to Diet Rite Cola™) in randomized order, prior to oral glucose tolerance tests...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Jihyun Yoon, In Hwan Oh, Hyeyoung Seo, Eun Jung Kim, Young Hoon Gong, Minsu Ock, Dohee Lim, Won Kyung Lee, Ye Rin Lee, Dongwoo Kim, Min Woo Jo, Hyesook Park, Seok Jun Yoon
This study is part of a 5-year research project on the national burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors in Korea. Using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), a metric introduced by the 1990 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) project, we performed a comprehensive and detailed assessment of the magnitude and distribution of both fatal and non-fatal health problems in the Korean population. The concept and general approach were consistent with the original GBD study, with some methodological modifications to make the study more suitable for Korea...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Guillermo Cásedas, Francisco Les, Maria Pilar Gómez-Serranillos, Carine Smith, Víctor López
Sour cherry juice (Prunus cerasus) is consumed as a nutritional supplement claiming health effects. The aim of the study was to evaluate the different properties of sour cherry juice in terms of antioxidant activity and inhibition of target enzymes in the central nervous system and diabetes. The content of polyphenols and anthocyanins was quantified. Different experiments were carried out to determine the radical scavenging properties of the juice. The activity of sour cherry juice was also tested in physiological relevant enzymes of the central nervous system (acetylcholinesterase, monoamine oxidase A, tyrosinase) and others involved in type 2 diabetes (α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-4)...
October 24, 2016: Food & Function
K J Coppell, J C Miller, A R Gray, M Schultz, J I Mann, W R Parnell
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined as excessive fat accumulation in hepatocytes when no other pathologic causes are present, is an increasingly common obesity-related disorder. We sought to describe the prevalence of elevated liver enzymes, a marker of liver damage, among New Zealand adults, and high-risk subgroups including those with an elevated body mass index and those with pre-diabetes or diabetes, to gain a better understanding of the burden of liver disease...
December 2015: Obesity Science & Practice
Alejandro R Chade, John E Hall
Obesity is largely responsible for the growing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Current strategies to prevent and treat obesity and its consequences have been insufficient to reverse the ongoing trends. Lifestyle modification or pharmacological therapies often produce modest weight loss which is not sustained and recurrence of obesity is frequently observed, leading to progression of target organ damage in many obese subjects. Therefore, research efforts have focused not only on the factors that regulate energy balance, but also on understanding mechanisms of target organ injury in obesity...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Antonio Bellasi, Lucia Di Micco, Domenico Santoro, Stefania Marzocco, Emanuele De Simone, Mario Cozzolino, Luca Di Lullo, Pasquale Guastaferro, Biagio Di Iorio
BACKGROUND: Correction of metabolic acidosis (MA) with nutritional therapy or bicarbonate administration is widely used in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, it is unknown whether these interventions reduce insulin resistance (IR) in diabetic patients with CKD. We sought to evaluate the effect of MA correction on endogenous insulin action in diabetic type 2 (DM2) CKD patients. METHODS: A total of 145 CKD subjects (83 men e 62 women) with DM2 treated with oral antidiabetic drugs were included in the study and followed up to 1 year...
October 22, 2016: BMC Nephrology
J Slieker, P Frauche, J Jurt, V Addor, C Blanc, Nicolas Demartines, M Hübner
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathway includes recovery goals requiring active participation of the patients; this may be perceived as "aggressive" care in older patients. The aim of the present study was to assess whether ERAS was feasible and beneficial in older patients. METHODS: Since June 2011, all consecutive colorectal patients were included in an ERAS pathway and documented in a dedicated prospective database. This retrospective analysis included 513 patients, 311 younger patients (<70 years) and 202 older patients (≥70 years)...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Nina Holland
Environmental research and public health in the 21st century face serious challenges such as increased air pollution and global warming, widespread use of potentially harmful chemicals including pesticides, plasticizers, and other endocrine disruptors, and radical changes in nutrition and lifestyle typical of modern societies. In particular, exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants may contribute to the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes, neurodevelopmental deficits, and increased risk of cancer and other multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and asthma...
October 21, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Kay D Mann, Mark S Pearce, Chris J Seal
Observational evidence suggests that increased whole grain (WG) intake reduces the risks of many non-communicable diseases, such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, obesity and certain cancers. More recently, studies have shown that WG intake lowers all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Much of the reported evidence on risk reduction is from US and Scandinavian populations, where there are tangible WG dietary recommendations. At present there is no quantity-specific WG dietary recommendation in the UK, instead we are advised to choose WG or higher fibre versions...
October 21, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Jung Min Kim, Jae Won Hong, Jung Hyun Noh, Dong Jun Kim
BACKGROUND: A recent study revealed that the participation rate in diabetes education among diabetic patients was only about 50% in Korea. We investigated the factors associated with participation in diabetes education. METHODS: The study included 1,255 patients (≥19 years old) diagnosed with diabetes drawn from the total Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007 to 2009 population comprising 30,705 individuals. We compared age, sex, and age- and sex-adjusted clinical characteristics in patients who had received diabetes education versus those who had not...
September 20, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Shih-Lun Lo, Yu-Hsiu Yen, Pi-Jung Lee, Charles Chih-Ho Liu, Chi-Ming Pu
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to analyze multiple variables and to determine the factors influencing postoperative complications in reconstructive microsurgeries for head and neck cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective review of the medical records of patients with head and neck cancer who underwent free flap reconstruction after ablation surgery at the Cathay General Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan) from January 2010 to December 2014. Clinical and surgical procedure-related factors were retrieved from a database and analyzed...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Yin-Yi Han, Sheng-Ru Lai, Jamie S Partridge, Michael Y Wang, Suela Sulo, Fang-Wei Tsao, Refaat A Hegazi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) often need enteral nutrition (EN) support. For patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), standard EN formulas may not provide ideal nutrients. The purpose was to investigate whether use of a diabetes-specific formula (DSF) could provide clinical and health economic benefits (compared to standard formulas) in critically ill patients with T2D. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of medical records and expenditure data covering a 5-year period (2009-2013) from the hospitalization database of the National Taiwan University Hospital...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Liang Chen, Jian Kuang, Jian-Hao Pei, Hong-Mei Chen, Zhong Chen, Zhong-Wen Li, Hua-Zhang Yang, Xiao-Ying Fu, Long Wang, Zhi-Jiang Chen, Shui-Qing Lai, Shu-Ting Zhang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore factors affecting cardiorespiratory fitness in males and females with different body mass index. METHODS: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 data were used for this retrospective study. Estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is surrogate for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to explore whether study variables were associated with estimated VO2max stratified by gender and BMI categories...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Medicine
Ho Sun Kim, Joon-Shik Shin, Jinho Lee, Yoon Jae Lee, Me-Riong Kim, Young-Hyeon Bae, Ki Byung Park, Eun-Jung Lee, Joo-Hee Kim, In-Hyuk Ha
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is a significant burden on personal health and for social cost, and its prevalence is rising. Recent research has revealed an association between osteoarthritis and cardiovascular disease, and this study uses the Framingham risk score (FRS), which is widely used as a composite index of cardiovascular risk factors, to investigate the association between osteoarthritis and various cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: A total 9,514 participants aged 50 years or older who received knee X-ray diagnosis of the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (total surveyees = 24,173) released by the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was included for analysis...
2016: PloS One
Ronit Weisman
All organisms can respond to the availability of nutrients by regulating their metabolism, growth, and cell division. Central to the regulation of growth in response to nutrient availability is the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling that is composed of two structurally distinct complexes: TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2). The TOR genes were first identified in yeast as target of rapamycin, a natural product of a soil bacterium, which proved beneficial as an immunosuppressive and anticancer drug and is currently being tested for a handful of other pathological conditions including diabetes, neurodegeneration, and age-related diseases...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Andrew J Beamish, Torsten Olbers, Aaron S Kelly, Thomas H Inge
Obesity is a major global health problem, and its multisystem effects are inextricably linked with elevated cardiovascular risk and adverse outcomes. The cardiovascular benefits of reversing obesity in adults are well-established. Compared with other weight-loss strategies, programmes that incorporate bariatric surgery for weight loss are beneficial for sustained BMI reduction. A marked improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, dyslipidaemia, inflammation, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, has been observed after bariatric surgery...
October 20, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Jung-Woo Park, Jin-Soo Park, Seyoung Kim, Minkyu Park, Hyunrim Choi, Sinye Lim
BACKGROUND: This study is aimed at finding out the relationship between long working hours, one of major job stress elements, and hearing impairment in unexposed workers to occupational and environmental noise. METHODS: This study was performed on 1628 regular, full-time wage workers between the age of 25-64 who indicated in the survey of having no experience of exposure to noise, normal otoscopic findings, and not suffering from diabetes based on the data from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2010-2012)...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Julie Reygner, Lydia Lichtenberger, Ghada Elmhiri, Samir Dou, Narges Bahi-Jaber, Larbi Rhazi, Flore Depeint, Veronique Bach, Hafida Khorsi-Cauet, Latifa Abdennebi-Najar
Increasing evidence indicates that chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, is involved in metabolic disorders. We assess the hypothesis whether supplementation with prebiotics from gestation to adulthood, through a modulation of microbiota composition and fermentative activity, alleviates CPF induced metabolic disorders of 60 days old offspring. 5 groups of Wistar rats, from gestation until weaning, received two doses of CPF pesticide: 1 mg/kg/day (CPF1) or 3.5 mg/kg/day (CPF3.5) with free access to inulin (10g/L in drinking water)...
2016: PloS One
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