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Problem list

Chiara Clementi, François Littmann, Lorenzo Capineri
Several countries are planning to store nuclear spent fuel in long term geological repositories, preserved by copper canisters with an iron insert. This new approach involves many challenging problems and one is to satisfy safeguards requirements: the Continuity of Knowledge (CoK) of the fuel must be kept from the encapsulation plant up to the final repository. To date, no measurement system has been suggested for a unique identification and authentication. Following the list of the most important safeguards, safety and security requirements for copper canisters identification and authentication, a review of conventional tagging technologies and measurement systems for nuclear items is reported in this paper...
March 21, 2018: Sensors
Stelliana Goutzamanis, Peter Higgs, Mike Richardson, Sarah MacLean
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Indigenous people seeking residential alcohol and other drug (AOD) rehabilitation in Victoria are most frequently referred to the Ngwala Willumbong Co-operative (Ngwala). This study aimed to describe socio-demographic changes in clients of Ngwala's residential rehabilitation services between 2015 and 2016. DESIGN AND METHODS: Self-assessment surveys completed upon screening for rehabilitation between May 2015 and November 2016 (n = 117) were analysed for socio-demographic data, AOD use and mental health status...
March 21, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Mei-Jun Deng, Chun-Yan Liu, Yu Xie, Jie-Bin Zhu, Zhen-Hua Xu
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the regularity of application of Lianquan (CV 23) in clinical practice in Chinese ancient times through analysis of ancient traditional Chinese medical (TCM) literature. METHODS: A total of 60 books involving CV 23 from the 1 156 ancient TCM books listed in the fifth edition of Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine were collected by using CV 23 as the main keyword and "Sheben" "Benchi", and "Jieben" (the other names of CV 23 in TCM)as the supplementary keywords and analyzed systematically...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Andrew C Berry, Nicholas A Berry, Travis S Myers, Joseph Reznicek, Bruce B Berry
Background: Many healthcare professionals consider obese individuals to be unmotivated and to lack the willpower to follow through with weight-loss plans. This attitude may result in less effort put into diagnosing, documenting, and treating obesity. Our aim was to assess documentation patterns of obesity and hypertension overall, by primary care specialty, and in relation to provider body mass index (BMI). Methods: Twenty-two physicians from one outpatient community practice were included: 10 internal medicine and 12 family practice practitioners...
2018: Ochsner Journal
Saleh Alsulami, Zaid Al Omar, Mohammed S Binnwejim, Fahad Alhamdan, Amr Aldrees, Abdulkarim Al-Bawardi, Meshary Alsohim, Mohammed Alhabeeb
The Health Science Preparatory Program (HSPP) is a special program that aims to enhance the educational preparedness of students for participation in a health sciences career. Students spend their first university year in a combined extensive teaching program before they can be assigned to a particular health science specialty. It is thought that students enrolled in a highly competitive environment such as HSPP with a long list of potential stressors, including developmental, academic overload, language barriers and competition, are more disposed to stress and stress-related complications...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
Ruth Pearson, Madhura Killedar, Janka Petravic, Jakub J Kakietek, Nick Scott, Kelsey L Grantham, Robyn M Stuart, David J Kedziora, Cliff C Kerr, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Meera Shekhar, David P Wilson
BACKGROUND: Child stunting due to chronic malnutrition is a major problem in low- and middle-income countries due, in part, to inadequate nutrition-related practices and insufficient access to services. Limited budgets for nutritional interventions mean that available resources must be targeted in the most cost-effective manner to have the greatest impact. Quantitative tools can help guide budget allocation decisions. METHODS: The Optima approach is an established framework to conduct resource allocation optimization analyses...
March 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Leo Corry
The sixth of Hilbert's famous 1900 list of 23 problems was a programmatic call for the axiomatization of the physical sciences. It was naturally and organically rooted at the core of Hilbert's conception of what axiomatization is all about. In fact, the axiomatic method which he applied at the turn of the twentieth century in his famous work on the foundations of geometry originated in a preoccupation with foundational questions related with empirical science in general. Indeed, far from a purely formal conception, Hilbert counted geometry among the sciences with strong empirical content, closely related to other branches of physics and deserving a treatment similar to that reserved for the latter...
April 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Yuhong Li, Guanghong Gong, Ni Li
In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm-parallel adaptive quantum genetic algorithm-which can rapidly determine the minimum control nodes of arbitrary networks with both control nodes and state nodes. The corresponding network can be fully controlled with the obtained control scheme. We transformed the network controllability issue into a combinational optimization problem based on the Popov-Belevitch-Hautus rank condition. A set of canonical networks and a list of real-world networks were experimented...
2018: PloS One
Karla Soares-Weiser, John Rathbone, Yusuke Ogawa, Kiyomi Shinohara, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. Its use, however, is associated with adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) - a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. This review, one in a series examining the treatment of TD, covers miscellaneous treatments not covered elsewhere. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether drugs, hormone-, dietary-, or herb-supplements not covered in other Cochrane reviews on TD treatments, surgical interventions, electroconvulsive therapy, and mind-body therapies were effective and safe for people with antipsychotic-induced TD...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Marc H V Van Regenmortel
Virus classification deals with conceptual species classes that have viruses as their members. A virus species cannot be described but can only be defined by listing certain species-defining properties of its member. However, it is not possible to define a virus species by using a single species-defining property. The new 2013 official definition of virus species is not appropriate because it applies equally to virus genera. A nucleotide motif is a chemical part of a viral genome and is not a species-defining property that could be used for establishing new virus species...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Piotr Klukowski, Michal Augoff, Maciej Zieba, Maciej Drwal, Adam Gonczarek, Michal J Walczak
Motivation: Automated selection of signals in protein NMR spectra, known as peak picking, has been studied for over 20 years, nevertheless existing peak picking methods are still largely deficient. Accurate and precise automated peak picking would accelerate the structure calculation, and analysis of dynamics and interactions of macromolecules. Recent advancement in handling big data, together with an outburst of machine learning techniques, offer an opportunity to tackle the peak picking problem substantially faster than manual picking and on par with human accuracy...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Chad M Hodge, Scott P Narus
Objective: Problem list data is a driving force for many beneficial clinical tools, yet these data remain underutilized. We performed a systematic literature review, pulling insights from previous research, aggregating insights into themes, and distilling themes into actionable advice. We sought to learn what changes we could make to existing applications, to the clinical workflow, and to clinicians' perceptions that would improve problem list utilization and increase the prevalence of problems data in the electronic medical record...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Mairead Murphy, Sandra Hollinghurst, Chris Salisbury
BACKGROUND: Patients attend primary care with many types of problems and to achieve a range of possible outcomes. There is currently a lack of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) designed to capture these diverse outcomes. The objective of this systematic review was to identify, describe and appraise generic PROMs suitable for measuring outcomes from primary care. METHODS: We carried out a systematic Medline search, supplemented by other online and hand-searches...
March 15, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Nancy A Scott, Taryn Vian, Jeanette L Kaiser, Thandiwe Ngoma, Kaluba Mataka, Elizabeth G Henry, Godfrey Biemba, Mary Nambao, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends maternity waiting homes (MWH) as one intervention to improve maternal and newborn health. However, persistent structural, cultural and financial barriers in their design and implementation have resulted in mixed success in both their uptake and utilization. Guidance is needed on how to design a MWH intervention that is acceptable and sustainable. Using formative research and guided by a sustainability framework for health programs, we systematically collected data from key stakeholders and potential users in order to design a MWH intervention in Zambia that could overcome multi-dimensional barriers to accessing facility delivery, be acceptable to the community and be financially and operationally sustainable...
2018: PloS One
Katsuyuki Taguchi, Karl Stierstorfer, Christoph Polster, Okkyun Lee, Steffen Kappler
PURPOSE: The inter-pixel cross-talk of energy-sensitive photon counting x-ray detectors (PCDs) has been studied and an analytical model (version 2.1) has been developed for double-counting between neighboring pixels due to charge sharing and K-shell fluorescence x-ray emission followed by its re-absorption [Taguchi K, et al., Medical Physics 2016;43(12):6386-6404]. While the model version 2.1 simulated the spectral degradation well, it had the following problems that has been found to be significant recently: (1) The spectrum is inaccurate with smaller pixel sizes; (2) the charge cloud size must be smaller than the pixel size; (3) the model underestimates the spectrum/counts for 10-40 keV; and (4) the model version 2...
March 14, 2018: Medical Physics
Yara Suliman, Frank Becker, Klaus Wimmers
Poor fertility of breeding stallions is a recognised problem in the equine industry. The aim of the present study was to detect molecular pathways using two groups of stallions that differed in pregnancy rates as well as in the proportion of normal and motile spermatozoa. RNA was isolated from spermatozoa of each stallion and microarray data were analysed to obtain a list of genes for which transcript abundance differed between the groups (P ≤0.05, fold change ≥1.2). In all, there were 437 differentially expressed (DE) genes between the two groups (P ≤ 0...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Andrew C Parrott
Many novel psychoactive substances (NPS) have entered the recreational drug scene in recent years, yet the problems they cause are similar to those found with established drugs. This article will debate the psychobiological effects of these newer and more traditional substances. It will show how they disrupt the same core psychobiological functions, so damaging well-being in similar ways. Every psychoactive drug causes mood states to fluctuate. Users feel better on-drug, then feel worse off-drug. The strength of these mood fluctuations is closely related to their addiction potential...
March 13, 2018: Brain Sciences
Patrizia Piotti, Liam Paul Satchell, Tom Steven Lockhart
Trait impulsivity is an increasingly relevant topic for human and non-human animal personality research. There are similarities in dog and human manifestations of trait impulsivity at the behavioural, genetic, and neurobiological level. We investigated a well-validated measure of dog impulsivity and responsivity (the Dog Impulsivity Assessment Scale, DIAS) and a neuropsychological theory of human trait approach and avoidance (the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of personality, RST). Owners reported their dogs' dispositional behaviour on the DIAS, an RST scale modified to describe dogs' behaviour, and a list of common dog behaviour problems...
March 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Amy J Morgan, Ronald M Rapee, Agus Salim, Jordana K Bayer
Previous research has identified factors related to outcome in child anxiety treatment and parent training programs for child behavior problems. However, it is unclear what factors predict outcomes in interventions delivered online to parents of young children at risk of anxiety. This study investigated predictors of child anxiety outcomes among 433 families with young children (3-6 years) who participated in a randomized controlled trial of Cool Little Kids Online, an eight-module early intervention program for child anxiety based on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)...
March 2018: Behavior Therapy
Alejandro Gabriel G Gonzalez Garay, Daniel Molano Franco, Víctor H Nieto Estrada, Arturo J Martí-Carvajal, Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: High altitude illness (HAI) is a term used to describe a group of mainly cerebral and pulmonary syndromes that can occur during travel to elevations above 2500 metres (˜ 8200 feet). Acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral oedema (HACE) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) are reported as potential medical problems associated with high altitude ascent. In this second review, in a series of three about preventive strategies for HAI, we assessed the effectiveness of five of the less commonly used classes of pharmacological interventions...
March 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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