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R G Kumar, S Gao, S B Juengst, A K Wagner, A Fabio
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic depression (PTD) is one of the most common secondary complications to develop after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, it rarely manifests singularly, and often co-occurs with other common TBI impairments. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this thematic review is to evaluate studies examining the relationships between PTD and cognition, fatigue, pain, and headache among individuals with moderate-to-severe TBI. RESULTS: We reviewed 16 studies examining the relationship between PTD and cognition (five articles), fatigue (five articles), pain (four articles), and headache (two articles)...
January 22, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Francisco Wilson Nogueira Holanda, Katie Moraes de Almondes, Rodrigo Alencar E Silva
Brain infarcts located in strategic regions often result in cognitive impairment. Based on a case study, this paper describes unusual and specific clinical and neuropsychological features of a strategic ischemic lesion in the left medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. Taken together with the literature data, the case illustrates that a unilateral strategic infarct in MTL structures may result in severe impairment of episodic memory (EM), which refers to the ability to encode and retrieve personal experiences, including information about the time and place of an event and detailed description of the event itself...
October 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
Saksham Gupta, Wenya Linda Bi, Srinivasan Mukundan, Ossama Al-Mefty, Ian F Dunn
BACKGROUND: Dynamic CT angiography (dCTA) augments traditional CTA with temporal resolution and has been demonstrated to influence operative planning in skull base surgery. METHODS: Three hundred twenty-five dynamic CTA cases from a single institution were reviewed for indication of study, findings, and comparison to other modalities of imaging. RESULTS: The most frequent application of dCTA was pre-operative surgical planning (59.4%); resection of skull base tumors represented the majority of these pre-operative studies (93...
January 20, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Seyed Abolfazl Hosseini, Iman Esmaili Paeen Afrakoti
The purpose of the present study was to reconstruct the energy spectrum of a poly-energetic neutron source using an algorithm developed based on an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). ANFIS is a kind of artificial neural network based on the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy inference system. The ANFIS algorithm uses the advantages of both fuzzy inference systems and artificial neural networks to improve the effectiveness of algorithms in various applications such as modeling, control and classification. The neutron pulse height distributions used as input data in the training procedure for the ANFIS algorithm were obtained from the simulations performed by MCNPX-ESUT computational code (MCNPX-Energy engineering of Sharif University of Technology)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
A A Burkov
We demonstrate that, apart from the chiral anomaly, Dirac semimetals possess another quantum anomaly, which we call the mirror anomaly and which manifests in a singular response of the Dirac semimetal to an applied magnetic field. Namely, the anomalous Hall conductivity exhibits step-function singularities when the field is rotated. We show that this phenomenon is closely analogous to the parity anomaly of (2+1)-dimensional Dirac fermions, but with mirror symmetry, which we demonstrate emerges near any Dirac point at a time reversal invariant momentum, replacing the parity symmetry...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Andrew Fenelon, Juanita J Chinn, Robert N Anderson
Although those identifying as "Hispanic or Latino" experience lower adult mortality than the more socioeconomically advantaged non-Hispanic white population, the ethnic category Hispanic conceals variation by country of origin, nativity, age, and immigration experience. The current analysis examines adult mortality differentials among 12 Hispanic subgroups by region of origin and nativity, and non-Hispanic whites, adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We use the National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality Files pooled 1990-2009 to obtain sufficient sample of each subgroup to calculate mortality estimates by sex and age group (25-64, 65+)...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
Wenshuai Yu, Shengjie Zhao, Yongcui Wang, Brian Nlong Zhao, Weiling Zhao, Xiaobo Zhou
The rapid accumulation of cancer-related data owing to high-throughput technologies has provided unprecedented choices to understand the progression of cancer and discover functional networks in multiple cancers. Establishment of co-expression networks will help us to discover the systemic properties of carcinogenesis features and regulatory mechanisms of multiple cancers. Here, we proposed a computational workflow to identify differentially co-expressed gene modules across 8 cancer types by using combined gene differential expression analysis methods and a higher-order generalized singular value decomposition...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
Ishan Prasad, Christian Santangelo, Gregory Grason
We study the influence of particle-size asymmetry on structural evolution of randomly jammed binary sphere mixtures with varying large-sphere and small-sphere composition. Simulations of jammed packings are used to assess the transition from large-sphere dominant to small-sphere dominant mixtures. For weakly asymmetric particle sizes, packing properties evolve smoothly, but not monotonically, with increasing small-sphere composition, f. Our simulations reveal that at high values of ratio α of large- to small-sphere radii (α≥α_{c}≈5...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
R S Pires, A A Moreira, H A Carmona, J S Andrade
We investigate the properties of a two-state sandpile model subjected to a confining potential in two dimensions. From the microdynamical description, we derive a diffusion equation, and find a stationary solution for the case of a parabolic confining potential. By studying the systems at different confining conditions, we observe two scale-invariant regimes. At a given confining potential strength, the cluster size distribution takes the form of a power law. This regime corresponds to the situation in which the density at the center of the system approaches the critical percolation threshold...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Bálint Korbuly, Mathis Plapp, Hervé Henry, James A Warren, László Gránásy, Tamás Pusztai
Standard two-dimensional orientation-field-based phase-field models rely on a continuous scalar field to represent crystallographic orientation. The corresponding order parameter space is the unit circle, which is not simply connected. This topological property has important consequences for the resulting multigrain structures: (i) trijunctions may be singular; (ii) for each pair of grains there exist two different grain boundary solutions that cannot continuously transform to one another; (iii) if both solutions appear along a grain boundary, a topologically stable, singular point defect must exist between them...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Federico Carollo, Juan P Garrahan, Igor Lesanovsky, Carlos Pérez-Espigares
We consider a class of either fermionic or bosonic noninteracting open quantum chains driven by dissipative interactions at the boundaries and study the interplay of coherent transport and dissipative processes, such as bulk dephasing and diffusion. Starting from the microscopic formulation, we show that the dynamics on large scales can be described in terms of fluctuating hydrodynamics. This is an important simplification as it allows us to apply the methods of macroscopic fluctuation theory to compute the large deviation (LD) statistics of time-integrated currents...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Stephan Mertens, Iwan Jensen, Robert M Ziff
The number of clusters per site n(p) in percolation at the critical point p=p_{c} is not itself a universal quantity; it depends upon the lattice and percolation type (site or bond). However, many of its properties, including finite-size corrections, scaling behavior with p, and amplitude ratios, show various degrees of universal behavior. Some of these are universal in the sense that the behavior depends upon the shape of the system, but not lattice type. Here, we elucidate the various levels of universality for elements of n(p) both theoretically and by carrying out extensive studies on several two- and three-dimensional systems, by high-order series analysis, Monte Carlo simulation, and exact enumeration...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Mathijs F J Vermeulen, Anwesha Bose, Cornelis Storm, Wouter G Ellenbroek
Disordered spring networks that are undercoordinated may abruptly rigidify when sufficient strain is applied. Since the deformation in response to applied strain does not change the generic quantifiers of network architecture, the number of nodes and the number of bonds between them, this rigidity transition must have a geometric origin. Naive, degree-of-freedom-based mechanical analyses such as the Maxwell-Calladine count or the pebble game algorithm overlook such geometric rigidity transitions and offer no means of predicting or characterizing them...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
G Zhang, F H Stillinger, S Torquato
Classical ground states (global energy-minimizing configurations) of many-particle systems are typically unique crystalline structures, implying zero enumeration entropy of distinct patterns (aside from trivial symmetry operations). By contrast, the few previously known disordered classical ground states of many-particle systems are all high-entropy (highly degenerate) states. Here we show computationally that our recently proposed "perfect-glass" many-particle model [Sci. Rep. 6, 36963 (2016)10.1038/srep36963] possesses disordered classical ground states with a zero entropy: a highly counterintuitive situation ...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
David B Saakian
We investigate the collective stationary sensing using N communicative cells, which involves surface receptors, diffusive signaling molecules, and cell-cell communication messengers. We restrict the scenarios to the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for both strong communication and extrinsic noise only. We modified a previous model [Bialek and Setayeshgar, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 10040 (2005)PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.0504321102] to eliminate the singularities in the fluctuation correlations by considering a uniform receptor distribution over the surface of each cell with a finite radius a...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Raz Halifa Levi, Yacov Kantor, Mehran Kardar
A polymer repelled by unfavorable interactions with a uniform flat surface may still be pinned to attractive edges and corners. This is demonstrated by considering adsorption of a two-dimensional ideal polymer to an attractive corner of a repulsive wedge. The well-known mapping between the statistical mechanics of an ideal polymer and the quantum problem of a particle in a potential is then used to analyze the singular behavior of the unbinding transition of the polymer. The divergence of the localization length is found to be governed by an exponent that varies continuously with the angle (when reflex)...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
J Zamastil, D Šimsa
The ground-state energy splitting due to tunneling in two-dimensional double wells of the form V(x,y)=(x^{2}-R^{2})^{2}/8R^{2}+x^{2}-R^{2}/R^{2}γy+ω^{2}/2y^{2} is calculated. Several results are reported. First, we give a systematic WKB expansion of the splitting in series in powers of R^{-2}, each term of the series being a finite polynomial in γ^{2}. We find an ascending sequence of the values of the parameter γ characterizing the curvature of the classical path, for which the successive corrections to the leading order vanish...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
S A Piriz, A R Piriz, N A Tahir
We develop the linear theory for the asymptotic growth of the incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability of an accelerated solid slab of density ρ_{2}, shear modulus G, and thickness h, placed over a semi-infinite ideal fluid of density ρ_{1}<ρ_{2}. It extends previous results for Atwood number A_{T}=1 [B. J. Plohr and D. H. Sharp, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 49, 786 (1998)ZAMPA80044-227510.1007/s000330050121] to arbitrary values of A_{T} and unveil the singular feature of an instability threshold below which the slab is stable for any perturbation wavelength...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
V V Hovhannisyan, N S Ananikian, A Campa, S Ruffo
We study inequivalence of canonical and microcanonical ensembles in the mean-field Blume-Emery-Griffiths model. This generalizes previous results obtained for the Blume-Capel model. The phase diagram strongly depends on the value of the biquadratic exchange interaction K, the additional feature present in the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model. At small values of K, as for the Blume-Capel model, lines of first- and second-order phase transitions between a ferromagnetic and a paramagnetic phase are present, separated by a tricritical point whose location is different in the two ensembles...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
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