keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Forages

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337605/application-of-diet-theory-reveals-context-dependent-foraging-preferences-in-an-herbivorous-coral-reef-fish
#1
John Hanmer, J Wilson White, Joseph R Pawlik
Dietary preferences of grazers can drive spatial variability in top-down control of autotroph communities, because diet composition may depend on the relative availability of autotroph species. On Caribbean coral reefs, parrotfish grazing is important in limiting macroalgae, but parrotfish dietary preferences are poorly understood. We applied diet-switching analysis to quantify the foraging preferences of the redband parrotfish (Sparisoma aurofrenatum). At 12 Caribbean reefs, we observed 293 redband parrotfish in 5-min feeding bouts and quantified relative benthic algal cover using quadrats...
March 23, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335712/exploring-the-evolutionary-origin-of-floral-organs-of-erycina-pusilla-an-emerging-orchid-model-system
#2
Anita Dirks-Mulder, Roland Butôt, Peter van Schaik, Jan Willem P M Wijnands, Roel van den Berg, Louie Krol, Sadhana Doebar, Kelly van Kooperen, Hugo de Boer, Elena M Kramer, Erik F Smets, Rutger A Vos, Alexander Vrijdaghs, Barbara Gravendeel
BACKGROUND: Thousands of flowering plant species attract pollinators without offering rewards, but the evolution of this deceit is poorly understood. Rewardless flowers of the orchid Erycina pusilla have an enlarged median sepal and incised median petal ('lip') to attract oil-collecting bees. These bees also forage on similar looking but rewarding Malpighiaceae flowers that have five unequally sized petals and gland-carrying sepals. The lip of E. pusilla has a 'callus' that, together with winged 'stelidia', mimics these glands...
March 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335097/effects-of-dietary-forage-to-concentrate-ratio-on-nutrient-digestibility-and-enteric-methane-production-in-growing-goats-capra-hircus-hircus-and-sika-deer-cervus-nippon-hortulorum
#3
Youngjun Na, Dong Hua Li, Sang Rak Lee
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratio on the nutrient digestibility and enteric methane (CH4) emission in growing goats and Sika deer. Three male growing goats (BW = 19.0 ± 0.7 kg) and three male growing deer (BW = 19.3 ± 1.2 kg) were respectively allotted to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with an adaptation period of 7 d and a data collection period of 3 d. Respiration-metabolism chambers were used for measuring the enteric CH4 emission. Treatments of low (25:75), moderate (50:50), and high (73:27) F:C ratios were given to both goats and Sika deer...
March 21, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334706/repetitive-dna-a-versatile-tool-for-karyotyping-in-festuca-pratensis-huds
#4
Anna Křivánková, David Kopecký, Štěpán Stočes, Jaroslav Doležel, Eva Hřibová
FISH is a useful method to identify individual chromosomes in a karyotype and to discover their structural changes accompanying genome evolution and speciation. DNA probes for FISH should be chromosome specific and/or exhibit specific patterns of distribution along each chromosome. Such probes are not available in many plants including meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), an important forage grass species. In the present study, various DNA repeats identified in Illumina shotgun sequences specific to chromosome 4F of F...
March 24, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334348/evaluation-of-the-potential-for-secondary-kill-for-ingested-insecticides-in-the-common-bed-bug-hemiptera-cimicidae
#5
Yvonne K Matos, Angela Sierras, Coby Schal
Baits are a preferred method of urban pest management. Baits enable more targeted insecticide applications with a fraction of the active ingredient used in residual sprays. Bait translocation by foragers, and consequent secondary kill of nonforagers, enhances bait effectiveness in social insects, and in other group-living species like German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.). We investigated the potential for secondary kill in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.), another gregarious species, using a liquid bait...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334292/the-synergistic-effects-of-almond-protection-fungicides-on-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-forager-survival
#6
Adrian Fisher, Chet Coleman, Clint Hoffmann, Brad Fritz, Juliana Rangel
The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) contributes ∼$17 billion annually to the United States economy, primarily by pollinating major agricultural crops including almond, which is completely dependent on honey bee pollination for nut set. Almond growers face constant challenges to crop productivity owing to pests and pathogens, which are often controlled with a multitude of agrochemicals. For example, fungicides are often applied in combination with other products to control fungal pathogens during almond bloom...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334279/population-growth-of-varroa-destructor-acari-varroidae-in-colonies-of-russian-and-unselected-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-stocks-as-related-to-numbers-of-foragers-with-mites
#7
Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman, Fabiana Ahumada, Robert Danka, Mona Chambers, Emily Watkins DeJong, Geoff Hidalgo
Varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) is an external parasite of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and a leading cause of colony losses worldwide. Varroa populations can be controlled with miticides, but mite-resistant stocks such as the Russian honey bee (RHB) also are available. Russian honey bee and other mite-resistant stocks limit Varroa population growth by affecting factors that contribute to mite reproduction. However, mite population growth is not entirely due to reproduction. Numbers of foragers with mites (FWM) entering and leaving hives also affect the growth of mite populations...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334245/coordinated-nitrogen-and-carbon-remobilization-for-nitrate-assimilation-in-leaf-sheath-and-root-and-associated-cytokinin-signals-during-early-regrowth-of-lolium-perenne
#8
Jessica Roche, Matthew H Turnbull, Qianqian Guo, Ondrej Novák, Jana Späth, Steven P Gieseg, Paula E Jameson, Jonathan Love
Background and Aims: The efficiency of N assimilation in response to defoliation is a critical component of plant regrowth and forage production. The aim of this research was to test the effect of the internal C/N balance on NO3- assimilation and to estimate the associated cytokinin signals following defoliation of perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L. 'Grasslands Nui') plants. Methods: Plants, manipulated to have contrasting internal N content and contrasting availability of water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs), were obtained by exposure to either continuous light or short days (8:16 h light-dark), and watered with modified N-free Hoagland medium containing either high (5 m m ) or low (50 μ m ) NO3- as sole N source...
March 14, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334195/environmental-variables-influence-the-association-of-eustenopus-villosus-and-larinus-curtus-coleoptera-curculionidae-adults-with-different-growth-stages-of-the-invasive-thistle-centaurea-solstitialis-asteraceae-cardueae-in-washington-state
#9
S E Woodley, B A Zamora, T Coffey
A 2-yr (2014-2015) field study in eastern Washington State quantified the effect of environmental factors on the overwintered Eustenopus villosus (Boheman) and Larinus curtus (Hochhut) adults in relation to phenology of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae: Cardueae), the feeding and breeding host for these two weevil biocontrol agents. We recorded in the study area: ambient and soil temperatures, soil moisture, percent cover and developmental stage of C. solstitialis, and presence of adults of each weevil species...
March 8, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334180/sugar-diet-affects-odor-reception-but-variation-in-sugar-concentration-plays-minimal-role-in-the-response-of-the-parasitoid-microplitis-croceipes-hymenoptera-braconidae-to-host-related-plant-volatiles
#10
Matthew Burrows, Tolulope Morawo, Henry Fadamiro
Parasitoids utilize various sugar resources in nature, and rely on odor cues from plants to locate their food and hosts. However, lack of sugar in the diet may negatively impact odor reception in parasitoids, thus affecting foraging efficiency. We used Microplitis croceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval endoparasitoid of Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), as a model species to test the hypothesis that variation in sugar diet of parasitoids affects their olfactory response to host-related odors...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333485/visual-acuity-in-the-striped-skunk-mephitis-mephitis
#11
Zoe Johnson-Ulrich, Eric Hoffmaster, Audrey Robeson, Jennifer Vonk
The visual acuity of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) was tested using a 2 alternative forced-choice task with square wave gratings. Skunks were reinforced with food items for touching a ball in front of a striped stimulus when paired with a ball in front of a solid gray stimulus. Skunks demonstrated a maximum visual acuity of 0.42 cycles per degree when tested with bright outdoor illumination. This poor visual acuity may be due to their nocturnal lifestyle, lack of predation, and is consistent with their preferential use of smell and sound during foraging...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331597/pollinator-population-size-and-pollination-ecosystem-service-responses-to-enhancing-floral-and-nesting-resources
#12
Johanna Häussler, Ullrika Sahlin, Charlotte Baey, Henrik G Smith, Yann Clough
Modeling pollination ecosystem services requires a spatially explicit, process-based approach because they depend on both the behavioral responses of pollinators to the amount and spatial arrangement of habitat and on the within- and between-season dynamics of pollinator populations in response to land use. We describe a novel pollinator model predicting flower visitation rates by wild central-place foragers (e.g., nesting bees) in spatially explicit landscapes. The model goes beyond existing approaches by: (1) integrating preferential use of more rewarding floral and nesting resources; (2) considering population growth over time; (3) allowing different dispersal distances for workers and reproductives; (4) providing visitation rates for use in crop pollination models...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331590/when-perception-reflects-reality-non-native-grass-invasion-alters-small-mammal-risk-landscapes-and-survival
#13
Joseph P Ceradini, Anna D Chalfoun
Modification of habitat structure due to invasive plants can alter the risk landscape for wildlife by, for example, changing the quality or availability of refuge habitat. Whether perceived risk corresponds with actual fitness outcomes, however, remains an important open question. We simultaneously measured how habitat changes due to a common invasive grass (cheatgrass, Bromus tectorum) affected the perceived risk, habitat selection, and apparent survival of a small mammal, enabling us to assess how well perceived risk influenced important behaviors and reflected actual risk...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331589/complex-variation-in-habitat-selection-strategies-among-individuals-driven-by-extrinsic-factors
#14
Edward J Raynor, Hawthorne L Beyer, John M Briggs, Anthony Joern
Understanding behavioral strategies employed by animals to maximize fitness in the face of environmental heterogeneity, variability, and uncertainty is a central aim of animal ecology. Flexibility in behavior may be key to how animals respond to climate and environmental change. Using a mechanistic modeling framework for simultaneously quantifying the effects of habitat preference and intrinsic movement on space use at the landscape scale, we investigate how movement and habitat selection vary among individuals and years in response to forage quality-quantity tradeoffs, environmental conditions, and variable annual climate...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330920/immanent-conditions-determine-imminent-collapses-nutrient-regimes-define-the-resilience-of-macroalgal-communities
#15
Jordi Boada, Rohan Arthur, David Alonso, Jordi F Pagès, Albert Pessarrodona, Silvia Oliva, Giulia Ceccherelli, Luigi Piazzi, Javier Romero, Teresa Alcoverro
Predicting where state-changing thresholds lie can be inherently complex in ecosystems characterized by nonlinear dynamics. Unpacking the mechanisms underlying these transitions can help considerably reduce this unpredictability. We used empirical observations, field and laboratory experiments, and mathematical models to examine how differences in nutrient regimes mediate the capacity of macrophyte communities to sustain sea urchin grazing. In relatively nutrient-rich conditions, macrophyte systems were more resilient to grazing, shifting to barrens beyond 1 800 g m(-2) (urchin biomass), more than twice the threshold of nutrient-poor conditions...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330718/adult-glucocorticoid-receptor-mrna-expression-volatility-in-response-to-an-acute-stressor-and-juvenile-csf-corticotropin-releasing-factor-a-pilot-neurodevelopmental-study
#16
Shariful A Syed, Eric L P Smith, Olcay Batuman, Leonard A Rosenblum, Michael J Owens, Charles B Nemeroff, Jeremy D Coplan
INTRODUCTION: Early life stress (ELS) has been shown to play a role in establishing persistent maladaptive HPA axis modifications that may contribute to the pathogenesis of mood and anxiety disorders. Central glucocorticoid receptor (GR) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression may facilitate (mal)adaptive responsivity to ELS. The role of adult monocytic GR mRNA expression, a putative CNS proxy, during acute stress exposure was explored as well as the ELS marker, juvenile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) corticotropin-releasing factor...
March 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330556/microrna156-improves-drought-stress-tolerance-in-alfalfa-medicago-sativa-by-silencing-spl13
#17
Muhammad Arshad, Biruk A Feyissa, Lisa Amyot, Banyar Aung, Abdelali Hannoufa
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is an important forage crop that is often grown in areas that frequently experience drought and water shortage. MicroRNA156 (miR156) is an emerging tool for improving various traits in plants. We tested the role of miR156d in drought response of alfalfa, and observed a significant improvement in drought tolerance of miR156 overexpression (miR156OE) alfalfa genotypes compared to the wild type control (WT). In addition to higher survival and reduced water loss, miR156OE genotypes also maintained higher stomatal conductance compared to WT during drought stress...
May 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328953/estimating-changes-in-lichen-mat-volume-through-time-and-related-effects-on-barren-ground-caribou-rangifer-tarandus-groenlandicus-movement
#18
Gregory J M Rickbeil, Txomin Hermosilla, Nicholas C Coops, Joanne C White, Michael A Wulder
Lichens form a critical portion of barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) diets, especially during winter months. Here, we assess lichen mat volume across five herd ranges in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada, using newly developed composite Landsat imagery. The lichen volume estimator (LVE) was adapted for use across 700 000 km2 of barren ground caribou habitat annually from 1984-2012. We subsequently assessed how LVE changed temporally throughout the time series for each pixel using Theil-Sen's slopes, and spatially by assessing whether slope values were centered in local clusters of similar values...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328067/diminishing-returns-limit-energetic-costs-of-climate-change
#19
Ofir Levy, Jason D Borchert, Travis W Rusch, Lauren B Buckley, Michael J Angilletta
Changes in the time available for organisms to maintain physiologically preferred temperatures (thermal opportunity) is a primary mechanism by which climate change impacts the fitness and population dynamics of organisms. Yet, it is unclear whether losses or gains in thermal opportunity result in proportional changes in rates of energy procurement and use. We experimentally quantified lizard food consumption and energy assimilation at different durations of thermal opportunity. We incorporated these data in an individual-based model of foraging and digestion in lizards to explore the implications of nonlinear responses to shifts in thermal opportunity across a wide geographic range...
March 22, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326095/potential-of-legume-brassica-intercrops-for-forage-production-and-green-manure-encouragements-from-a-temperate-southeast-european-environment
#20
REVIEW
Ana M Jeromela, Aleksandar M Mikić, Svetlana Vujić, Branko Ćupina, Đorđe Krstić, Aleksandra Dimitrijević, Sanja Vasiljević, Vojislav Mihailović, Sandra Cvejić, Dragana Miladinović
Legumes and brassicas have much in common: importance in agricultural history, rich biodiversity, numerous forms of use, high adaptability to diverse farming designs, and various non-food applications. Rare available resources demonstrate intercropping legumes and brassicas as beneficial to both, especially for the latter, profiting from better nitrogen nutrition. Our team aimed at designing a scheme of the intercrops of autumn- and spring-sown annual legumes with brassicas for ruminant feeding and green manure, and has carried out a set of field trials in a temperate Southeast European environment and during the past decade, aimed at assessing their potential for yields of forage dry matter and aboveground biomass nitrogen and their economic reliability via land equivalent ratio...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
keyword
keyword
55842
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"