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Dialysis infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527931/predictors-of-surgical-site-infection-after-open-lower-extremity-revascularization
#1
Frank M Davis, Danielle C Sutzko, Scott F Grey, M Ashraf Mansour, Krishna M Jain, Timothy J Nypaver, Greg Gaborek, Peter K Henke
OBJECTIVE: Surgical site infection (SSI) after open lower extremity bypass (LEB) is a serious complication leading to an increased rate of graft failure, hospital readmission, and health care costs. This study sought to identify predictors of SSI after LEB for arterial occlusive disease and also potential modifiable factors to improve outcomes. METHODS: Data from a statewide cardiovascular consortium of 35 hospitals were used to obtain demographic, procedural, and hospital risk factors for patients undergoing elective or urgent open LEB between January 2012 and June 2015...
June 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523404/what-s-new-prevention-of-acute-dialysis-catheter-related-infection
#2
Antoine Schneider, Ian Baldwin, Bertrand Souweine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518128/an-in-vitro-caseum-binding-assay-that-predicts-drug-penetration-in-tuberculosis-lesions
#3
Jansy P Sarathy, Hsin-Pin Ho Liang, Danielle Weiner, Jacqueline Gonzales, Laura E Via, Véronique Dartois
The eradication of tuberculosis disease requires drug regimens that can penetrate the multiple layers of complex pulmonary lesions. Drug distribution in the caseous cores of cavities and lesions is especially crucial because they harbor subpopulations of drug-tolerant bacteria also commonly referred to as persisters. Existing methods for the measurement of drug penetration in tuberculosis lesions involve costly and time-consuming in vivo pharmacokinetic studies coupled to bioanalytical or imaging techniques...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515156/anti-glomerular-basement-membrane-disease
#4
Stephen P McAdoo, Charles D Pusey
Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease is a rare small vessel vasculitis that affects the capillary beds of the kidneys and lungs. It is an archetypic autoimmune disease, caused by the development of directly pathogenic autoantibodies targeting a well characterized autoantigen expressed in the basement membranes of these organs, although the inciting events that induce the autoimmune response are not fully understood. The recent confirmation of spatial and temporal clustering of cases suggests that environmental factors, including infection, may trigger disease in genetically susceptible individuals...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514785/effect-of-age-on-the-association-of-vascular-access-type-with-mortality-in-a-cohort-of-incident-end-stage-renal-disease-patients
#5
Tarek Saleh, Keiichi Sumida, Miklos Z Molnar, Praveen K Potukuchi, Fridtjof Thomas, Jun Ling Lu, Geeta G Gyamlani, Elani Streja, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Csaba P Kovesdy
BACKGROUND/AIMS: All hemodialysis (HD) patients are generally recommended to create a fistula first; but to create a mature arteriovenous fistula (AVF) can be challenging in elderly individuals. It is unclear if elderly incident HD patients derive a survival benefit from an AVF over an arteriovenous graft (AVG) or a tunneled central venous catheter (TDC). METHODS: We examined the association of vascular access type (AVF, AVG, and TDC with and without a maturing AVF/AVG at dialysis transition) at HD initiation with all-cause, cardiovascular (CV), and infection-related mortality in 46,786 US veterans using Cox models with adjustment for confounders...
May 18, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512164/time-to-positivity-of-bacteria-cultures-in-peritoneal-dialysis-fluid-evaluation-of-different-laboratory-techniques
#6
Roberta M Katzap, Vany Elisa Pagnussatti, Ana Elizabeth Figueiredo, Julia Gabriela Motta, Domingos O d'Avila, Bartira Ercília Pinheiro da Costa, Carlos Eduardo Poli-de-Figueiredo
Patients with chronic kidney disease on peritoneal dialysis (PD) are susceptible to infections, with peritonitis being the primary cause of dropout. Peritoneal fluid culture is one of the essential elements for proper diagnosis and peritonitis treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the time required to obtain a positive culture using different laboratory methods. An in vitro cross-sectional study was conducted comparing different techniques for preparation and culture of bacteria in peritoneal fluid...
May 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512162/increase-in-extracellular-hydration-status-after-initiating-peritoneal-dialysis-electively
#7
Kwanpeemai Panorchan, Andrew Davenport
Renal replacement therapy is designed to treat uremic symptoms and correct hypervolemia. We hypothesized that starting peritoneal dialysis (PD) should reduce overhydration, and we measured body composition and hydration status using bioimpedance in PD patients prior to training and then at the first assessment of peritoneal membrane function. We studied 100 consecutive patients with a planned start to PD, without peritoneal infections or mechanical catheter problems, mean age 54.7 ± 17.1 years, 57% male and 25% diabetic...
May 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509139/unusual-listeria-monocytogenes-peritonitis-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patient-with-liver-cirrhosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#8
Miloš Mitrović, P Đurić, A Janković, V Todorov, J Tošić-Dragović, N Simović, T Damjanović, N Dimković
Spontaneous Listeria peritonitis is well described in liver failure, but is uncommon in peritoneal dialysis patients. Atypical cases where peritonitis symptoms develop after systemic manifestations are rare and challenging for diagnostic. A 57-year-old peritoneal dialysis patient with history of ethylic cirrhosis was admitted after epileptic seizure. On admission, patient was soporous without signs of peritonitis and meningitis. Patient's peritoneal effluent was clear, with normal leukocytes. Cranial CT scan showed no abnormalities...
May 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509133/denosumab-for-treatment-of-immobilization-related-hypercalcemia-in-a-patient-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#9
Atsuko Uehara, Masahiko Yazawa, Atsumi Kawata, Rina Hachisuka, Yugo Shibagaki
The efficacy and safety of denosumab for the treatment of immobilization-related hypercalcemia in end-stage renal disease remain uncertain. We describe the case of a hemodialysis patient with immobilization-related hypercalcemia who was successfully treated with denosumab. A 79-year-old man admitted for hemodialysis after sustaining an acute kidney injury developed immobilization-related hypercalcemia due to the impairment resulting from an acute myocardial infarction, acute heart failure, and catheter-related bloodstream infection...
May 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507493/comparison-of-the-incidence-of-skin-cancers-in-patients-on-dialysis-and-after-kidney-transplantation
#10
Joanna Sułowicz, Anna Wojas-Pelc, Ewa Ignacak, Katarzyna Krzanowska, Marek Kuźniewski, Władysław Sułowicz
INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplant (KTx) patients on immunosuppressive therapy are predisposed to the development of infections and cancers. AIM: To compare the incidence and type of malignant skin lesions in kidney transplant patients and the dialyzed population based on the initiated dermatologic screening. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 598 patients: 486 kidney transplant recipients and 112 patients on maintenance dialysis. All the patients underwent dermatological examination...
April 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502697/impact-of-high-flux-haemodialysis-on-the-probability-of-target-attainment-for-oral-amoxicillin-clavulanic-acid-combination-therapy
#11
Katrina Hui, Kashyap Patel, David C M Kong, Carl M J Kirkpatrick
Clearance of small molecules such as amoxicillin and clavulanic acid is expected to increase during high-flux haemodialysis, which may result in lower concentrations and thus reduced efficacy. To date, clearance of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC) during high-flux haemodialysis remains largely unexplored. Using published pharmacokinetic parameters, a two-compartment model with first-order input was simulated to investigate the impact of high-flux haemodialysis on the probability of target attainment (PTA) of orally administered AMC combination therapy...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498907/complicated-infective-aortic-endocarditis-comparison-of-different-surgical-strategies%C3%A2
#12
Miriam Silaschi, Niki Nicou, Ranjit Deshpande, Sanjay Chaubey, Max Baghai, Rafal Dworakowski, Olaf Wendler
OBJECTIVES: The choice of substitute during aortic valve replacement for infective endocarditis (IE) is still widely debated. We retrospectively reviewed all patients operated for aortic IE and compared groups according to the complexity of IE and substitutes implanted. METHODS: From 2000 to 2015, 187 patients were treated using stentless bioprostheses (SBP) as root replacement ( n  = 30), mechanical prostheses (MP, n  = 45) or stented bioprostheses (SP, n  = 112) (mean follow-up 4...
May 11, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495878/local-amplifiers-of-il-4r%C3%AE-mediated-macrophage-activation-promote-repair-in-lung-and-liver
#13
Carlos M Minutti, Lucy H Jackson-Jones, Belén García-Fojeda, Johanna A Knipper, Tara E Sutherland, Nicola Logan, Emma Rinqvist, Raquel Guillamat-Prats, David A Ferenbach, Antonio Artigas, Cordula Stamme, Zissis C Chroneos, Dietmar M Zaiss, Cristina Casals, Judith E Allen
The type 2 immune response controls helminth infection and maintains tissue homeostasis but can lead to allergy and fibrosis if not adequately regulated. We have discovered local tissue-specific amplifiers of type-2 mediated-macrophage activation. In the lung, surfactant protein A (SP-A) enhanced IL-4-dependent macrophage proliferation and activation, accelerating parasite clearance and reducing pulmonary injury following infection with a lung-migrating helminth. In the peritoneal cavity and liver, C1q enhancement of type 2 macrophage activation was required for liver repair following bacterial infection, but resulted in fibrosis following peritoneal dialysis...
May 11, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495863/soluble-urokinase-plasminogen-activator-receptor-and-outcomes-in-patients-with-diabetes-on-hemodialysis
#14
Christiane Drechsler, Salim S Hayek, Changli Wei, Sanja Sever, Bernd Genser, Vera Krane, Andreas Meinitzer, Winfried März, Christoph Wanner, Jochen Reiser
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is a novel biomarker strongly predictive of cardiovascular outcomes implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels, however, correlate with declining kidney function. It is unclear whether soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels remain associated with outcomes in patients with ESRD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We measured plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels in 1175 patients (mean age =66±8 years old, 54% men) with type 2 diabetes mellitus on hemodialysis participating in the German Diabetes and Dialysis Study followed for a median of 4 years for outcomes including all-cause death, cardiovascular events, and infection-related mortality...
May 11, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493896/candidemia-in-the-elderly-what-does-it-change
#15
Francesco Barchiesi, Elena Orsetti, Sara Mazzanti, Francesca Trave, Aldo Salvi, Cinzia Nitti, Esther Manso
BACKGROUND: Candidemia is a life-threatening fungal infection and it can affect patients of all ages. Characterization of candidemia in the elderly is lacking. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of adults (≥ 18 years) with candidemia diagnosed in our center in 2010-2015. Demographics, comorbidities, clinical and microbiologic characteristics, antifungal treatment and outcome were compared between older (≤65 years) and younger (>65 years) patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491858/clinical-outcomes-and-quality-of-life-in-hemodialysis-diabetic-patients-versus-non-diabetics
#16
Tayebeh Soleymanian, Zeinab Kokabeh, Rozita Ramaghi, Alireza Mahjoub, Hassan Argani
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is the leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. OBJECTIVES: We compared the clinical outcomes in diabetic patients on hemodialysis (HD) with non-diabetics. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adult maintenance HD patients (N= 532) from 9 HD facilities were enrolled to this prospective cohort study in September 2012. Causes of death, hospitalization, and HD exit were recorded in a median 28 months follow up period. RESULTS: Forty-one percent of patients were diabetic...
March 2017: Journal of Nephropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489180/does-infection-by-the-hepatitis-c-virus-decrease-the-response-of-immunization-against-the-hepatitis-b-virus-in-individuals-undergoing-dialysis
#17
Tarcila Maria Bonfim Ferreira, Tácio Giordano Santana Guimarães, Andrea Martins Melo Fontenele, Natalino Salgado, Adalgisa de Souza Paiva Ferreira, Alessandra Porto de Macedo Costa
Introduction: Vaccination is the most effective tool in preventing transmission of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). The patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on dialysis appear to be at greater risk of becoming infected with this virus and does not show the same vaccine response when compared to patients without uremia. Objectives: To evaluate the results related to the HBV vaccine and identify factors associated with the response in patients with CKD on hemodialysis...
April 27, 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487598/potential-hepatoprotective-role-of-galectin-3-during-hcv-infection-in-end-stage-renal-disease-patients
#18
Ruzica Lukic, Nevena Gajovic, Ivan Jovanovic, Milena Jurisevic, Zeljko Mijailovic, Veljko Maric, Biljana Popovska Jovicic, Nebojsa Arsenijevic
Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV), one of the greatest causes of liver disease, is a frequent complication in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis. ESRD is defined as decreased glomerular filtration and also accompanied by impaired function of the immune system. Galectin-3 is a β-galactoside-binding lectin, involved in various biological processes including pathogenesis of chronic renal disease. The aim of our study was to estimate disease severity in ESRD HCV(+) patients and analyze the serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-23, and IL-6; anti-HCV antibodies; and galectin-3...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486627/re-exploration-due-to-bleeding-is-not-associated-with-severe-postoperative-complications
#19
Sandeep P Tambe, Hans-Henrik Kimose, Jakob Raben Greisen, Carl-Johan Jakobsen
OBJECTIVES: In cardiac surgery, postoperative bleeding remains a frequent complication with various possible adverse outcomes. Re-exploration due to bleeding is frequent in this type of patient. Sternal wound infection is an infrequent but serious and devastating complication. Whether re-exploration due to bleeding significantly affects the incidence of sternal wound infection is uncertain. There is no consensus on allowed severity of bleeding and timing of intervention. METHODS: A retrospective, observational cohort study of 15 350 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgical procedures from 1 April 2006 through 31 December 2013 in 3 different university hospitals in Denmark was performed...
May 8, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485119/case-of-mycobacterium-mucogenicum-in-home-hemodialysis-patient
#20
Miten J Dhruve, Paul E Bunce, Celine D'Gama, Christopher T Chan
We present a case of a patient on home hemodialysis who developed Mycobacterium mucogenicum bacteremia. While infections with this particular organism are rare, disseminated infections have been reported and have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis required appropriate cultures, understanding of natural habitat of organism and complete environmental analysis including blood, dialysis sample port, reverse osmosis and incoming water supply cultures. The patient was treated successfully with systemic antibiotics, removal of central venous catheter, patient education and complete exchange of the hemodialysis circuit...
May 9, 2017: Hemodialysis International
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