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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095318/interoceptive-modulation-of-neuroendocrine-emotional-and-hypophagic-responses-to-stress
#1
REVIEW
James W Maniscalco, Linda Rinaman
Periods of caloric deficit substantially attenuate many centrally mediated responses to acute stress, including neural drive to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, anxiety-like behavior, and stress-induced suppression of food intake (i.e., stress hypophagia). It is posited that this stress response plasticity supports food foraging and promotes intake during periods of negative energy balance, even in the face of other internal or external threats, thereby increasing the likelihood that energy stores are repleted...
January 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094288/predator-personality-and-prey-behavioural-predictability-jointly-determine-foraging-performance
#2
Chia-Chen Chang, Huey Yee Teo, Y Norma-Rashid, Daiqin Li
Predator-prey interactions play important roles in ecological communities. Personality, consistent inter-individual differences in behaviour, of predators, prey or both are known to influence inter-specific interactions. An individual may also behave differently under the same situation and the level of such variability may differ between individuals. Such intra-individual variability (IIV) or predictability may be a trait on which selection can also act. A few studies have revealed the joint effect of personality types of both predators and prey on predator foraging performance...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093608/spatiotemporal-drivers-of-energy-expenditure-in-a-coastal-marine-fish
#3
Jacob W Brownscombe, Steven J Cooke, Andy J Danylchuk
Animal behavior and energy expenditure often vary significantly across the landscape, and quantifying energy expenditure over space and time provides mechanistic insight into ecological dynamics. Yet, spatiotemporal variability in energy expenditure has rarely been explored in fully aquatic species such as fish. Our objective was to quantify spatially explicit energy expenditure for a tropical marine teleost fish, bonefish (Albula vulpes), to examine how bonefish energetics vary across landscape features and temporal factors...
January 16, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093606/erratum-to-adjusting-foraging-strategies-a-comparison-of-rural-and-urban-common-mynas-acridotheres-tristis
#4
Ira G Federspiel, Alexis Garland, David Guez, Thomas Bugnyar, Susan D Healy, Onur Güntürkün, Andrea S Griffin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091726/predation-cues-rather-than-resource-availability-promote-cryptic-behaviour-in-a-habitat-forming-sea-urchin
#5
Arie J P Spyksma, Richard B Taylor, Nick T Shears
It is well known that predators often influence the foraging behaviour of prey through the so-called "fear effect". However, it is also possible that predators could change prey behaviour indirectly by altering the prey's food supply through a trophic cascade. The predator-sea urchin-kelp trophic cascade is widely assumed to be driven by the removal of sea urchins by predators, but changes in sea urchin behaviour in response to predators or increased food availability could also play an important role. We tested whether increased crevice occupancy by herbivorous sea urchins in the presence of abundant predatory fishes and lobsters is a response to the increased risk of predation, or an indirect response to higher kelp abundances...
January 13, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091361/responses-of-plasma-glucose-metabolism-to-exogenous-insulin-infusion-in-sheep-fed-forage-herb-plantain-and-exposed-to-heat
#6
M Al-Mamun, K Shibuya, M Kajita, Y Tamura, H Sano
The use of herbal plants as traditional medicines has a century long history. Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) is a perennial herb containing bioactive components with free radical scavenging activities. An isotope dilution technique using [U-13C]glucose was conducted to determine the effect of plantain on the responses of plasma glucose metabolism to exogenous insulin infusion in sheep. Six crossbred sheep (three wethers and three ewes; mean initial BW=40±2 kg) were fed either a mixed hay of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) (MH-diet) or mixed hay and fresh plantain (1 : 1 ratio, dry matter basis, PL-diet) and exposed to a thermoneutral (TN, 20°C; 70% relative humidity (RH)) environment or a heat exposure (HE, 30°C; 70% RH) for 5 days using a crossover design for two 23-day periods...
January 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089913/physicians-perception-of-alternative-displays-of-clinical-research-evidence-for-clinical-decision-support-a-study-with-case-vignettes
#7
Stacey L Slager, Charlene R Weir, Heejun Kim, Javed Mostafa, Guilherme Del Fiol
OBJECTIVE: To design alternate information displays that present summaries of clinical trial results to clinicians to support decision-making; and to compare the displays according to efficacy and acceptability. METHODS: A 6-between (information display presentation order) by 3-within (display type) factorial design. Two alternate displays were designed based on Information Foraging theory: a narrative summary that reduces the content to a few sentences; and a table format that structures the display according to the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) framework...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089840/biogeography-and-diversification-dynamics-of-the-african-woodpeckers
#8
Jérôme Fuchs, Jean-Marc Pons, Rauri C K Bowie
The dynamics of species accumulation of African terrestrial vertebrates over time remains underexplored in comparison with those in the New World, despite Africa hosting about 25% of the world's avian diversity. This lack of knowledge hampers our understanding of the fundamental processes that drive biodiversity and the dynamics of speciation. To begin to address this gap, we reconstructed species-level phylogenies of two unrelated clades of African woodpeckers (12 species of Geocolaptes/Campethera and 13 species of Chloropicus/ Mesopicos/ Dendropicos/Ipophilus) that diverged from their closest Indo-Malayan relatives at similar times...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089516/environmental-geometry-aligns-the-hippocampal-map-during-spatial-reorientation
#9
Alex T Keinath, Joshua B Julian, Russell A Epstein, Isabel A Muzzio
When a navigator's internal sense of direction is disrupted, she must rely on external cues to regain her bearings, a process termed spatial reorientation. Extensive research has demonstrated that the geometric shape of the environment exerts powerful control over reorientation behavior, but the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. Whereas some theories claim that geometry controls behavior through an allocentric mechanism potentially tied to the hippocampus, others postulate that disoriented navigators reach their goals by using an egocentric view-matching strategy...
January 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088848/mercury-bioaccumulation-in-estuarine-fishes-novel-insights-from-sulfur-stable-isotopes
#10
James J Willacker, Collin A Eagles-Smith, Joshua T Ackerman
Estuaries are transitional habitats characterized by complex biogeochemical and ecological gradients that result in substantial variation in fish total mercury concentrations (THg). We leveraged these gradients and used carbon (δ(13)C), nitrogen (δ(15)N), and sulfur (δ(34)S) stable isotopes to examine the ecological and biogeochemical processes underlying THg bioaccumulation in fishes from the San Francisco Bay Estuary. We employed a tiered approach that first examined processes influencing variation in fish THg among wetlands, and subsequently examined the roles of habitat and within-wetland processes in generating larger-scale patterns in fish THg...
January 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088215/non-associative-versus-associative-learning-by-foraging-predatory-mites
#11
Peter Schausberger, Stefan Peneder
BACKGROUND: Learning processes can be broadly categorized into associative and non-associative. Associative learning occurs through the pairing of two previously unrelated stimuli, whereas non-associative learning occurs in response to a single stimulus. How these two principal processes compare in the same learning task and how they contribute to the overall behavioural changes brought about by experience is poorly understood. We tackled this issue by scrutinizing associative and non-associative learning of prey, Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, by the predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus...
January 14, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087090/quantifying-exposure-of-wild-bumblebees-to-mixtures-of-agrochemicals-in-agricultural-and-urban-landscapes
#12
Cristina Botías, Arthur David, Elizabeth M Hill, Dave Goulson
The increased use of pesticides has caused concern over the possible direct association of exposure to combinations of these compounds with bee health problems. There is growing proof that bees are regularly exposed to mixtures of agrochemicals, but most research has been focused on managed bees living in farmland, whereas little is known about exposure of wild bees, both in farmland and urban habitats. To determine exposure of wild bumblebees to pesticides in agricultural and urban environments through the season, specimens of five different species were collected from farms and ornamental urban gardens in three sampling periods...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081276/correlation-and-path-analysis-of-biomass-sorghum-production
#13
T P S Vendruscolo, M A A Barelli, M A S Castrillon, R S da Silva, F T de Oliveira, C L Corrêa, B W Zago, F D Tardin
Sorghum biomass is an interesting raw material for bioenergy production due to its versatility, potential of being a renewable energy source, and low-cost of production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability of biomass sorghum genotypes and to estimate genotypic, phenotypic, and environmental correlations, and direct and indirect effects of seven agronomic traits through path analysis. Thirty-four biomass sorghum genotypes and two forage sorghum genotypes were cultivated in a randomized block design with three replicates...
December 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081146/maternal-nutrition-during-pregnancy-affects-testicular-and-bone-development-glucose-metabolism-and-response-to-overnutrition-in-weaned-horses-up-to-two-years
#14
Morgane Robles, Camille Gautier, Luis Mendoza, Pauline Peugnet, Cédric Dubois, Michèle Dahirel, Jean-Philippe Lejeune, Isabelle Caudron, Isabelle Guenon, Sylvaine Camous, Anne Tarrade, Laurence Wimel, Didier Serteyn, Hélène Bouraima-Lelong, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer
INTRODUCTION: Pregnant mares and post-weaning foals are often fed concentrates rich in soluble carbohydrates, together with forage. Recent studies suggest that the use of concentrates is linked to alterations of metabolism and the development of osteochondrosis in foals. The aim of this study was to determine if broodmare diet during gestation affects metabolism, osteoarticular status and growth of yearlings overfed from 20 to 24 months of age and/or sexual maturity in prepubertal colts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079107/phenotyping-for-the-dynamics-of-field-wheat-root-system-architecture
#15
Xinxin Chen, Qishuo Ding, Zbigniew Błaszkiewicz, Jiuai Sun, Qian Sun, Ruiyin He, Yinian Li
We investigated a method to quantify field-state wheat RSA in a phenotyping way, depicting the 3D topology of wheat RSA in 14d periods. The phenotyping procedure, proposed for understanding the spatio-temporal variations of root-soil interaction and the RSA dynamics in the field, is realized with a set of indices of mm scale precision, illustrating the gradients of both wheat root angle and elongation rate along soil depth, as well as the foraging potential along the side directions. The 70d was identified as the shifting point distinguishing the linear root length elongation from power-law development...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078757/lamellar-events-related-to-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-signaling-in-two-models-relevant-to-endocrinopathic-laminitis
#16
H E Lane, T A Burns, O C Hegedus, M R Watts, P S Weber, K A Woltman, R J Geor, L J McCutcheon, S C Eades, L E Mathes, J K Belknap
BACKGROUND: Insulin dysregulation, obesity, and exposure to high-non structural carbohydrate (NSC) forage are risk factors for equine metabolic syndrome (EMS)-associated laminitis (EMSAL); high systemic insulin concentrations in EMSAL are proposed to induce cellular dysregulation in the digital lamellae through activation of the IGF-1 receptor. OBJECTIVES: To use a dietary challenge model (DCM) and a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC) model to assess lamellar growth factor-related signaling...
January 11, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076653/recent-advances-in-primate-nutritional-ecology
#17
Nicoletta Righini
Nutritional ecology seeks to explain, in an ecological and evolutionary context, how individuals choose, acquire, and process food to satisfy their nutritional requirements. Historically, studies of primate feeding ecology have focused on characterizing diets in terms of the botanical composition of the plants consumed. Further, dietary studies have demonstrated how patch and food choice in relation to time spent foraging and feeding are influenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources and by social factors such as feeding competition, dominance, or partner preferences...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076447/lower-methane-emissions-from-yak-compared-with-cattle-in-rusitec-fermenters
#18
Jiandui Mi, Jianwei Zhou, Xiaodan Huang, Ruijun Long
Globally methane (CH4) emissions from ruminant livestock account for 29% of total CH4 emissions. Inherited variation about CH4 emissions of different animal species might provide new opportunity for manipulating CH4 production. Six rumen-simulating fermenters (Rusitec) were set up for this study lasting for 16 d. The diet consisted of forage to concentrate ratio of 50:50 with barley straw as the forage. Treated vessels were supplied with rumen fluid from yak or cattle (3 vessels per animal species). Microbial growth was measured using 15N as a marker...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075017/intrapopulation-variability-in-the-timing-of-ontogenetic-habitat-shifts-in-sea-turtles-revealed-using-%C3%AE-15-n-values-from-bone-growth-rings
#19
Calandra N Turner Tomaszewicz, Jeffrey A Seminoff, S Hoyt Peckham, Larisa Avens, Carolyn M Kurle
Determining location and timing of ontogenetic shifts in the habitat use of highly migratory species, along with possible intrapopulation variation in these shifts, is essential for understanding mechanisms driving alternate life histories and assessing overall population trends. Measuring variations in multi-year habitat-use patterns is especially difficult for remote oceanic species. To investigate the potential for differential habitat use among migratory marine vertebrates, we measured the naturally occurring stable nitrogen isotope (δ(15) N) patterns that differentiate distinct ocean regions to create a 'regional isotope characterization', analysed the δ(15) N values from annual bone growth layer rings from dead-stranded animals, and then combined the bone and regional isotope data to track individual animal movement patterns over multiple years...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075009/the-physiological-costs-of-prey-switching-reinforce-foraging-specialization
#20
Oliver E Hooker, Travis E Van Leeuwen, Colin E Adams
Sympatric speciation is thought to be strongly linked to resource specialization with alternative resource use acting as a fundamental agent driving divergence. However, sympatric speciation through niche expansion is dependent on foraging specialization being consistent over space and time. Standard metabolic rate is the minimal maintenance metabolic rate of an ectotherm in a post-absorptive and inactive state and can constitute a significant portion of an animal's energy budget; thus standard metabolic rate and growth rate are two measures frequently used as an indication of the physiological performance of individuals...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
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