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glucose tolerance and pregnancy and atypical

Sebastian D Parlee, Ormond A MacDougald
Mammalian embryos have evolved to adjust their organ and tissue development in response to an atypical environment. This adaptation, called phenotypic plasticity, allows the organism to thrive in the anticipated environment in which the fetus will emerge. Barker and colleagues proposed that if the environment in which the fetus emerges differs from that in which it develops, phenotypic plasticity may provide an underlying mechanism for disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that humans born small- or large-for-gestational-age, have a higher likelihood of developing obesity as adults...
March 2014: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
R D Lawrence
The patient, a woman, aged 40, had five normal pregnancies before, and six abnormal pregnancies after, the onset of diabetic symptoms. The case differed from typical diabetes in the following respects. In spite of severe thirst and polyuria, lasting untreated for six years, the patient became very fat, and the condition did not progress in the usual way. At the termination of the last pregnancy the glycosuria disappeared and the blood-sugar became almost normal, although the diet was very little restricted and all insulin was omitted...
December 1927: Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine
Li Chen, Xing-Hai Yao, B L G Nyomba
It is now known that prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in rat offspring, but the underlying mechanism(s) is not known. To test the hypothesis that in vivo insulin signaling through phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase is reduced in skeletal muscle of adult rat offspring exposed to EtOH in utero, we gave insulin intravenously to these rats and probed steps in the PI3-kinase insulin signaling pathway. After insulin treatment, EtOH-exposed rats had decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor beta-subunit and of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), as well as reduced IRS-1-associated PI3-kinase in the gastrocnemius muscle compared with control rats...
August 2005: Journal of Applied Physiology
V Sabata
Peroral glucose tolerance tests were performed in women with small-for-date fetuses and in controls with healthy fetuses in the 38th week of pregnancy, 2 days and 6 weeks after delivery. 2 h after the load of 50 g of glucose, the blood glucose level remained significantly higher in pregnant women with small-for-date fetuses. The other parameters followed did not exhibit any difference from the control group. Since this deviation disappeared very rapidly after delivery it may be supposed that it is caused by hormonal and other influences of the atypical conceptus and not by a primary derangement of maternal metabolism or by a disparate responsiveness of the maternal organism to pregnancy...
1979: Biology of the Neonate
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