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C S Harris, M Tertuliano, S Rajeev, G Vellidis, K Levy
AIMS: To examine Salmonella and Escherichia coli in storm runoff and irrigation ponds used by fresh produce growers, and compare Salmonella serovars with those found in cases of human salmonellosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected water before and after rain events at two irrigation ponds on farms in southern Georgia, USA, and collected storm runoff/storm flow within the contributing watershed of each pond. Salmonella and E. coli concentrations were higher in ponds after rain events by an average of 0...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Kristian Sundström
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to derive cost estimates of five major foodborne illnesses (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), yersiniosis and shigellosis) in Sweden. These estimates provide a necessary contribution to perform future cost-benefit analyses aimed at reducing the burden of foodborne disease. A secondary aim was to obtain estimates of the true number of cases that occur in the community, thus providing necessary ground for calculating costs...
January 8, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Saranya Nair, Abdolvahab Farzan, Terri L O'Sullivan, Robert M Friendship
A clinical trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of in-feed flavophospholipol in reducing Salmonella shedding and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) associated with Salmonella and generic Escherichia coli in naturally infected grower-finisher pigs. Pigs were obtained from a farm with a history of salmonellosis and were housed at a research facility. Over the span of 10 weeks the pigs received either a feed containing 4 ppm of flavophospholipol (treatment, n = 25) or a non-medicated feed (control, n = 20)...
January 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
R Cohen, J Raymond, D Gendrel
Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) are usually caused by viruses, especially Rotavirus and Norovirus. Among the bacterial causes, very few warrant antibiotic treatment, mainly Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter (only for severe cases, particularly in the initial phase) and severe cases of Salmonella infection. The antimicrobial treatments proposed in this guide follow the latest guidelines of the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Sadia Ashraf, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Ali Ahmad, Sehrish Firyal, Saba Sana, Asma Abdul Latif
Salmonellosis is a major food-borne disease worldwide and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella is a public health problem. Phytochemicals are alternative therapeutics to treat antibiotic resistant Salmonella. Biochemically identified Salmonella enterica of human and poultry origin (n = 10) were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. In-vitro anti-salmonella activity of N. sativa essential oil and extracts (aqueous and methanol) was determined against antibiotic resistant isolates by well diffusion and micro broth dilution method...
December 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Philipp Justus Bless, Claudia Schmutz, Kathrin Sartori, Daniel Mäusezahl
BACKGROUND: Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are important foodborne diseases in Europe, including in Switzerland. In 2014, notification rates for Switzerland were 92.9 per 100 000 population for campylobacteriosis and 15.2 per 100 000 population for salmonellosis. These notification rates originate from laboratory-based surveillance whereby positive test results are reported to the National Notification System for Infectious Diseases. Consequently, notification rates do not directly correspond to the disease burden among the population as the number of positive tests depends on patients' healthcare-seeking behaviour, stool sampling rates and other factors...
December 28, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
Igor Kljujev, Vera Raicevic, Bojana Vujovic, Michael Rothballer, Michael Schmid
Contamination of vegetables and fruits is the result of presence of human pathogen bacteria which can contaminate products in any part of production chain. There is an evidence of presence of: Salmonella spp. on the fresh vegetables and Salmonellosis is connected with tomato, sprouts, cantaloupe etc. The goal of this research is transmission of pathogen bacteria from irrigation water to plants and studying/monitoring the ability of the Salmonella spp. to colonize the surface and interior (endophytic colonization) of root at different vegetable species...
December 14, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Reza Ranjbar, Parisa Elhaghi, Leili Shokoohizadeh
Background: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the most important serovars of Salmonella enterica and is associated with human salmonellosis worldwide. Many epidemiological studies have focused on the characteristics of Salmonella Typhimurium in many countries as well as in Asia. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic characteristics of Salmonella Typhimurium using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Methods: Clinical samples (urine, blood, and stool) were collected from patients, who were admitted to 2 hospitals in Tehran between April and September, 2015...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Dimity Maree Stephen, Adrian Gerard Barnett
BACKGROUND: The incidence of salmonellosis, a costly foodborne disease, is rising in Australia. Salmonellosis increases during high temperatures and rainfall, and future incidence is likely to rise under climate change. Allocating funding to preventative strategies would be best informed by accurate estimates of salmonellosis costs under climate change and by knowing which population subgroups will be most affected. OBJECTIVE: We used microsimulation models to estimate the health and economic costs of salmonellosis in Central Queensland under climate change between 2016 and 2036 to inform preventative strategies...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Jikang Wu, Anice Sabag-Daigle, Thomas O Metz, Brooke Deatherage Kaiser, Venkat Gopalan, Edward J Behrman, Vicki H Wysocki, Brian Ahmer
The food-borne bacterial pathogen, Salmonella enterica, can utilize fructose-asparagine (F-Asn) as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. F-Asn is the product of an Amadori rearrangement following the non-enzymatic condensation of glucose and asparagine. Heating converts F-Asn via complex Maillard reactions to a variety of molecules that contribute to the color, taste, and aroma of heated foods. Among these end derivatives is acrylamide, which is present in some foods, especially in fried potatoes. The F-Asn utilization pathway in Salmonella, specifically FraB, is a potential drug target because inhibition of this enzyme would lead to intoxication of Salmonella in the presence of F-Asn...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Pranab Chatterjee, Soumyadeep Bhaumik, Abhimanyu Singh Chauhan, Manish Kakkar
INTRODUCTION: Zoonotic and emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) represent a public health threat that has been acknowledged only recently although they have been on the rise for the past several decades. On an average, every year since the Second World War, one pathogen has emerged or re-emerged on a global scale. Low/middle-income countries such as India bear a significant burden of zoonotic and EIDs. We propose that the creation of a database of published, peer-reviewed research will open up avenues for evidence-based policymaking for targeted prevention and control of zoonoses...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
Chelsea L Holschbach, Simon F Peek
As an infectious, contagious pathogen, Salmonella is probably rivaled by only bovine viral diarrhea virus in its ability to cause clinical disease, such as enteritis, septicemia, pneumonia, and reproductive losses. The increasing prevalence of Salmonella, particularly Salmonella Dublin, on dairies presents new challenges to producers and veterinarians. No current discussion of bovine salmonellosis is complete without acknowledging the increasing public health concern. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among enteric pathogens brings the use of antimicrobials by veterinarians and producers under ever stricter scrutiny...
December 7, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
Askild L Holck, Kristian H Liland, Signe M Drømtorp, Mats Carlehög, Anette McLEOD
Ten percent of all strong-evidence foodborne outbreaks in the European Union are caused by Salmonella related to eggs and egg products. UV light may be used to decontaminate egg surfaces and reduce the risk of human salmonellosis infections. The efficiency of continuous UV-C (254 nm) and pulsed UV light for reducing the viability of Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on eggs was thoroughly compared. Bacterial cells were exposed to UV-C light at fluences from 0...
January 2018: Journal of Food Protection
R C Mainar-Jaime, A Casanova-Higes, S Andrés-Barranco, J P Vico
Most swine Salmonella national control programmes in Europe have been based on the categorization of herds according to risk levels based on serological results. However, none of the non-Scandinavian countries have reported of any significant success on Salmonella infection reduction in fattening pigs or the number of human cases attributable to pigs or pork. The limited accuracy of the tests used, the small number of animals sampled and the likely lack of herd representativeness of the samples used could be major factors affecting the suitability of these programmes...
December 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
A R McWhorter, G Phan, H Hocking, K K Chousalkar
In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 9 is frequently isolated during foodborne outbreaks of salmonellosis. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) trace back investigations frequently identify isolate distribution patterns that may be epidemiologically linked to disease outbreaks. In this study, the in vitro virulence potential of S. Typhimurium DT9 isolates possessing different MLVA patterns (03 15 07 11 550, 03 24 11 10 523, 03 15 08 11 550 and 03 14 08 11 550) isolated from either humans or layer hens was assessed using a human colon carcinoma cell line...
December 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
Amie Koenig, Tanya L Cooper, Craig E Greene, Ajay Sharma, Kaori Sakamoto
An adult feline blood donor, group-housed in a closed colony with other blood donor cats in a laboratory animal facility, developed anorexia, abdominal pain, an abdominal mass effect, and hemorrhagic diarrhea. Ultimately Salmonella infection was diagnosed. The index cat and 2 additional cats in the closed colony had clinical signs consistent with Salmonella and yielded Salmonella serotype 4,12:i:- in fecal cultures. An extensive search for the source of Salmonella was unrewarding. With the implementation of individual housing and additional barrier precautions, combined with antibiotic treatment of the index case, all the cats survived and subsequently had multiple, negative Salmonella PCR test results...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
C Wolff, S Boqvist, K Ståhl, C Masembe, S Sternberg-Lewerin
BACKGROUND: Many low-income countries have a human population with a high number of cattle owners depending on their livestock for food and income. Infectious diseases threaten the health and production of cattle, affecting both the farmers and their families as well as other actors in often informal value chains. Many infectious diseases can be prevented by good biosecurity. The objectives of this study were to describe herd management and biosecurity routines with potential impact on the prevalence of infectious diseases, and to estimate the burden of infectious diseases in Ugandan cattle herds, using the seroprevalence of three model infections...
December 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Qiuchun Li, Xin Wang, Kequan Yin, Yachen Hu, Haiyan Xu, Xiaolei Xie, Lijuan Xu, Xiao Fei, Xiang Chen, Xinan Jiao
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the most prevalent serotypes in Salmonella isolated from poultry and the most commonly reported cause of human salmonellosis. In this study, we aimed to assess the genetic diversity of 329 S. Enteritidis strains isolated from different sources from 2009 to 2016 in China. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) typing was used to characterize these 262 chicken clinical isolates, 38 human isolates, 18 pig isolates, six duck isolates, three goose isolates and two isolates of unknown source...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Guillaume Larivière-Gauthier, Alexandre Thibodeau, Ann Letellier, Étienne Yergeau, Philippe Fravalo
Pork meat is estimated to be responsible for 10-20% of human salmonellosis cases in Europe. Control strategies at the farm could reduce contamination at the slaughterhouse. One of the targeted sectors of production is maternity, where sows could be Salmonella reservoirs. The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of shedding of Salmonella in terms of variation in both shedding prevalence and strains excreted during gestation in Quebec's maternity sector. The evolution of the fecal microbiota of these sows during gestation was also assessed to detect bacterial populations associated with these variations...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Milton Thomas, Gavin John Fenske, Linto Antony, Sudeep Ghimire, Ronald Welsh, Akhilesh Ramachandran, Joy Scaria
The aim of this study was to generate a reference set of Salmonella enterica genomes isolated from wildlife from the United States and to determine the antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene profile of the isolates from the genome sequence data. We sequenced the whole genomes of 103 Salmonella isolates sampled between 1988 and 2003 from wildlife and exotic pet cases that were submitted to the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Stillwater, Oklahoma. Among 103 isolates, 50.48% were from wild birds, 0...
2017: Gut Pathogens
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