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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352598/who-consultation-on-etec-and-shigella-burden-of-disease-geneva-6-7th-april-2017-meeting-report
#1
Divya Hosangadi, Peter G Smith, David C Kaslow, Birgitte K Giersing
According to the 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study, diarrhea ranked ninth among causes of death for all ages, and fourth among children under 5 years old, accounting for an estimated 499,000 deaths in this young age group. It was also the second most common cause of years lived with disability (2.39 billion YLDs). The goal of the WHO/UNICEF Integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) is to reduce deaths from diarrhea in children under 5 years of age to less than 1 per 1000 live births, by 2025...
January 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351781/mindmap-establishing-an-integrated-database-infrastructure-for-research-in-ageing-mental-well-being-and-the-urban-environment
#2
Mariëlle A Beenackers, Dany Doiron, Isabel Fortier, J Mark Noordzij, Erica Reinhard, Emilie Courtin, Martin Bobak, Basile Chaix, Giuseppe Costa, Ulrike Dapp, Ana V Diez Roux, Martijn Huisman, Emily M Grundy, Steinar Krokstad, Pekka Martikainen, Parminder Raina, Mauricio Avendano, Frank J van Lenthe
BACKGROUND: Urbanization and ageing have important implications for public mental health and well-being. Cities pose major challenges for older citizens, but also offer opportunities to develop, test, and implement policies, services, infrastructure, and interventions that promote mental well-being. The MINDMAP project aims to identify the opportunities and challenges posed by urban environmental characteristics for the promotion and management of mental well-being and cognitive function of older individuals...
January 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351520/beyond-clinical-complexity-non-medical-barriers-to-nursing-home-care-for-rural-residents
#3
Carrie Henning-Smith, Katy B Kozhimannil, Michelle M Casey, Shailendra Prasad
We conducted a qualitative content analysis of barriers to nursing home admission for rural residents. Data came from semi-structured interviews with 23 rural hospital discharge planners across five states (Georgia, Idaho, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin). From those, we identified four themes around non-medical barriers to rural nursing home placement with particular salience in rural areas: financial issues; transportation; nursing home availability and infrastructure; and timeliness. We also identified policy and programmatic interventions across four themes: loosen bureaucratic requirements; improve communication between facilities; increase rural long-term care capacity; and address underlying social determinants of health...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Aging & Social Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349551/medical-marijuana-current-concepts-pharmacological-actions-of-cannabinoid-receptor-mediated-activation-and-societal-implications
#4
REVIEW
Nalini Vadivelu, Alice M Kai, Gopal Kodumudi, Julie Sramcik, Alan D Kaye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the following review is to summarize the history and current policies related to marijuana use and prevalence, basic and clinical science pharmacological literature regarding efficacy, subpopulations of concern, and varying policies regarding its use at present. RECENT FINDINGS: With the increasingly widespread utilization of marijuana, there is also a growing complexity of public health policy, regulation, and necessity to further assess the medical indications and adverse long-term effects of marijuana use...
January 18, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349293/experimenter-gender-and-replicability-in-science
#5
REVIEW
Colin D Chapman, Christian Benedict, Helgi B Schiöth
There is a replication crisis spreading through the annals of scientific inquiry. Although some work has been carried out to uncover the roots of this issue, much remains unanswered. With this in mind, this paper investigates how the gender of the experimenter may affect experimental findings. Clinical trials are regularly carried out without any report of the experimenter's gender and with dubious knowledge of its influence. Consequently, significant biases caused by the experimenter's gender may lead researchers to conclude that therapeutics or other interventions are either overtreating or undertreating a variety of conditions...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348252/translational-research-in-cardiovascular-repair-a-call-for-a-paradigm-shift
#6
REVIEW
Steven A J Chamuleau, Mira van der Naald, Andreu M Climent, Adriaan O Kraaijeveld, Kim E Wever, Dirk J Duncker, Francisco Fernández-Avilés, Roberto Bolli
The international consortium TACTICS (Transnational Alliance for Regenerative Therapies in Cardiovascular Syndromes) has recently addressed key priorities in the field of cell-based therapy for cardiac repair, identifying the efficacy of translational research as one of the main challenges to ultimately improve the quality of life of patients with ischemic disease. Much of the controversy and confusion surrounding cardiac regenerative therapy stems from insufficient rigor in the conduct of preclinical studies, and there is an increasing recognition of a number of problems that undermine its quality that may contribute to translational failure...
January 19, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346480/changing-collective-social-norms-in-favour-of-reduced-harmful-use-of-alcohol-a-review-of-reviews
#7
Peter Anderson, Eva Jané-Llopis, Omer Syed Muhammad Hasan, Jürgen Rehm
Background: Public sector bodies have called for policies and programmes to shift collective social norms in disfavour of the harmful use of alcohol. This article aims to identify and summarize the evidence and propose how policies and programmes to shift social norms could be implemented and evaluated. Design: Review of reviews for all years to July 2017. Data sources: Searches on OVID Medline, Healthstar, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Social Work Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Mental Measurements Yearbook, Joanna Briggs Institute EBP, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, International Political Science Abstracts, NASW Clinical Register and Epub Ahead of Print databases...
January 16, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346376/evaluating-the-sustainability-scalability-and-replicability-of-an-sth-transmission-interruption-intervention-the-deworm3-implementation-science-protocol
#8
Arianna Rubin Means, Sitara S R Ajjampur, Robin Bailey, Katya Galactionova, Marie-Claire Gwayi-Chore, Katherine Halliday, Moudachirou Ibikounle, Sanjay Juvekar, Khumbo Kalua, Gagandeep Kang, Pallavi Lele, Adrian J F Luty, Rachel Pullan, Rajiv Sarkar, Fabian Schär, Fabrizio Tediosi, Bryan J Weiner, Elodie Yard, Judd Walson
Hybrid trials that include both clinical and implementation science outcomes are increasingly relevant for public health researchers that aim to rapidly translate study findings into evidence-based practice. The DeWorm3 Project is a series of hybrid trials testing the feasibility of interrupting the transmission of soil transmitted helminths (STH), while conducting implementation science research that contextualizes clinical research findings and provides guidance on opportunities to optimize delivery of STH interventions...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345042/a-systematic-review-of-community-based-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-adolescents-with-overweight-and-obesity
#9
REVIEW
C J Moores, L K Bell, J Miller, R A Damarell, L Matwiejczyk, M D Miller
Adolescent obesity is a risk factor for obesity and other chronic disease in adulthood. Evidence for the effectiveness of community-based obesity treatment programs for adolescents is required to inform policy and clinical decisions. This systematic review aims to evaluate recent effective and scalable community-based weight management programs for adolescents (13-17 years) who are overweight or obese. Eight databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Informit, and Scopus) were searched for studies published between January 2011-2 March 2017 which are scalable in a community setting and reported primary outcome measures relating to weight...
January 17, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344527/medical-students-experiences-and-perspective-on-unprofessional-behavior-in-clinical-practice
#10
Zeinab Jamalabadi, Sedigheh Ebrahimi
Introduction: Recognition of professional and unprofessional behaviors is the most important and fundamental factor which affects the relationships between the doctors and patients. Therefore, in order to progress in their professional life, doctors are supposed to understand and follow these behaviors. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive analytical study. All students in teaching hospital of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were eligible to participate (374 individuals with census method)...
January 2018: Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344082/implementing-guidelines-on-physical-health-in-the-acute-mental-health-setting-a-quality-improvement-approach
#11
Stuart Green, Ed Beveridge, Liz Evans, Jenny Trite, Sandra Jayacodi, Rachel Evered, Caroline Parker, Luca Polledri, Emily Tabb, John Green, Anton Manickam, Joanna Williams, Rebecca Deere, Bill Tiplady
Background: In the UK, life expectancy for people living with a serious mental illness, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, is reduced by 15-20 years compared with the general population. In recent years, evidence based guidelines/policies designed to improve their physical health have been published, yet a gap remains between recommendations and practice. This case study describes how guidelines to support physical health were implemented using a quality improvement approach...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343681/oral-health-in-china-from-vision-to-action
#12
REVIEW
Xuedong Zhou, Xin Xu, Jiyao Li, Deyu Hu, Tao Hu, Wei Yin, Yujiang Fan, Xingdong Zhang
Chinese president Xi Jinping made clear at the National Health and Wellness Conference that health is the prerequisite for people's all-around development and a precondition for the sustainable development of China. Oral health is an indispensable component of overall health in humans. However, the long neglect of oral health in overall health agendas has made oral diseases an increasing concern. With this perspective, we described the global challenges of oral diseases, with an emphasis on the challenges faced by China...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343169/patients-and-carers-perspectives-of-palliative-care-in-general-practice-a-systematic-review-with-narrative-synthesis
#13
Emilie Green, Selena Knight, Merryn Gott, Stephen Barclay, Patrick White
BACKGROUND: General practitioners have overall responsibility for community care, including towards end of life. Current policy places generalists at the centre of palliative care provision. However, little is known about how patients and carers understand the general practitioner's role. AIMS: To explore patient and carer perspectives of (1) the role of the general practitioner in providing palliative care to adult patients and (2) the facilitators and barriers to the general practitioner's capacity to fulfil this perceived role...
January 1, 2018: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342310/temporal-trends-of-sources-of-cigarettes-among-u-s-high-school-students-2001-2015
#14
Hongying Dai, Jianqiang Hao
Introduction: Restricting the supply of cigarettes to youth plays an important role in reducing youth smoking. Methods: The study included data from 8 years of the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) from 2001 to 2015 with 99,572 high school students less than 18 years old. Data were weighted to provide national estimates of the temporal trends of cigarette sources. Each cigarette source was analyzed by a separate multivariable logistic regression model and the linear trend odds ratio (aOR) was adjusted by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and smoking frequency...
January 12, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342285/serial-participation-and-the-ethics-of-phase-1-healthy-volunteer-research
#15
Rebecca L Walker, Marci D Cottingham, Jill A Fisher
Phase 1 healthy volunteer clinical trials-which financially compensate subjects in tests of drug toxicity levels and side effects-appear to place pressure on each joint of the moral framework justifying research. In this article, we review concerns about phase 1 trials as they have been framed in the bioethics literature, including undue inducement and coercion, unjust exploitation, and worries about compromised data validity. We then revisit these concerns in light of the lived experiences of serial participants who are income-dependent on phase 1 trials...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340516/-screening-program-for-cervical-cancer-public-policies-and-experiences-of-actors-who-implement-the-program-in-the-state-of-veracruz-mexico
#16
Zuanilda Mendoza González
The aim of this article is to analyze the way in which the Screening Program for Cervical Cancer is carried out in a dysplasia clinic and related health centers in the state of Veracruz, through the representations and practices of the social actors who implement the program. In order to do so, in-depth interviews and observations of the practices of health service providers were carried out during different periods over the course of three years, from 2009 to 2011. Through the information obtained, the article explores the difficulties, achievements and results of this program as part of a public policy...
July 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340511/-a-critical-examination-of-public-policies-related-to-indigenous-health-traditional-medicine-and-interculturality-in-mexico-1990-2016
#17
Roberto Campos Navarro, Edith Yesenia Peña Sánchez, Alfredo Paulo Maya
Over the last 26 years, the Mexican government has developed a number of activities and discourses around what has been called "intercultural health," directed especially at indigenous peoples in Mexico (some 62, according to linguistic criteria). In this way, the government has built health care institutions (rural centers, clinics, and hospitals) in states like Puebla, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Queretaro, and Jalisco, proposing the implementation of cultural pertinence indicators (which are minimal and inadequate)...
July 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340509/uncovering-a-tragic-flaw-in-revolutionary-health-policies-from-health-and-communicative-inequities-to-communicative-justice-in-health
#18
Charles L Briggs
This article analyzes a contradiction facing efforts by left-leaning governments in Latin America to transform health into a fundamental social right. Policies and practices that confront health inequities generally fail to address health/communicative inequities, hierarchical distributions of rights to shape what counts as legitimate knowledge of health. This ethnographic analysis focuses on an epidemic of a mysterious disease - identified clinically as bat-transmitted rabies - in the Delta Amacuro rainforest of Venezuela in 2007-2008, tracing how parents who lost 1-3 children faced acute health/communicative inequities in clinical settings, epidemiological investigations, work with healers, news coverage, health policy, and health communication...
July 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340489/tuberculosis-infection-among-primary-health-care-workers
#19
Thamy Carvalho Lacerda, Fernanda Mattos de Souza, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Rodrigo Leite Locatelli, Geisa Fregona, Rita de Cássia Duarte Lima, Ethel Leonor Maciel
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of and determine the risk factors associated with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among primary health care workers in the city of Vitória, Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with data collected through a survey regarding socio-demographic, occupational, clinical, and exposure characteristics, as well as knowledge about tuberculosis, conducted between 2011 and 2012. All participants underwent a tuberculin skin test (TST), and TSTs were read at 72 h by a trained professional...
November 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340312/ckd-screening-and-surveillance-in-australia-past-present-and-future
#20
REVIEW
Sree K Venuthurupalli, Wendy E Hoy, Helen G Healy, Anne Cameron, Robert G Fassett
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was largely a hidden health problem until the publication of an internationally agreed approach to its identification, monitoring, and treatment. The 2002 National Kidney Foundation CKD classification and the subsequent 2006 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) recommendations are powerful tools for translating thinking about CKD into clinical practice. These guidelines were strongly endorsed by the international community, including Australia, and were incorporated into CKD practice guidelines...
January 2018: KI Reports
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