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Nerve trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774231/semaphorin3a-signaling-is-dispensable-for-motor-axon-reinnervation-of-the-adult-neuromuscular-junction
#1
Jennifer L Shadrach, Brian A Pierchala
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a specialized synapse that is formed by motor axon innervation of skeletal muscle fibers. The maintenance of motor-muscle connectivity is critical for the preservation of muscle tone and generation of movement. Injury can induce a robust regenerative response in motor axons, but severe trauma or chronic denervation resulting from neurodegenerative disease typically leads to inefficient repair and poor functional recovery. The axon guidance molecule Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) has been implicated as a negative regulator of motor innervation...
May 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774191/traumatic-optic-neuropathy
#2
REVIEW
Sun Young Jang
Traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) refers to optic nerve injury resulting from direct and indirect head and facial trauma. The pathogenesis of indirect TON has not been fully elucidated, and the management of TON remains controversial. In this review article, I review the recent literature regarding TON and discuss how to manage indirect TON.
April 2018: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772857/-posterior-spinal-canal-decompression-with-screw-fixation-and-reconstruction-of-three-vertebral-column-for-thoracolumbar-burst-fractures-complicated-with-nerve-injury
#3
Li-Yong Wu, Xue-Mei Huang, Yue Wang, Zhao-Bo Yang, Sheng-Hui Su, Chun Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility and clinical effect of posterior spinal canal decompression with pedicle screw fixation and reconstruction of anterior and middle vertebral column for thoracolumbar burst fractures complicated with nerve injury. METHODS: A total of 36 patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures treated from March 2011 to April 2016 were enrolled in the retrospective study. There were 20 males and 16 females, aged from 21 to 52 years old with an average of 37...
April 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772248/scaffolds-for-peripheral-nerve-repair-and-reconstruction
#4
REVIEW
Sheng Yi, Lai Xu, Xiaosong Gu
Trauma-associated peripheral nerve defect is a widespread clinical problem. Autologous nerve grafting, the current gold standard technique for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, has many internal disadvantages. Emerging studies showed that tissue engineered nerve graft is an effective substitute to autologous nerves. Tissue engineered nerve graft is generally composed of neural scaffolds and incorporating cells and molecules. A variety of biomaterials have been used to construct neural scaffolds, the main component of tissue engineered nerve graft...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770635/clinical-course-and-prognostic-factors-of-acquired-third-fourth-and-sixth-cranial-nerve-palsy-in-korean-patients
#5
Kiyoung Kim, Sung Rae Noh, Min Seok Kang, Kyung Hyun Jin
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical course and prognostic factors of acquired third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve (CN) palsy grouped according to etiology. METHODS: This study involved a retrospective review of the medical records of 153 patients who were diagnosed with acquired paralytic strabismus from January 2004 to July 2015. Outcomes, recovery rates, and time to recovery were investigated according to the affected CN: CN3, CN4, and CN6 palsies...
March 20, 2018: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768445/nogo-receptor-1-is-expressed-by-nearly-all-retinal-ganglion-cells
#6
Alexander M Solomon, Teleza Westbrook, Greg D Field, Aaron W McGee
A variety of conditions ranging from glaucoma to blunt force trauma lead to optic nerve atrophy. Identifying signaling pathways for stimulating axon growth in the optic nerve may lead to treatments for these pathologies. Inhibiting signaling by the nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1) promotes the re-extension of axons following a crush injury to the optic nerve, and while NgR1 mRNA and protein expression are observed in the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer and inner nuclear layer, which retinal cell types express NgR1 remains unknown...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764819/penetrating-trauma-causing-cerebrospinal-fluid-leak-without-nerve-root-damage
#7
Holly Carpenter, Katherine-Helen Hurndall, Ajay K Asokan, Roland Fernandes
A 19-year-old man with a stab injury to the lower back presented with no focal neurology or haemodynamic instability. He complained of a headache that was improved by lying flat and underwent imaging to look for damage to local structures. He was found to have air in his intraspinal space. Initially this case was managed conservatively; however, 2 weeks after discharge, he presented with cerebrospinal fluid leak from his wound. This was managed with neurosurgical intervention and watertight closure of fascia...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764455/nerve-trauma-of-the-lower-extremity-evaluation-of-60-422-leg-injured-patients-from-the-traumaregister-dgu%C3%A2-between-2002-and-2015
#8
Torge Huckhagel, Jakob Nüchtern, Jan Regelsberger, Mathias Gelderblom, Rolf Lefering
BACKGROUND: Nerve lesions are well known reasons for reduced functional capacity and diminished quality of life. By now only a few epidemiological studies focus on lower extremity trauma related nerve injuries. This study reveals frequency and characteristics of nerve damages in patients with leg trauma in the European context. METHODS: Sixty thousand four hundred twenty-two significant limb trauma cases were derived from the TraumaRegister DGU® between 2002 and 2015...
May 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760571/multiple-extrafoveal-macular-holes-following-internal-limiting-membrane-peeling
#9
Nazimul Hussain, Sandip Mitra
Objective: Internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling has been the standard of treatment for macular holes. Besides, causing retinal nerve fiber layer surface abnormality, postoperative extrafoveal multiple retinal holes is a rare phenomenon following ILM peeling. We report an unusual complication of eight extrafoveal macular holes occurring following ILM peeling. Case presentation: A 60-year-old male presented with complaints of decreased and distorted vision in the right eye...
2018: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755898/an-unusual-presentation-of-kikuchi-fujimoto-disease-with-recurrent-subdural-effusion
#10
Sara Shahid, Syed H Alam, Indira Hadley
A 24-year-old man complained of a right temporal headache for four weeks. The patient denied any trauma or previous anticoagulation use. He also reported tender right facial swelling. His physical exam was unrevealing except for right cranial nerve (CN) VI palsy, right parotid enlargement, and cervical adenopathy. Laboratory findings were significant for mild leukopenia at 3300 cells/uL. The computed tomography (CT) scan obtained showed a chronic left subdural effusion with a 4 mm midline shift and confirmed right parotid enlargement and cervical lymphadenopathy...
March 10, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755823/optic-nerve-avulsion-and-retinal-detachment-after-penetrating-ocular-trauma-case-report
#11
Mehmet Fatih Kağan Değirmenci, Nilüfer Yalçındağ, Hüban Atilla
Optic nerve avulsion is a rare pathology with poor prognosis usually seen after blunt trauma. The optic nerve is separated from the sclera by indirect forces due to the relatively weak structure of the lamina cribrosa area. Here we describe an 11-year-old boy who experienced optic nerve avulsion and retinal detachment after penetrating ocular trauma.
April 2018: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755607/risk-factors-for-the-development-of-nerve-palsy-following-primary-total-hip-arthroplasty
#12
Shunsuke Kawano, Motoki Sonohata, Masaru Kitajima, Masaaki Mawatari
Background: Nerve palsy following total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a complication that worsens the functional prognosis. The present study analyzed the risk factors of nerve palsy following THA. Methods: The subjects of this study included 6,123 cases in which primary THA was performed under spinal anesthesia with cementless implants used in the posterolateral approach. Results: Fourteen cases (0.22%) developed nerve palsy following THA, all of which involved palsy of the entire peroneal nerve region...
2018: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752406/the-prostaglandin-e-2-receptor-ep3-controls-cc-chemokine-ligand-mediated-neuropathic-pain-induced-by-mechanical-nerve-damage
#13
Elsa-Marie Treutlein, Katharina Kern, Andreas Weigert, Neda Tarighi, Claus-Dieter Schuh, Rolf M Nüsing, Yannick Schreiber, Nerea Ferreirós, Bernhard Brüne, Gerd Geisslinger, Sandra Pierre, Klaus Scholich
Prostaglandin (PG) E2 is an important lipid mediator that is involved in several pathophysiological processes contributing to fever, inflammation and pain. Previous studies have shown that early and continuous application of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs significantly reduces pain behavior in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model for trauma-induced neuropathic pain. However, the role of PGE2 and its receptors in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain is incompletely understood, but may help inform strategies for pain management...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745977/a-simple-technique-for-relocating-chronic-cied-leads-to-a-sub-pectoral-position-for-relief-of-erosion-and-pain
#14
Aaron B Hesselson
BACKGROUND: Methodology specific for moving superficial chronically implanted trans-venous pacing leads to a sub-pectoral pocket is not described in the literature. Relocation of pre-pectoral leads and generator to a sub-muscular pocket for relief of erosion and pain with minimal pectoral trauma is possible by applying a variant of a previously described sub-mammary tunneling technique. METHODS: All patients presenting for device follow-up, elective battery replacement, or system upgrade over an 8-month period were considered for relocation if experiencing significant thinning or pain over their pre-pectoral implant...
May 10, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744730/persistent-auditory-nerve-damage-following-kainic-acid-excitotoxicity-in-the-budgerigar-melopsittacus-undulatus
#15
Kenneth S Henry, Kristina S Abrams
Permanent loss of auditory nerve (AN) fibers occurs with increasing age and sound overexposure, sometimes without hair cell damage or associated audiometric threshold elevation. Rodent studies suggest effects of AN damage on central processing and behavior, but these species have limited capacity to discriminate low-frequency speech-like sounds. Here, we introduce a new animal model of AN damage in an avian communication specialist, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). The budgerigar is a vocal learner and speech mimic with sensitive low-frequency hearing and human-like behavioral sensitivity to many complex signals including speech components...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731409/penetrating-anorectal-injury-caused-by-a-wild-boar-attack-a-case-report
#16
Ichiro Okano, Yuki Midorikawa, Nobumasa Kushima, Yui Watanabe, Takuya Sugiyama, Katsutaka Mitachi, Kazuaki Shinohara, Takatoshi Sawada, Katsunori Inagaki
Wild boar attacks have rarely been reported in the medical literature. This is the case of an 83-year-old male farmer who was assaulted from behind by an injured adult wild boar. He presented with hemorrhagic shock after sustaining injuries to the right profunda femoris artery and right sciatic nerve as well as significant soft-tissue injuries, bilateral iliac wing fractures, an open pneumothorax, and an anorectal injury. The anorectal injury was treated with fecal diversion but was complicated by soft-tissue infection in the surrounding dead space...
May 3, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729731/an-amperometric-glutamate-biosensor-for-monitoring-glutamate-release-from-brain-nerve-terminals-and-in-blood-plasma
#17
T Borisova, D Kucherenko, O Soldatkin, I Kucherenko, A Pastukhov, A Nazarova, M Galkin, A Borysov, N Krisanova, A Soldatkin, A El Skaya
An excess of the excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, in the synaptic cleft during hypoxia/ischemia provokes development of neurotoxicity and originates from the reversal of Na+ -dependent glutamate transporters located in the plasma membrane of presynaptic brain nerve terminals. Here, we have optimized an electrochemical glutamate biosensor using glutamate oxidase and developed a biosensor-based methodological approach for analysis of rates of tonic, exocytotic and transporter-mediated glutamate release from isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes)...
August 31, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728657/major-ocular-trauma-in-taiwan-2002-2004-versus-2012-2014
#18
Yi-Sheng Chang, Yu-Ti Teng, Yi-Hsun Huang, Mei-Ling Liu, Jia-Horung Hung, Sheng-Min Hsu, Fu-Chin Huang, Min-Hsiu Shih, Wan-Ju Chen, Chun-Chieh Lai, Shu-Fang Hsiao, Shih-Hao Wang, Sung-Huei Tseng
We investigated the temporal changes in major eye injuries in Taiwan by reviewing the medical records of all patients with ocular trauma hospitalized at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital during 2002-2004 and 2012-2014. A total of 169 eyes (161 patients) during 2002-2004 and 121 eyes (120 patients) during 2012-2014 were enrolled (mean ± SD age: 41.9 ± 20.8 years in 2002-2004, and 51.8 ± 19.3 years in 2012-2014). Males accounted for ~75% of patients. The most frequent injury-causing object was metallic material (~24%), and blunt traumas were most frequently attributable to traffic accidents and falls...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727270/pedicle-distraction-increases-intervertebral-and-spinal-canal-area-in-a-cadaver-and-bone-model
#19
Matthew Hughes, Nikolaos Papadakos, Tim Bishop, Jason Bernard
INTRODUCTION: Lumbar spinal stenosis is degenerative narrowing of the spinal canal and/or intervertebral foramen causing compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots. Traditional decompression techniques can often cause significant trauma and vertebral instability. This paper evaluates a method of increasing pedicle length to decompress the spinal and intervertebral foramen, which could be done minimally invasive. METHODS: Three Sawbone (Sawbones Europe, Sweden) and 1 cadaveric lumbar spine underwent bilateral pedicle distraction at L4...
2018: SICOT-J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721245/an-infantile-alantoaxial-dislocation-with-patent-foramen-ovale-managed-with-titanium-cabling-and-allogenic-bone-grafts
#20
Seidu A Richard, Zhi Gang Lan, Xiao Yang, Siqing Huang
Atlantoaxial dislocation is a disorder that is characterized with loss of stability of the atlas and axis (C1-C2) with consequential loss of usual articulation. Although this condition is very common, no one has reported a case as young as our patients. We present a 7-month infant with bilateral paralysis of the lower limbs for four (4) months with no history of trauma. Computer tomographic (CT-scan) imaging revealed alantoaxial dislocation with severe cervical spinal cord compression. The odontoid process is displaced outwardly with no bone destruction...
March 22, 2018: Pediatric Reports
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