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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749380/handling-interference-effects-in-foraging-with-bucket-brigades
#1
Wonki Lee, DaeEun Kim
Many kinds of bio-inspired tasks have been tested with swarm robotics and task partitioning is one of challenging subjects. In nature, it is well known that some colonies of social insects such as honeybees, termites, and ants use task partitioning strategies for their survival. In this paper, we demonstrate an effect of task partitioning strategy called bucket brigade that uses the direct transfer of materials or food between a pair of workers. We propose a task partitioning strategy based on moving speeds of agents for the foraging task...
July 27, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748628/reproductive-phenology-of-creole-horses-in-ecuador-in-the-absence-of-photoperiod-variation-the-effects-of-forage-availability-and-flooding-affecting-body-condition-of-mares
#2
Juan Carranza, Washington A Yoong, Concha Mateos, Belén Caño Vergara, Chian L Gómez, Verónica Macías
Horse reproduction tends to be seasonal. The main adjusting factor in their original temperate ranges is photoperiod variation, although it is absent in equatorial areas where horses were introduced by European colonizers. Hence, dates of reproduction in these areas may be influenced by factors affecting mares' conditions and the success of foaling. Here we study reproductive timing in Creole horses in Ecuador reared in an extensive production system. We found that foaling peaked in August. Mares' conditions showed one peak in June-July, before the start of the breeding season, and another in December, and it was highly variable along the year...
July 27, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748304/the-eye-fluke-tylodelphys-clavata-affects-prey-detection-and-intraspecific-competition-of-european-perch-perca-fluviatilis
#3
Jenny Carolina Vivas Muñoz, Georg Staaks, Klaus Knopf
Parasites that occupy the eyes of fish have the potential to affect visual perception and consequently alter the host's behaviour, as these organs provide information about their surroundings. In an experimental study, the feeding behaviour of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) infested with the eye fluke Tylodelphys clavata was examined. The results showed that an individual's ability to identify and approach food items was negatively affected by the infestation intensity of T. clavata. Additionally, the foraging success of an individual was reduced in competition with another, less heavily infested conspecific, when the same food resource was exploited...
July 27, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747810/differences-in-social-preference-between-the-sexes-during-ontogeny-drive-segregation-in-a-precocial-species
#4
Mark A Whiteside, Jayden O van Horik, Ellis J G Langley, Christine E Beardsworth, Philippa R Laker, Joah R Madden
ABSTRACT: Hypotheses for why animals sexually segregate typically rely on adult traits, such as differences in sexual roles causing differential habitat preferences, or size dimorphism inducing differences in diet or behaviour. However, segregation can occur in juveniles before such roles or size dimorphism is well established. In young humans, leading hypotheses suggest that (1) sexes differ in their activity and the synchronisation of behaviour causes segregation and (2) sexes separate in order to learn and maximise future reproductive roles...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747694/decreasing-parental-task-specialization-promotes-conditional-cooperation
#5
Arne Iserbyt, Nolwenn Fresneau, Tiffanie Kortenhoff, Marcel Eens, Wendt Müller
How much to invest in parental care and by who remain puzzling questions fomented by a sexual conflict between parents. Negotiation that facilitates coordinated parental behaviour may be key to ease this costly conflict. However, understanding cooperation requires that the temporal and sex-specific variation in parental care, as well as its multivariate nature is considered. Using a biparental bird species and repeated sampling of behavioural activities throughout a major part of reproduction, we show a clear division of tasks between males and females in provisioning, brooding and foraging...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747480/effects-of-age-and-reproductive-status-on-individual-foraging-site-fidelity-in-a-long-lived-marine-predator
#6
Stephen C Votier, Annette L Fayet, Stuart Bearhop, Thomas W Bodey, Bethany L Clark, James Grecian, Tim Guilford, Keith C Hamer, Jana W E Jeglinski, Greg Morgan, Ewan Wakefield, Samantha C Patrick
Individual foraging specializations, where individuals use a small component of the population niche width, are widespread in nature with important ecological and evolutionary implications. In long-lived animals, foraging ability develops with age, but we know little about the ontogeny of individuality in foraging. Here we use precision global positioning system (GPS) loggers to examine how individual foraging site fidelity (IFSF), a common component of foraging specialization, varies between breeders, failed breeders and immatures in a long-lived marine predator-the northern gannet Morus bassanus Breeders (aged 5+) showed strong IFSF: they had similar routes and were faithful to distal points during successive trips...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741730/fermentation-quality-and-nutritive-value-of-total-mixed-ration-silages-based-on-desert-wormwood-artemisia-desertorum-spreng-combining-with-early-stage-corn
#7
Guomei Yin, Chunsheng Bai, Juanjuan Sun, Lin Sun, Yanlin Xue, Yuanyuan Zhang, Heping Zhao, Zhu Yu, Sibo Liu, Kewei Zhang
This study aimed to investigate the fermentation quality and nutritive value of total mixed ration (TMR) silages based on desert wormwood (DW) combined with early stage corn (ESC) as forage and determine an optimum formula. Desert wormwood and ESC were harvested, chopped, and mixed with other ingredients according to a formula, packed into laboratory silos at densities of 500-550 g/L, and stored in the dark for 60 days. The DW proportions in the forage of TMR were 1, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25 and 0, based on fresh weight...
July 25, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740638/nutritional-physiology-and-ecology-of-wildlife-in-a-changing-world
#8
Kim Birnie-Gauvin, Kathryn S Peiman, David Raubenheimer, Steven J Cooke
Over the last century, humans have modified landscapes, generated pollution and provided opportunities for exotic species to invade areas where they did not evolve. In addition, humans now interact with animals in a growing number of ways (e.g. ecotourism). As a result, the quality (i.e. nutrient composition) and quantity (i.e. food abundance) of dietary items consumed by wildlife have, in many cases, changed. We present representative examples of the extent to which vertebrate foraging behaviour, food availability (quantity and quality) and digestive physiology have been modified due to human-induced environmental changes and human activities...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740211/digging-up-food-excavation-stone-tool-use-by-wild-capuchin-monkeys
#9
Tiago Falótico, José O Siqueira, Eduardo B Ottoni
Capuchin monkeys at Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP) usually forage on the ground for roots and fossorial arthropods, digging primarily with their hands but also using stone tools to loosen the soil and aid the digging process. Here we describe the stone tools used for digging by two groups of capuchins on SCNP. Both groups used tools while digging three main food resources: Thiloa glaucocarpa tubers, Ocotea sp roots, and trapdoor spiders. One explanation for the occurrence of tool use in primates is the "necessity hypothesis", which states that the main function of tool use is to obtain fallback food...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738207/translocation-of-heavy-metals-from-soils-into-floral-organs-and-rewards-of-cucurbita-pepo-implications-for-plant-reproductive-fitness
#10
Erna Xun, Yanwen Zhang, Jimin Zhao, Jixun Guo
Metals and metalloids in soil could be transferred into reproductive organs and floral rewards of hyperaccumulator plants and influence their reproductive success, yet little is known whether non-hyperaccumulator plants can translocate heavy metals from soil into their floral organs and rewards (i.e., nectar and pollen) and, if so, whether plant reproduction will be affected. In our studies, summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Golden Apple) was exposed to heavy-metal treatments during bud stage to investigate the translocation of soil-supplemented zinc, copper, nickel and lead into its floral organs (pistil, anther and nectary) and rewards (nectar and pollen) as well as floral metal accumulation effects on its reproduction...
July 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736164/idiothetic-path-integration-in-the-fruit-fly-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Irene S Kim, Michael H Dickinson
After discovering a small drop of food, hungry flies exhibit a peculiar behavior in which they repeatedly stray from, but then return to, the newly discovered resource. To study this behavior in more detail, we tracked hungry Drosophila as they explored a large arena, focusing on the question of how flies remain near the food. To determine whether flies use external stimuli, we individually eliminated visual, olfactory, and pheromonal cues. In all cases, flies still exhibited a centralized search behavior, suggesting that none of these cues are absolutely required for navigation back to the food...
July 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735600/evidence-for-increasing-digestive-and-metabolic-efficiency-of-energy-utilization-with-age-of-dairy-cattle-as-determined-in-two-feeding-regimes
#12
F Grandl, J O Zeitz, M Clauss, M Furger, M Kreuzer, A Schwarm
The changes taking place with age in energy turnover of dairy cattle are largely unknown. It is unclear whether the efficiency of energy utilization in digestion (characterized by faecal and methane energy losses) and in metabolism (characterized by urine and heat energy losses) is altered with age. In the present study, energy balance data were obtained from 30 lactating Brown Swiss dairy cows aged between 2 and 10 years, and 12 heifers from 0.5 to 2 years of age. In order to evaluate a possible dependence of age effects on diet type, half of the cattle each originated from two herds kept at the same farm, which were fed either on a forage-only diet or on the same forage diet but complemented with 5 kg/day of concentrate since their first calving...
July 24, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735468/the-effect-of-water-contamination-and-host-related-factors-on-ectoparasite-load-in-an-insectivorous-bat
#13
Carmi Korine, Shai Pilosof, Amit Gross, Juan B Morales-Malacara, Boris R Krasnov
We examined the effects of sex, age, and reproductive state of the insectivorous bat Pipistrellus kuhlii on the abundance and prevalence of arthropod ectoparasites (Macronyssidae and Cimicidae) in habitats with either sewage-polluted or natural bodies of water, in the Negev Desert, Israel. We chose water pollution as an environmental factor because of the importance of water availability in desert environments, particularly for P. kuhlii, which needs to drink on a daily basis. We predicted that parasite infestation rates would be affected by both environment and demographic cohort of the host...
July 22, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734602/fatty-acids-vitamins-and-cholesterol-content-and-sensory-properties-of-cheese-made-with-milk-from-sheep-fed-rapeseed-oilcake
#14
A I Nájera, M A Bustamante, M Albisu, I Valdivielso, G Amores, N Mandaluniz, J Arranz, L J R Barron, M de Renobales
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of rapeseed oilcake used for feeding sheep on the content of fatty acids (FA), tocopherols, retinoids, and cholesterol of milk and cheese, and on the sensory properties of cheese. Indoor animal feeding (in winter) is the highest cost of production for cheesemakers, and the inclusion of locally produced rapeseed oilcake in the concentrate feed formulation can reduce the cost of cheese production, as long as the quality of the cheese is not altered. The experiment was carried out in March (mid lactation) with 72 Latxa sheep from an experimental farm located in the Basque Country (northern Spain)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732456/introduced-rats-and-an-endemic-roundworm-does-rattus-rattus-contribute-to-baylisascaris-procyonis-transmission-in-california
#15
Sara B Weinstein
The introduced black rat, Rattus rattus, occurs throughout the native range of the raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis, and might incorporate into its life cycle if rats consume parasite eggs, acquire viable infections, and are eaten by raccoons. Although rats forage at raccoon latrines, their role in B. procyonis transmission remains unknown. Here I tested the potential for rats to amplify B. procyonis transmission in California by surveying wild rodents for B. procyonis and conducting scavenger trials using motion activated cameras...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731824/evolutionary-scenarios-and-primate-natural-history
#16
Harry W Greene
Scenarios summarize evolutionary patterns and processes by interpreting organismal traits and their natural history correlates in a phylogenetic context. They are constructed by (1) describing phenotypes (including physiology and behavior), ideally with attention to formative roles of development, experience, and culture; (2) inferring homologies, homoplasies, ancestral character states, and their transformations with phylogenetic analyses; and (3) integrating those components with ecological and other ancillary data...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731796/bees-without-flowers-before-peak-bloom-diverse-native-bees-find-insect-produced-honeydew-sugars
#17
Joan M Meiners, Terry L Griswold, David J Harris, S K Morgan Ernest
Bee foragers respond to complex visual, olfactory, and extrasensory cues to optimize searches for floral rewards. Their abilities to detect and distinguish floral colors, shapes, volatiles, and ultraviolet signals and even gauge nectar availability from changes in floral humidity or electric fields are well studied. Bee foraging behaviors in the absence of floral cues, however, are rarely considered. We observed 42 species of wild bees visiting inconspicuous, nonflowering shrubs during early spring in a protected Mediterranean habitat...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730513/element-repetition-rates-encode-functionally-distinct-information-in-pied-babbler-clucks-and-purrs
#18
Sabrina Engesser, Amanda R Ridley, Simon W Townsend
Human language is a recombinant system that achieves its productivity through the combination of a limited set of sounds. Research investigating the evolutionary origin of this generative capacity has generally focused on the capacity of non-human animals to combine different types of discrete sounds to encode new meaning, with less emphasis on meaning-differentiating mechanisms achieved through potentially simpler temporal modifications within a sequence of repeated sounds. Here we show that pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor) generate two functionally distinct vocalisations composed of the same sound type, which can only be distinguished by the number of repeated elements...
July 20, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730345/does-fear-beget-fear-risk-mediated-habitat-selection-triggers-predator-avoidance-at-lower-trophic-levels
#19
Carmen K Blubaugh, Ivy V Widick, Ian Kaplan
Non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of predators are ubiquitous in food webs with well-detailed impacts on trophic cascades over multiple levels. However, integrating NCEs with other predator-mediated interactions, like intraguild predation, as well as context-specific habitat factors that shape top-down pressure, remains a challenge. Focusing on two common seed predators, mice (Peromyscus spp.) and carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), we quantify trophic and behavioral consequences of predation risk and availability of refuge vegetation on both intraguild predators (mice) and intraguild prey (beetles)...
July 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729439/striatal-gpr88-modulates-foraging-efficiency
#20
Aundrea Rainwater, Elisenda Sanz, Richard D Palmiter, Albert Quintana
The striatum is anatomically and behaviorally implicated in behaviors that promote efficient foraging. To investigate this function, we studied instrumental choice behavior in mice lacking GPR88, a striatum-enriched orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that modulates striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN) excitability. Our results reveal that hungry mice lacking GPR88 (KO mice) were slow to acquire food-reinforced lever-press, but could lever press similar to controls on a progressive-ratio schedule. Both WT and KO mice discriminated between reward and no-reward levers; however, KO mice failed to discriminate based on relative quantity- reward (1 versus 3 food pellets) or effort (3 versus 9 lever presses)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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