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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635628/identification-and-validation-of-reference-genes-for-seashore-paspalum-response-to-abiotic-stresses
#1
Yu Liu, Jun Liu, Lei Xu, Hui Lai, Yu Chen, Zhimin Yang, Bingru Huang
Seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) is among the most salt- and cadmium-tolerant warm-season perennial grass species widely used as turf or forage. The objective of this study was to select stable reference genes for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of seashore paspalum in response to four abiotic stresses. The stability of 12 potential reference genes was evaluated by four programs (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder). U2AF combined with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) showed stable expression in Cd-treated leaves and cold-treated roots...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634330/increase-in-predation-risk-and-trophic-level-induced-by-nocturnal-visits-of-piscivorous-fishes-in-a-temperate-seagrass-bed
#2
Jun Shoji, Hiromichi Mitamura, Kotaro Ichikawa, Hikari Kinoshita, Nobuaki Arai
The majority of surveys on food webs of aquatic ecosystems have been conducted during the day owning to difficulties in sampling animals at night. In this study, to examine diurnal changes in predator-prey interactions in a temperate seagrass Zostera marina bed, a quantitative day/night survey of fish, the dominant animal community, coupled with acoustic telemetry of their predators, was conducted. The number of species, abundance, and biomass of piscivorous predators and mean trophic level during the night were significantly higher than those in the day in all seasons...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633114/do-glucosinolate-hydrolysis-products-reduce-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-urine-affected-soil
#3
S F Balvert, J Luo, L A Schipper
New Zealand agriculture is predominantly comprised of pastoral grazing systems and deposition of animal excreta during grazing has been identified as a major source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Nitrification inhibitors have been shown to significantly reduce nitrous oxide emissions from grazing pastoral systems, and some plants have been identified as having nitrification inhibiting properties. Brassica crops are one such example as they contain the secondary metabolite glucosinolate (GLS) whose hydrolysis products are thought to slow soil nitrogen cycling...
June 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630482/circadian-and-circatidal-clocks-control-the-mechanism-of-semilunar-foraging-behaviour
#4
James F Cheeseman, Rachel M Fewster, Michael M Walker
How animals precisely time behaviour over the lunar cycle is a decades-old mystery. Experiments on diverse species show this behaviour to be endogenous and under clock control but the mechanism has remained elusive. We present new experimental and analytical techniques to test the hypotheses for the semilunar clock and show that the rhythm of foraging behaviour in the intertidal isopod, Scyphax ornatus, can be precisely shifted by manipulating the lengths of the light/dark and tidal cycles. Using light T-cycles (Tcd) the resultant semilunar beat period undergoes shifts from 14...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630407/colony-adaptive-response-to-simulated-heat-waves-and-consequences-at-the-individual-level-in-honeybees-apis-mellifera
#5
Célia Bordier, Hélène Dechatre, Séverine Suchail, Mathilde Peruzzi, Samuel Soubeyrand, Maryline Pioz, Michel Pélissier, Didier Crauser, Yves Le Conte, Cédric Alaux
Since climate change is expected to bring more severe and frequent extreme weather events such as heat waves, assessing the physiological and behavioural sensitivity of organisms to temperature becomes a priority. We therefore investigated the responses of honeybees, an important insect pollinator, to simulated heat waves (SHW). Honeybees are known to maintain strict brood thermoregulation, but the consequences at the colony and individual levels remain poorly understood. For the first time, we quantified and modelled colony real-time activity and found a 70% increase in foraging activity with SHW, which was likely due to the recruitment of previously inactive bees...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628902/recycling-stabilised-solidified-drill-cuttings-for-forage-production-in-acidic-soils
#6
Reginald B Kogbara, Bernard B Dumkhana, Josiah M Ayotamuno, Reuben N Okparanma
Stabilisation/solidification (S/S), which involves fixation and immobilisation of contaminants using cementitious materials, is one method of treating drill cuttings before final fate. This work considers reuse of stabilised/solidified drill cuttings for forage production in acidic soils. It sought to improve the sustainability of S/S technique through supplementation with the phytoremediation potential of plants, eliminate the need for landfill disposal and reduce soil acidity for better plant growth. Drill cuttings with an initial total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of 17,125 mg kg(-1) and low concentrations of metals were treated with 5%, 10%, and 20% cement dosages...
June 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627065/evaluation-of-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-system-to-simulate-equine-foregut-digestion-and-the-influence-of-acidity-on-protein-and-fructan-degradation-in-the-horse-s-stomach
#7
S Strauch, B Wichert, J M Greef, D Hillegeist, A Zeyner, A Liesegang
The aim of this study was to improve an in vitro system in order to gather optimized information on the digestion of different forages in the horse's upper gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, foregut digestion of several forages was simulated in vitro (Part 1). The effect of different pH values on in vitro fructan degradation of two selected grasses (Part 2) was tested subsequently. Part 1: We hypothesized that our system produces representative results simulating digestive processes in the upper alimentary tract, but neglects microbial fermentation...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625354/foraging-cognition-reviving-the-ecological-intelligence-hypothesis
#8
REVIEW
Alexandra G Rosati
What are the origins of intelligent behavior? The demands associated with living in complex social groups have been the favored explanation for the evolution of primate cognition in general and human cognition in particular. However, recent comparative research indicates that ecological variation can also shape cognitive abilities. I synthesize the emerging evidence that 'foraging cognition' - skills used to exploit food resources, including spatial memory, decision-making, and inhibitory control - varies adaptively across primates...
June 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624394/reduced-foraging-investment-as-an-adaptation-to-patchy-food-sources-a-phasic-army-ant-simulation
#9
Serafino Teseo, Francesco Delloro
Colonies of several ant species within the subfamily Dorylinae alternate stereotypical discrete phases of foraging and reproduction. Such phasic cycles are thought to be adaptive because they minimize the amount of foraging and the related costs, and at the same time enhance the colony-level ability to rely on patchily distributed food sources. In order to investigate these hypotheses, we use here a simple computational approach to study the population dynamics of two species of virtual ant colonies that differ quantitatively in their foraging investment...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623335/complex-neuroanatomy-in-the-rostrum-of-the-isle-of-wight-theropod-neovenator-salerii
#10
Chris Tijani Barker, Darren Naish, Elis Newham, Orestis L Katsamenis, Gareth Dyke
The discovery of large, complex, internal canals within the rostra of fossil reptiles has been linked with an enhanced tactile function utilised in an aquatic context, so far in pliosaurids, the Cretaceous theropod Spinosaurus, and the related spinosaurid Baryonyx. Here, we report the presence of a complex network of large, laterally situated, anastomosing channels, discovered via micro-focus computed tomography (μCT), in the premaxilla and maxilla of Neovenator, a mid-sized allosauroid theropod from the Early Cretaceous of the UK...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623225/high-peripheral-temperatures-in-king-penguins-while-resting-at-sea-thermoregulation-versus-fat-deposition
#11
Agnes Lewden, Manfred R Enstipp, Baptiste Picard, Tessa van Walsum, Yves Handrich
Marine endotherms living in cold water face an energetically challenging situation. Unless properly insulated these animals will lose heat rapidly. The field metabolic rate of king penguins at sea is about twice that on land. However, when at sea, their metabolic rate is higher during extended resting periods at the surface than during foraging, when birds descend to great depth in pursuit of their prey. This is most likely explained by differences in thermal status. During foraging peripheral vasoconstriction leads to a hypothermic shell, which is rewarmed during extended resting bouts at the surface...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622933/evaluating-the-potential-for-tactical-hunting-in-the-middle-stone-age-insights-from-a-bonebed-of-the-extinct-bovid-rusingoryx-atopocranion
#12
Kirsten E Jenkins, Sheila Nightingale, J Tyler Faith, Daniel J Peppe, Lauren A Michel, Steven G Driese, Kieran P McNulty, Christian A Tryon
The foraging behaviors of Middle Stone Age (MSA) early modern humans have largely been based on evidence from well-stratified cave sites in South Africa. Whereas these sites have provided an abundance of data for behavioral reconstruction that are unmatched elsewhere in Africa, they are unlikely to preserve evidence of the diversity of foraging strategies employed by MSA hunters who lived in a variety of ecological and landscape settings across the African continent. Here we describe the results of recent excavations at the open-air site of Bovid Hill at Wakondo, Rusinga Island, Kenya, which yielded 24 in situ MSA artifacts within an assemblage of bones comprised exclusively of the extinct alcelaphin bovid Rusingoryx atopocranion...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622925/subsistence-strategies-during-the-late-pleistocene-in-the-southern-cape-of-south-africa-comparing-the-still-bay-of-blombos-cave-with-the-howiesons-poort-of-klipdrift-shelter
#13
Jerome P Reynard, Christopher S Henshilwood
The Still Bay (SB) and Howiesons Poort (HP) were two significant techno-complexes in the Middle Stone Age and key periods in the expression of behavioral complexity. In this study, we compare the recently excavated fauna from the SB layers at Blombos Cave (BBC) with that from the HP levels at Klipdrift Shelter (KDS) in the southern Cape of South Africa. We consider our findings in the framework of recent models for early human subsistence behavior. In particular, we link our study with models involving resource intensification to examine whether foraging strategies in the HP were more or less intensive than those in the SB...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622924/functional-associations-between-support-use-and-forelimb-shape-in-strepsirrhines-and-their-relevance-to-inferring-locomotor-behavior-in-early-primates
#14
Anne-Claire Fabre, Judit Marigó, Michael C Granatosky, Daniel Schmitt
The evolution of primates is intimately linked to their initial invasion of an arboreal environment. However, moving and foraging in this milieu creates significant mechanical challenges related to the presence of substrates differing in their size and orientation. It is widely assumed that primates are behaviorally and anatomically adapted to movement on specific substrates, but few explicit tests of this relationship in an evolutionary context have been conducted. Without direct tests of form-function relationships in living primates it is impossible to reliably infer behavior in fossil taxa...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622389/-foraging-for-a-place-to-lay-eggs-a-genetic-link-between-foraging-behaviour-and-oviposition-preferences
#15
Murray W McConnell, Mark J Fitzpatrick
Gravid female arthropods in search of egg-laying substrates embark on foraging-like forays: they survey the environment assessing multiple patches, tasting each with their tarsi and proboscis, and then, if interested, they deposit an egg (or eggs). In fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, allelic variation in the foraging gene (for) underlies the rover/sitter foraging behaviour polymorphism. Rover flies (forR) are more active foragers (both within and between food patches) compared to sitters (fors). In nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans, a mutation in egl-4, the ortholog of for, leads to aberrations in egg laying...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619466/drosophila-mitotypes-determine-developmental-time-in-a-diet-and-temperature-dependent-manner
#16
Samuel G Towarnicki, J William O Ballard
It is well known that specific mitochondrial (mt) DNA mutations can reduce organismal fitness and influence mitochondrial-nuclear interactions. However, determining specific mtDNA mutations that are beneficial has been elusive. In this study, we vary the diet and environmental temperature to study larval development time of two Drosophila melanogaster mitotypes (Alstonville and Dahomey), in two nuclear genetic backgrounds, and investigate developmental differences through weight, feeding rate, and movement...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618194/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-alpine-butterflies-boloria-pales-and-boloria-napaea-differences-in-movement-and-foraging-behaviour-lepidoptera-nymphalidae
#17
Stefan Ehl, Katharina Hostert, Jana Korsch, Patrick Gros, Thomas Schmitt
Sexual dimorphism is a widespread phenomenon in Lepidoptera. It is reflected in differences in life history, behaviour and morphology. Analyses of differences in behaviour are mostly difficult and time-consuming, especially in high mountain ecosystems. To enhance our knowledge on sexual dimorphisms of alpine butterflies, we performed a mark-release-recapture study on two species common in the Alps: Boloria pales and Boloria napaea. We analysed movement and foraging behaviour to investigate differences between sexes...
June 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616200/season-modulated-responses-of-neotropical-bats-to-forest-fragmentation
#18
Diogo F Ferreira, Ricardo Rocha, Adrià López-Baucells, Fábio Z Farneda, João M B Carreiras, Jorge M Palmeirim, Christoph F J Meyer
Seasonality causes fluctuations in resource availability, affecting the presence and abundance of animal species. The impacts of these oscillations on wildlife populations can be exacerbated by habitat fragmentation. We assessed differences in bat species abundance between the wet and dry season in a fragmented landscape in the Central Amazon characterized by primary forest fragments embedded in a secondary forest matrix. We also evaluated whether the relative importance of local vegetation structure versus landscape characteristics (composition and configuration) in shaping bat abundance patterns varied between seasons...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616194/habitat-use-and-spatial-fidelity-of-male-south-american-sea-lions-during-the-nonbreeding-period
#19
Alastair M M Baylis, Rachael A Orben, Daniel P Costa, Megan Tierney, Paul Brickle, Iain J Staniland
Conditions experienced during the nonbreeding period have profound long-term effects on individual fitness and survival. Therefore, knowledge of habitat use during the nonbreeding period can provide insights into processes that regulate populations. At the Falkland Islands, the habitat use of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) during the nonbreeding period is of particular interest because the population is yet to recover from a catastrophic decline between the mid-1930s and 1965, and nonbreeding movements are poorly understood...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616186/at-sea-distribution-and-habitat-use-in-king-penguins-at-sub-antarctic-marion-island
#20
Pierre Pistorius, Mark Hindell, Robert Crawford, Azwianewi Makhado, Bruce Dyer, Ryan Reisinger
King penguins make up the bulk of avian biomass on a number of sub-Antarctic islands where they have a large functional effect on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The same applies at Marion Island where a substantial proportion of the world population breeds. In spite of their obvious ecological importance, the at-sea distribution and behavior of this population has until recently remained entirely unknown. In addressing this information deficiency, we deployed satellite-linked tracking instruments on 15 adult king penguins over 2 years, April 2008 and 2013, to study their post-guard foraging distribution and habitat preferences...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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