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Jan Klocke, Katharina Kopetschke, Anna-Sophie Grießbach, Valerie Langhans, Jens Y Humrich, Robert Biesen, Duska Dragun, Andreas Radbruch, Gerd-Rüdiger Burmester, Gabriela Riemekasten, Philipp Enghard
Renal infiltration of inflammatory cells contributes to the pathogenesis of Lupus nephritis (LN). Current knowledge on the recruitment mechanisms relies mainly on findings in rodent models. Here, we assess various chemokine pathways in human LN by comparing urinary chemokine concentrations (in 25 patients with acute LN and in 78 lupus patients without active LN) with the expression of corresponding chemokine receptors on urinary leukocytes (in ten acute LN patients). Nine urinary chemokines were significantly elevated in LN patients and correlated with renal disease activity and urinary cell counts; however, their concentrations displayed considerable interindividual heterogeneity...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Claus G Roehrborn, Francisco Cruz, Ferdinando Fusco
Available α1-blockers (ABs) have different profiles of receptor selectivity. Silodosin exhibits the highest selectivity for the α1A adrenergic receptor. This pharmacological feature couples with a singular urodynamic and clinical profile. The magnitude of bladder outlet obstruction improvement in patients receiving silodosin is higher if compared to other ABs. From a clinical point of view, current evidence suggests an advantage in favor of silodosin in terms of nocturia improvement and cardiovascular safety...
October 17, 2016: Advances in Therapy
Maurice Filo, Fadi Karameh, Mariette Awad
The cochlea is an indispensable preliminary processing stage in auditory perception that employs mechanical frequency-tuning and electrical transduction of incoming sound waves. Cochlear mechanical responses are shown to exhibit active nonlinear spatiotemporal response dynamics (e.g., otoacoustic emission). To model such phenomena, it is often necessary to incorporate cochlear fluid-membrane interactions. This results in both excessively high-order model formulations and computationally intensive solutions that limit their practical use in simulating the model and analyzing its response even for simple single-tone inputs...
October 17, 2016: Biological Cybernetics
Kei Hosoda, Keishi Yamashita, Shinichi Sakuramoto, Natsuya Katada, Hiromitsu Moriya, Hiroaki Mieno, Masahiko Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Little is known about postgastrectomy syndrome and quality of life (QOL after laparoscopy-assisted pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (LAPPG). The aim of this study was to assess postgastrectomy syndrome and QOL after LAPPG as compared with laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy with Billroth-I reconstruction (LADGBI). METHODS: Postgastrectomy Syndrome Assessment Scale-45 (PGSAS-45) questionnaires were sent by mail to 167 patients. To balance the characteristics of the groups, propensity score matching was performed...
October 8, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Logan Horne, Frank R Avilucea, Huifeng Jin, Jared J Barrott, Kyllie Smith-Fry, Yanliang Wang, Bang H Hoang, Kevin B Jones
Previous reports document expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) in osteosarcoma (OS) tissue. Expression of this Wnt receptor correlated with metastatic disease and poor disease-free survival. Forced expression of dominant-negative LRP5 (dnLRP5), which lacks the membrane binding domain of the native protein and therefore functions as a soluble receptor-sponge for Wnt ligands, reduced in vitro cellular invasion and in vivo xenograft tumor growth for osteosarcoma cell lines. Here, we use a genetically engineered mouse model of osteosarcomagenesis with and without expression of dnLRP5 to assess to what degree tumorigenesis is affected and whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling is circumvented or maintained...
October 2016: Translational Oncology
Quanbo Jiang, Aline Pham, Serge Huant, Joel Bellessa, Cyriaque Genet, Aurélien Drezet
We report a highly efficient generation of singular surface plasmon (SP) fields by an achiral plasmonic structure consisting of Λ-shaped apertures. Our quantitative analysis, based on leakage radiation microscopy (LRM), demonstrates that the induced spin-orbit coupling can be tuned by adjusting the apex angle of the Λ-shaped aperture. Specifically, the array of Λ-shaped apertures with the apex angle 60° is shown to give rise to the directional coupling efficiency. The ring of Λ-shaped apertures with the apex angle 60° was found to generate the maximum extinction ratio (ER=11) for the SP singularities between two different polarization states...
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Lara R Arauna, Javier Mendoza-Revilla, Alex Mas-Sandoval, Hassan Izaabel, Asmahan Bekada, Soraya Benhamamouch, Karima Fadhlaoui-Zid, Pierre Zalloua, Garrett Hellenthal, David Comas
North Africa is characterized by its diverse cultural and linguistic groups and its genetic heterogeneity. Genomic data has shown an amalgam of components mixed since pre-Holocean times. Though no differences have been found in uniparental and classical markers between Berbers and Arabs, the two main ethnic groups in the region, the scanty genomic data available have highlighted the singularity of Berbers. We characterize the genetic heterogeneity of North African groups, focusing on the putative differences of Berbers and Arabs, and estimate migration dates...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Nikolas M Eleftheriou, Jonas Sjölund, Matteo Bocci, Eliane Cortez, Se-Jin Lee, Sara I Cunha, Kristian Pietras
Angiogenesis occurs early in tumor development, sustains primary tumor growth and provides a route for metastatic escape. The TGF-β family receptors modulate angiogenesis via endothelial-cell specific pathways. Here we investigate the interaction of two such receptors, ALK1 and endoglin, in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET). Independently, ALK1 and endoglin deficiencies exhibited genetically divergent phenotypes, while both highly correlate to an endothelial metagene in human and mouse PanNETs. A concurrent deficiency of both receptors synergistically decreased tumor burden to a greater extent than either individual knockdown...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Jannis Erhard, Patrick Bleiziffer, Andreas Görling
A power series approximation for the correlation kernel of time-dependent density-functional theory is presented. Using this approximation in the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation (ACFD) theorem leads to a new family of Kohn-Sham methods. The new methods yield reaction energies and barriers of unprecedented accuracy and enable a treatment of static (strong) correlation with an accuracy of high-level multireference configuration interaction methods but are single-reference methods allowing for a black-box-like handling of static correlation...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Maxime Chinaud, Victor Voulgaropoulos, Panagiota Angeli
In this work the coalescence of an aqueous drop with a flat aqueous-organic interface was investigated in a thin gap Hele-Shaw cell. Different concentrations of a nonionic surfactant (Span 80) dissolved in the organic phase were studied. We present experimental results on the velocity field inside a coalescing droplet in the presence of surfactants. The evolution of the neck between the drop and the interface was studied with high-speed imaging. It was found that the time evolution of the neck at the initial stages of coalescence follows a linear trend, which suggests that the local surfactant concentration at the neck region for this stage of coalescence can be considered quasiconstant in time...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
David S Dean, Antonio Iorio, Enzo Marinari, Gleb Oshanin
The Sinai model of a tracer diffusing in a quenched Brownian potential is a much-studied problem exhibiting a logarithmically slow anomalous diffusion due to the growth of energy barriers with the system size. However, if the potential is random but periodic, the regime of anomalous diffusion crosses over to one of normal diffusion once a tracer has diffused over a few periods of the system. Here we consider a system in which the potential is given by a Brownian bridge on a finite interval (0,L) and then periodically repeated over the whole real line and study the power spectrum S(f) of the diffusive process x(t) in such a potential...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Michael Janas, Alex Kamenev, Baruch Meerson
We study the short-time behavior of the probability distribution P(H,t) of the surface height h(x=0,t)=H in the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in 1+1 dimension. The process starts from a stationary interface: h(x,t=0) is given by a realization of two-sided Brownian motion constrained by h(0,0)=0. We find a singularity of the large deviation function of H at a critical value H=H_{c}. The singularity has the character of a second-order phase transition. It reflects spontaneous breaking of the reflection symmetry x↔-x of optimal paths h(x,t) predicted by the weak-noise theory of the KPZ equation...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Steven Atkinson, Frank H Stillinger, Salvatore Torquato
The nonequilibrium process by which hard-particle systems may be compressed into disordered, jammed states has received much attention because of its wide utility in describing a broad class of amorphous materials. While dynamical signatures are known to precede jamming, the task of identifying static structural signatures indicating the onset of jamming have proven more elusive. The observation that compressing hard-particle packings towards jamming is accompanied by an anomalous suppression of density fluctuations (termed "hyperuniformity") has paved the way for the analysis of jamming as an "inverted critical point" in which the direct correlation function c(r), rather than the total correlation function h(r), diverges...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Hien Van Doan, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Wanaporn Tapingkae, Sudaporn Tongsiri, Pimporn Khamtavee
The present study investigates the effects of combined or singular administration of low molecular weight sodium alginate (LWMSA) and Lactobacillus plantarum on innate immune response, disease resistance and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Three hundred and twenty fish were supplied and randomly stocked in sixteen glass tanks (150 L) assigned to four treatments as follows: 0 g kg(-1) LMWSA (Control, Diet 1), 10 g kg(-1) LMWSA (Diet 2), 10(8) CFU g(-1)L. plantarum (Diet 3), and 10 g kg(-1) LMWSA + 10(8) CFU g(-1)L...
October 10, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Marija Pinne, Elsa Ponce, Judy L Raucy
The pregnane X receptor (PXR/SXR, NR1I2) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) are nuclear receptors (NRs) involved in the regulation of many genes including cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) and transporters important in metabolism and uptake of both endogenous substrates and xenobiotics. Activation of these receptors can lead to adverse drug effects as well as drug-drug interactions. Depending on which nuclear receptor is activated will determine which adverse effect could occur, making identification important...
2016: PloS One
James Dana Kondrup, Frances R Anderson, Melanie Rose Katz
Biosurgical materials (biosurgicals) have a wide array of uses for providing hemostasis, including decreasing the risk of postoperative bleeding and, intraoperatively, controling bleeding. These materials are especially useful in situations where electrocautery, sutures, or clips are not feasible. Biosurgicals have long been used in general surgery and surgical subspecialties to provide hemostasis; however, they still are not commonly used during obstetric and gynecologic procedures. Three commonly used classes of biosurgicals will be discussed in this article: oxidized regenerated cellulose, flowables, fibrin sealants, and fibrin sealant patches...
October 6, 2016: Surgical Technology International
Hicham Badri, Hussein Yahia, Driss Aboutajdine
Current state-of-the-art denoising methods such as non-local low-rank approaches have shown to give impressive results. They are however mainly tuned to work with uniform Gaussian noise corruption and known variance, which is far from the real noise scenario. In fact, noise level estimation is already a challenging problem and denoising methods are quite sensitive to this parameter. Moreover, these methods are based on shrinkage models that are too simple to reflect reality, which results in over-smoothing of important structures such as small-scale text and textures...
September 22, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Juan C Rodriguez, Germán A González, Cristóbal Fresno, Andrea S Llera, Elmer A Fernández
Transcriptome analysis is essential to understand the mechanisms regulating key biological processes and functions. The first step usually consists of identifying candidate genes; to find out which pathways are affected by those genes, however, functional analysis (FA) is mandatory. The most frequently used strategies for this purpose are Gene Set and Singular Enrichment Analysis (GSEA and SEA) over Gene Ontology. Several statistical methods have been developed and compared in terms of computational efficiency and/or statistical appropriateness...
September 24, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Abraham Colin-Molina, Salvador Pérez-Estrada, Arian E Roa, Alvin Villagrana-Garcia, Simón Hernández-Ortega, Mario Rodríguez, Stuart E Brown, Braulio Rodríguez-Molina
Liquid-like dynamics of a covalent 1,4-phenylene rotator have been unveiled in 1 with a brominated stator showing type-II halogen bonds. This singular rotation is favored by synergistic molecular changes in stacked molecules, according to VT solid state NMR, (1)H T1 relaxometry and VT X-ray experiments of this highly crystalline compound.
October 3, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Alireza Rastegarpanah, Mozafar Saadat
The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of a 6-DoF parallel robot in tracking the movement of the foot trajectory of a paretic leg during a single stride. The foot trajectories of nine patients with a paretic leg including both males and females have been measured and analysed by a Vicon system in a gait laboratory. Based on kinematic and dynamic analysis of a 6-DoF UPS parallel robot, an algorithm was developed in MATLAB to calculate the length of the actuators and their required forces during all trajectories...
2016: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
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