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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549246/the-usage-of-data-compression-for-the-background-estimation-of-electron-energy-loss-spectra
#1
Jakob Spiegelberg, Ján Rusz, Klaus Leifer, Thomas Thersleff
Quantitative analysis of noisy electron spectrum images requires a robust estimation of the underlying background signal. We demonstrate how modern data compression methods can be used as a tool for achieving an analysis result less affected by statistical errors or to speed up the background estimation. In particular, we demonstrate how a multilinear singular value decomposition (MLSVD) can be used to enhance elemental maps obtained from a complex sample measured with energy electron loss spectroscopy. Furthermore, the usage of vertex component analysis (VCA) for a basis vector centered estimation of the background is demonstrated...
May 20, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549214/griffith-criterion-for-nanoscale-stress-singularity-in-brittle-silicon
#2
Takashi Sumigawa, Takahiro Shimada, Shuuhei Tanaka, Hiroki Unno, Naoki Ozaki, Shinsaku Ashida, Takayuki Kitamura
Brittle materials such as silicon fail via the crack nucleation and propagation, which is characterized by the singular stress field formed near the crack tip according to Griffith or fracture mechanics theory. The applicability of these continuum-based theories is, however, uncertain and questionable in nanoscale system due to its extremely small singular stress field of only a few nanometers. Here, we directly characterize the mechanical behavior of a nano-crack via the development of in situ nanomechanical testing using a transmission electron microscope, and demonstrate that Griffith or fracture mechanics theory can be applied to even 4-nm stress singularity despite their continuum-based concept...
May 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545663/adaptive-iterative-learning-control-of-a-class-of-nonlinear-time-delay-systems-with-unknown-backlash-like-hysteresis-input-and-control-direction
#3
Jianming Wei, Youan Zhang, Meimei Sun, Baoliang Geng
This paper presents an adaptive iterative learning control scheme for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown time-varying delays and control direction preceded by unknown nonlinear backlash-like hysteresis. Boundary layer function is introduced to construct an auxiliary error variable, which relaxes the identical initial condition assumption of iterative learning control. For the controller design, integral Lyapunov function candidate is used, which avoids the possible singularity problem by introducing hyperbolic tangent funciton...
May 22, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544870/the-killing-of-kitty-genovese-what-else-does-this-case-tell-us
#4
Saul M Kassin
Well known in popular culture, the 1964 murder of Kitty Genovese in Queens, New York, became famous because not one of an alleged 38 bystanders called police until it was too late. Within psychology, this singular event inspired the study of bystander intervention. With the spotlight of history focused on Ms. Genovese and bystanders, other events, also profound for what they tell us about human social behavior, have escaped public notice. Based on archival records and current interviews, this article describes the three issues linked to Genovese...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544063/ag-films-with-hierarchical-chiralities
#5
Shunai Che, Liguo Ma, Yuanyuan Cao, Yingying Duan, Lu Han
Preparing chiral metallic films is one of the primary challenges in materials science. Although physical fabrication methods for metal films with singular and large-sized chirality exist, chemical preparation of that with multi-structured chirality from atomic to larger scales have not been reported yet. Here, we report the chiral molecule-induced formation of chiral Ag films on a copper substrate through a redox reaction. Three levels of chirality were identified, primary twisted 'nanoflakes' with atomic crystal lattices, secondary helical stacking of these nanoflakes to form 'nanoplates' and tertiary micrometre-sized 'circinate' consisting of chiral arranged nanoplates...
May 24, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541589/developing-the-supporting-choice-observational-tool-scot-a-formative-assessment-tool-to-assist-nursing-home-staff-in-realizing-resident-choice
#6
Jennifer A Palmer, Victoria A Parker, James F Burgess, Dan Berlowitz, A Lynn Snow, Susan L Mitchell, Christine W Hartmann
Quality of care in nursing homes has begun to address the importance of resident choice in daily life, yet there are no published tools to teach nursing home staff how to offer such choice. In the current study, a formative assessment tool was developed that can provide staff with detailed and concrete feedback on how to realize resident choice. The tool was created and refined through 22 hours of ethnographic observation in two Veterans Health Administration Community Living Centers (CLCs), 22 hours of developmental testing in two CLCs, review by a modified Delphi panel, and use of an algorithm to assess its logical structure...
May 1, 2017: Research in Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541216/robust-and-efficient-biomolecular-clustering-of-tumor-based-on-p-norm-sigular-value-decomposition
#7
Xiang-Zhen Kong, Jin-Xing Liu, Chun-Hou Zheng, Mi-Xiao Hou, Juan Wang
High dimensionality has become a typical feature of biomolecular data. In this paper, a novel dimension reduction method named p-norm singular value decomposition (PSVD) is proposed to seek the low-rank approximation matrix to the biomolecular data. To enhance the robustness to outliers, the Lp-norm is taken as the error function and the Schatten p-norm is used as the regularization function in the optimization model. To evaluate the performance of PSVD, the Kmeans clustering method is then employed for tumor clustering based on the low-rank approximation matrix...
May 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539883/feature-binding-of-common-everyday-items-is-not-affected-by-age
#8
Serge Hoefeijzers, Alfredis González Hernández, Angela Magnolia Rios, Mario A Parra
There is a surge of studies confirming that old age spares the ability to bind in visual working memory (VWM) multiple features within singular object representations. Furthermore, it has been suggested that such ability may also be independent of the cultural background of the assessed individual. However, this evidence has been gathered with tasks that use arbitrary bindings of unfamiliar features. Whether age spares memory binding functions when the memoranda are features of everyday life objects remains less well explored...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535771/the-progressive-fragmentation-of-the-kit-pdgfra-wild-type-wt-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-gist
#9
Margherita Nannini, Milena Urbini, Annalisa Astolfi, Guido Biasco, Mara A Pantaleo
Recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized the concept of KIT/PDGFRA wild type (WT) gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) than the past. Indeed, from being defined as GIST without KIT or PDGFRA mutations, we are now faced with the opposite scenario, where KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST are "positively" defined according to their specific molecular alterations. In particular, if until recently KIT/PDGFRA GIST without abnormalities of KIT, PDGFRA, SDH, and the RAS signaling pathway were referred as quadruple WT GIST, today also this small subset of GIST is emerging out as a group of heterogeneous distinct entities with multiple different molecular alterations...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535529/looking-into-the-graft-without-a-biopsy-biomarkers-of-acute-rejection-in-renal-transplantation
#10
Andrea Angeletti, Paolo Cravedi
Immunosuppression in kidney transplantation is still largely driven by center-specific protocols and adjusted according to the presence of graft dysfunction, drug toxicity or infection. Due to the current inability to titrate immunosuppression to the needs of every single patient, this approach is burdened by an increased risk of under or over-immunosuppression. To extend allograft survival, immunosuppression should be decided based on reliable biomarkers capable of quantifying the alloimmune response and/or noninvasively diagnosing acute rejection...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534475/strain-engineering-of-monoclinic-domains-in-k-x-na1-x-nbo3-epitaxial-layers-a-pathway-to-enhanced-piezoelectric-properties
#11
Martin Schmidbauer, Dorothee Braun, Toni Markurt, Michael Hanke, Jutta Schwarzkopf
A novel concept to obtain a ferroelectric material with enhanced piezoelectric properties is proposed. This approach is based on the combination of two pathways: (i) the evolution of a ferroelectric monoclinic phase and, (ii) the coexistence of different types of ferroelectric domains leading to polarization discontinuities at the domain walls. Each of these pathways enables polarization rotation in the material which is responsible for giant piezoelectricity. Targeted incorporation of anisotropic epitaxial lattice strain is used to implement this approach...
May 23, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533859/-a-particular-type-of-cicatricial-pemphigoid-with-unique-iga-deposit
#12
Amina Aounallah, Mariem Jrad, Mehdi Ksiaa, Sana Mokni, Wafa Saidi, Lobna Boussofara, Badreddine Sriha, Mohamed Denguezli, Najet Ghariani, Colandane Belajouza, Rafia Nouira
Cicatricial Pemphigoid is a subepithelial bullous dermatosis which essentially involves the mucous membranes with cicatricial evolution We report the case of a 66-year old patient hospitalized with erosive gingivitis associated with dysphagia, dyspnea and blurred vision. Dermatologic examination showed erosive lesions involving the palate and the pharynx. Ophthalmologic examination showed symblepharons, ectropion and bilateral cataract. Gingival biopsy revealed a necrotic detachment of the buccal epithelium...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527433/partial-hydrodynamic-representation-of-quantum-molecular-dynamics
#13
Bing Gu, Ignacio Franco
A hybrid method is proposed to propagate system-bath quantum dynamics that use both basis functions and coupled quantum trajectories. In it, the bath is represented with an ensemble of Bohmian trajectories while the system degrees of freedom are accounted through reduced density matrices. By retaining the Hilbert space structure for the system, the method is able to capture interference processes that are challenging to describe in Bohmian dynamics due to singularities that these processes introduce in the quantum potential...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524675/experimental-determination-of-dynamical-lee-yang-zeros
#14
Kay Brandner, Ville F Maisi, Jukka P Pekola, Juan P Garrahan, Christian Flindt
Statistical physics provides the concepts and methods to explain the phase behavior of interacting many-body systems. Investigations of Lee-Yang zeros-complex singularities of the free energy in systems of finite size-have led to a unified understanding of equilibrium phase transitions. The ideas of Lee and Yang, however, are not restricted to equilibrium phenomena. Recently, Lee-Yang zeros have been used to characterize nonequilibrium processes such as dynamical phase transitions in quantum systems after a quench or dynamic order-disorder transitions in glasses...
May 5, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521624/early-life-socioeconomic-status-and-adult-physiological-functioning-a-life-course-examination-of-biosocial-mechanisms
#15
Yang Claire Yang, Karen Gerken, Kristen Schorpp, Courtney Boen, Kathleen Mullan Harris
A growing literature has demonstrated a link between early-life socioeconomic conditions and adult health at a singular point in life. No research exists, however, that specifies the life course patterns of socioeconomic status (SES) in relation to the underlying biological processes that determine health. Using an innovative life course research design consisting of four nationally representative longitudinal datasets that collectively cover the human life span from early adolescence to old age (Add Health, MIDUS, NSHAP, and HRS), we address this scientific gap and assess how SES pathways from childhood into adulthood are associated with biophysiological outcomes in different adult life stages...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520832/evaluation-of-monitored-anesthesia-care-in-sialendoscopy
#16
Oscar Trujillo, Madeleine A Drusin, Parwane P Pagano, Gulce Askin, Rahmatullah Rahmati
Importance: In the United States, sialendoscopy is most often performed under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation (GETA); however, monitored anesthesia care (MAC) may be a viable alternative. Objective: To investigate patient characteristics and outcomes following sialendoscopy performed under MAC or GETA to assess the potential of MAC as an alternative anesthetic option. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective review of medical records on patients who underwent sialendoscopy between October 1, 2011, and August 31, 2014, was performed...
May 18, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515668/nested-soft-collinear-subtractions-in-nnlo-qcd-computations
#17
Fabrizio Caola, Kirill Melnikov, Raoul Röntsch
We discuss a modification of the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) subtraction scheme based on the residue-improved sector decomposition that reduces the number of double-real emission sectors from five to four. In particular, a sector where energies and angles of unresolved particles vanish in a correlated fashion is redundant and can be discarded. This simple observation allows us to formulate a transparent iterative subtraction procedure for double-real emission contributions, to demonstrate the cancellation of soft and collinear singularities in an explicit and (almost) process-independent way and to write the result of a NNLO calculation in terms of quantities that can be computed in four space-time dimensions...
2017: European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510805/interventional-radiology-in-iatrogenic-ureteral-leaks-case-series-and-literature-review
#18
Claudia Trombatore, Giuseppe Giordano, Vincenzo Magnano San Lio
Iatrogenic ureteral injuries are a dramatic complication in medical practice. Nowadays there are no universal guidelines for their management. The aim of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of the percutaneous treatment in restoring ureteral integrity in 19 patients that came to our attention. In each case retrograde stenting failed and patients were candidates for re-surgery. Our strategy consists of two phases. The first step is the nephrostomy that allows an external urinary diversion putting dry the damaged ureteral segment...
May 16, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510615/the-role-of-frequency-in-learning-morphophonological-alternations-implications-for-children-with-specific-language-impairment
#19
Ekaterina Tomas, Katherine Demuth, Peter Petocz
Purpose: The aim of this article was to explore how the type of allomorph (e.g., past tense buzz[d] vs. nod[əd]) influences the ability to perceive and produce grammatical morphemes in children with typical development and with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: The participants were monolingual Australian English-speaking children. The SLI group included 13 participants (mean age = 5;7 [years;months]); the control group included 19 children with typical development (mean age = 5;4)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510582/the-worst-case-scenario-locomotor-and-collision-demands-of-the-longest-periods-of-gameplay-in-professional-rugby-union
#20
Cillian Reardon, Daniel P Tobin, Peter Tierney, Eamonn Delahunt
A number of studies have used global positioning systems (GPS) to report on positional differences in the physical game demands of rugby union both on an average and singular bout basis. However, the ability of these studies to report quantitative data is limited by a lack of validation of certain aspects of measurement by GPS micro-technology. Furthermore no study has analyzed the positional physical demands of the longest bouts of ball-in-play time in rugby union. The aim of the present study is to compare the demands of the single longest period of ball-in-play, termed "worst case scenario" (WCS) between positional groups, which have previously been reported to have distinguishable game demands...
2017: PloS One
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