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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356053/effects-of-age-and-diet-on-glucose-and-insulin-dynamics-in-the-horse
#1
J L Rapson, H C Schott, B D Nielsen, L J McCutcheon, P A Harris, R J Geor
BACKGROUND: Age and diet may affect insulin sensitivity (SI) but these factors have received limited investigation in horses. OBJECTIVES: To measure minimal model parameters during an insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) after adaptation to a forage only diet (HAY) or forage supplemented with either starch/sugar rich (SS) or oil/fibre rich (FF) concentrate feeds; and to assess glucose and insulin responses to a standardised meal challenge (SMC, 4 g/kg BW of SS) after diet adaptation in adult and aged mares...
January 21, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355916/ghosts-of-mother-s-past-previous-maternal-stress-leads-to-altered-maternal-behavior-following-a-subsequent-pregnancy-in-rats
#2
Janice M Kan, Rick Richardson
A rodent model was used to explore whether mothers that experienced a postnatal stressor in the past (i.e., daily separations from her previous litter) exhibited altered maternal behavior during a typical, subsequent rearing experience. Stress-naïve female rats were bred and then separated from their pups (maternal separation) or remained with their pups (standard-rearing). After those pups were weaned, mothers were bred again with all pups from the subsequent litter being standard-reared. In the first week of life, various maternal behaviors directed towards these subsequent offspring were observed, including levels of nursing and pup retrieval...
January 22, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353910/parasite-dispersal-risk-tolerance-is-mediated-by-its-reproductive-value
#3
Maxcy P Nolan, Keith S Delaplane
Parasite dispersal theory draws heavily upon epidemiological SIR models in which host status (susceptible (S), infected (I), or recovered (R)) is used to study parasite dispersal evolution. In contrast to these extrinsically host-centric drivers, in this study we focus on an intrinsic driver, the parasite's reproductive value (predicted future offspring) as a regulator of the extent to which the individual will engage in risky dispersal behaviour. As a model system we use the honeybee Apis mellifera and its ectoparasite, the mite Varroa destructor...
October 2017: Animal Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353752/steam-explosion-enhances-digestibility-and-fermentation-of-corn-stover-by-facilitating-ruminal-microbial-colonization
#4
Shengguo Zhao, Guodong Li, Nan Zheng, Jiaqi Wang, Zhongtang Yu
The purpose of this study was to evaluate steam explosion as a pretreatment to enhance degradation of corn stover by ruminal microbiome. The steam explosion conditions were first optimized, and then the efficacy of steam explosion was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Steam explosion altered the physical and chemical structure of corn stover as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively, and increased its cellulose content while decreasing hemicellulose content...
January 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352679/inter-sexual-habitat-and-isotopic-niche-segregation-of-the-endangered-monteiro-s-storm-petrel-during-breeding
#5
V H Paiva, J A Ramos, C Nava, V Neves, J Bried, M Magalhães
At-sea distribution and trophic ecology of small seabird species (i.e.<100 g) is far less known when compared to their larger relatives. We studied the habitat use (spatial ecology) and isotopic niches (trophic ecology) of the endangered Monteiro's storm-petrel Hydrobates monteiroi during the incubation and chick-rearing periods of 2013. There was a sexual foraging segregation of Monteiro's storm-petrels during the breeding period (tracking data) but also during the non-breeding stage (stable isotope analysis)...
December 30, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352497/redox-potential-an-intrinsic-parameter-of-the-rumen-environment
#6
REVIEW
Y Huang, J P Marden, C Julien, C Bayourthe
The ruminal ecosystem is a fermentative milieu which is interesting to discuss in terms of its redox status as a reflection of an intense bacterial activity. The objective of this systematic literature review is to quantitatively analyze data collected on redox potential (Eh) in the rumen and to explore relationship between ruminal Eh, nature of the diet fed to ruminants, and ruminal fermentation parameters. Data obtained from 15 studies comprising 24 different diets was used in the analysis. Studies included in the data file were selected based on the criteria of: (i) the nature of the reference electrode was specified, (ii) the ruminal Eh was recorded simultaneously to pH, (iii) animal body weight (BW) and dry matter intake (DMI) were reported and (iv) the composition of the diet was precisely described...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351588/sorghum-root-system-classification-in-contrasting-p-environments-reveals-three-main-rooting-types-and-root-architecture-related-marker-trait-associations
#7
Sebastian Parra-Londono, Mareike Kavka, Birgit Samans, Rod Snowdon, Silke Wieckhorst, Ralf Uptmoor
Background and Aims: Roots facilitate acquisition of macro- and micronutrients, which are crucial for plant productivity and anchorage in the soil. Phosphorus (P) is rapidly immobilized in the soil and hardly available for plants. Adaptation to P scarcity relies on changes in root morphology towards rooting systems well suited for topsoil foraging. Root-system architecture (RSA) defines the spatial organization of the network comprising primary, lateral and stem-derived roots and is important for adaptation to stress conditions...
January 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351575/waterlogging-tolerance-tissue-nitrogen-and-oxygen-transport-in-the-forage-legume-melilotus-siculus-a-comparison-of-nodulated-and-nitrate-fed-plants
#8
Dennis Konnerup, Guillermo Toro, Ole Pedersen, Timothy David Colmer
Background and Aims: Soil waterlogging adversely impacts most plants. Melilotus siculus is a waterlogging-tolerant annual forage legume, but data were lacking for the effects of root-zone hypoxia on nodulated plants reliant on N2 fixation. The aim was to compare the waterlogging tolerance and physiology of M. siculus reliant on N2 fixation or with access to NO3-. Methods: A factorial experiment imposed treatments of water level (drained or waterlogged), rhizobia (nil or inoculated) and mineral N supply (nil or 11 mm NO3-) for 21 d on plants in pots of vermiculite in a glasshouse...
January 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350443/cutting-reduces-variation-in-biomass-production-of-forage-crops-and-allows-low-performers-to-catch-up-a-case-study-of-trifolium-pratense-l-red-clover
#9
Denise Herbert, Klemens Ekschmitt, Volker Wissemann, Annette Becker
Regrowth of fodder plants after grazing and mowing drives the profitability of their cultivation and is therefore an important target trait for plant breeding and agricultural engineering. However, for some fodder plants little is known about their regrowth dynamics in response to grazing or mowing. We analyzed the native response of plant architecture, leaf morphology and growth performance to experimental cutting in wild Trifolium pratense L. (red clover) plants. One hundred fifty potted clover plants were established under controlled field conditions, and half of the plants were cut to 5 cm 3 months after sowing...
January 19, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348645/a-global-perspective-on-the-trophic-geography-of-sharks
#10
Christopher S Bird, Ana Veríssimo, Sarah Magozzi, Kátya G Abrantes, Alex Aguilar, Hassan Al-Reasi, Adam Barnett, Dana M Bethea, Gérard Biais, Asuncion Borrell, Marc Bouchoucha, Mariah Boyle, Edward J Brooks, Juerg Brunnschweiler, Paco Bustamante, Aaron Carlisle, Diana Catarino, Stéphane Caut, Yves Cherel, Tiphaine Chouvelon, Diana Churchill, Javier Ciancio, Julien Claes, Ana Colaço, Dean L Courtney, Pierre Cresson, Ryan Daly, Leigh de Necker, Tetsuya Endo, Ivone Figueiredo, Ashley J Frisch, Joan Holst Hansen, Michael Heithaus, Nigel E Hussey, Johannes Iitembu, Francis Juanes, Michael J Kinney, Jeremy J Kiszka, Sebastian A Klarian, Dorothée Kopp, Robert Leaf, Yunkai Li, Anne Lorrain, Daniel J Madigan, Aleksandra Maljković, Luis Malpica-Cruz, Philip Matich, Mark G Meekan, Frédéric Ménard, Gui M Menezes, Samantha E M Munroe, Michael C Newman, Yannis P Papastamatiou, Heidi Pethybridge, Jeffrey D Plumlee, Carlos Polo-Silva, Katie Quaeck-Davies, Vincent Raoult, Jonathan Reum, Yassir Eden Torres-Rojas, David S Shiffman, Oliver N Shipley, Conrad W Speed, Michelle D Staudinger, Amy K Teffer, Alexander Tilley, Maria Valls, Jeremy J Vaudo, Tak-Cheung Wai, R J David Wells, Alex S J Wyatt, Andrew Yool, Clive N Trueman
Sharks are a diverse group of mobile predators that forage across varied spatial scales and have the potential to influence food web dynamics. The ecological consequences of recent declines in shark biomass may extend across broader geographic ranges if shark taxa display common behavioural traits. By tracking the original site of photosynthetic fixation of carbon atoms that were ultimately assimilated into muscle tissues of 5,394 sharks from 114 species, we identify globally consistent biogeographic traits in trophic interactions between sharks found in different habitats...
January 18, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346751/the-brain-compass-a-perspective-on-how-self-motion-updates-the-head-direction-cell-attractor
#11
REVIEW
Jean Laurens, Dora E Angelaki
Head direction cells form an internal compass signaling head azimuth orientation even without visual landmarks. This property is generated by a neuronal ring attractor that is updated using rotation velocity cues. The properties and origin of this velocity drive remain, however, unknown. We propose a quantitative framework whereby this drive represents a multisensory self-motion estimate computed through an internal model that uses sensory prediction errors of vestibular, visual, and somatosensory cues to improve on-line motor drive...
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345914/comparative-analysis-of-epa-dha-pl-forage-and-liposomes-in-orotic-acid-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-rats-and-their-related-mechanisms
#12
Mengru Chang, Tiantian Zhang, Xiuqing Han, Qingjuan Tang, Teruyoshi Yanagita, Jie Xu, Changhu Xue, YuMing Wang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one predictive factor of death from various illnesses. The present study was to comparatively investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched and docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids forage (EPA-PL and DHA-PL) and liposomes (lipo-EPA and lipo-DHA) on NAFLD and demonstrate possible protective mechanisms involved. The additive doses of EPA-PL and DHA-PL in all treatment groups were 1 % of total diets, respectively. Results showed that Lipo-EPA could significantly improve hepatic function by down-regulating orotic acid-induced serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels by 55...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343602/bayesian-inference-reveals-positive-but-subtle-effects-of-experimental-fishery-closures-on-marine-predator-demographics
#13
Richard B Sherley, Barbara J Barham, Peter J Barham, Kate J Campbell, Robert J M Crawford, Jennifer Grigg, Cat Horswill, Alistair McInnes, Taryn L Morris, Lorien Pichegru, Antje Steinfurth, Florian Weller, Henning Winker, Stephen C Votier
Global forage-fish landings are increasing, with potentially grave consequences for marine ecosystems. Predators of forage fish may be influenced by this harvest, but the nature of these effects is contentious. Experimental fishery manipulations offer the best solution to quantify population-level impacts, but are rare. We used Bayesian inference to examine changes in chick survival, body condition and population growth rate of endangered African penguins Spheniscus demersus in response to 8 years of alternating time-area closures around two pairs of colonies...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343594/strong-social-relationships-are-associated-with-decreased-longevity-in-a-facultatively-social-mammal
#14
Daniel T Blumstein, Dana M Williams, Alexandra N Lim, Svenja Kroeger, Julien G A Martin
Humans in strong social relationships are more likely to live longer because social relationships may buffer stressors and thus have protective effects. However, a shortcoming of human studies is that they often rely on self-reporting of these relationships. By contrast, observational studies of non-human animals permit detailed analyses of the specific nature of social relationships. Thus, discoveries that some social animals live longer and healthier lives if they are involved in social grooming, forage together or have more affiliative associates emphasizes the potential importance of social relationships on health and longevity...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342197/molecular-discrimination-of-tall-fescue-morphotypes-in-association-with-festuca-relatives
#15
Shyamal K Talukder, Perumal Azhaguvel, Konstantin Chekhovskiy, Malay C Saha
Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is an important cool-season perennial grass species used as forage and turf, and in conservation plantings. There are three morphotypes in hexaploid tall fescue: Continental, Mediterranean and Rhizomatous. This study was conducted to develop morphotype-specific molecular markers to distinguish Continental and Mediterranean tall fescues, and establish their relationships with other species of the Festuca genus for genomic inference. Chloroplast sequence variation and simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphism were explored in 12 genotypes of three tall fescue morphotypes and four Festuca species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341390/building-a-new-research-framework-for-social-evolution-intralocus-caste-antagonism
#16
Tanya M Pennell, Luke Holman, Edward H Morrow, Jeremy Field
The breeding and non-breeding 'castes' of eusocial insects provide a striking example of role-specific selection, where each caste maximises fitness through different morphological, behavioural and physiological trait values. Typically, queens are long-lived egg-layers, while workers are short-lived, largely sterile foragers. Remarkably, the two castes are nevertheless produced by the same genome. The existence of inter-caste genetic correlations is a neglected consequence of this shared genome, potentially hindering the evolution of caste dimorphism: alleles that increase the productivity of queens may decrease the productivity of workers and vice versa, such that each caste is prevented from reaching optimal trait values...
January 16, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340591/interactions-of-coccinella-novemnotata-coleoptera-coccinellidae-and-coccinella-septempunctata-coleoptera-coccinellidae-while-foraging-for-aphids
#17
Todd A Ugine, Evan Hoki, John E Losey
The importation and establishment of Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in North America purportedly caused the displacement and local extirpation of the native ninespotted lady beetle, Coccinella novemnotata Herbst (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), across most of its former range, and several reports have shown that C. septempunctata maintains competitive advantages over C. novemnotata. We investigated the role of aphid density on the retention time of these two species on fava bean plants, and the effect of con- versus heterospecific pairings of adult beetles on the foraging behavior of C...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338004/interrupting-behaviour-minimizing-decision-costs-via-temporal-commitment-and-low-level-interrupts
#18
Kevin Lloyd, Peter Dayan
Ideal decision-makers should constantly assess all sources of information about opportunities and threats, and be able to redetermine their choices promptly in the face of change. However, perpetual monitoring and reassessment impose inordinate sensing and computational costs, making them impractical for animals and machines alike. The obvious alternative of committing for extended periods of time to limited sensory strategies associated with particular courses of action can be dangerous and wasteful. Here, we explore the intermediate possibility of making provisional temporal commitments whilst admitting interruption based on limited broader observation...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337951/fruitless-foragers
#19
Jason G Goldman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: Scientific American
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336476/drivers-and-demographic-consequences-of-seasonal-mass-changes-in-an-alpine-ungulate
#20
Mathieu Douhard, Simon Guillemette, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Fanie Pelletier
We know little about the determinants and demographic consequences of the marked seasonal mass changes exhibited by many northern and alpine mammals. We analysed 43 years of data on individual winter mass loss (the difference between mass in early June and mass in mid-September the previous year) and summer mass gain (the difference between mass in mid-September and in early June of the same year) in adult bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). We calculated relative seasonal mass change as a proportion of individual body mass at the start of each season...
January 16, 2018: Ecology
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