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Pulmonary arterial hypertension

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667884/egg-and-banana-sign-a-novel-diagnostic-ct-marker-for-pulmonary-hypertension
#1
Chris L Scelsi, William B Bates, Yulia V Melenevsky, Gyanendra K Sharma, Norman B Thomson, Jayanth H Keshavamurthy
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively determine whether the egg-and-banana sign, defined as the visualization of the main pulmonary artery (PA) at the level of the aortic arch, is a sensitive and specific diagnostic marker for pulmonary hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 186 patients who, between January 2014 and July 2017, received right heart catheterizations and underwent CT studies that included the aortic arch within 140 days of catheterization were evaluated in this retrospective study...
April 18, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667180/pde5-inhibitors-pharmacology-and-clinical-applications-20-years-after-sildenafil-discovery
#2
REVIEW
K-E Andersson
The discovery of the nitric oxide/cyclic cGMP pathway was the basis for our understanding of many normal physiological functions and the pathophysiology of several diseases. Since the discovery and introduction of sildenafil, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase isoenzymes type 5 (PDE5) have been first-line therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). The success of sildenafil in the treatment of ED stimulated research in the field of PDE5 inhibition and led to many new applications, such as treatment of lower urinary symptoms (LUTS), and pulmonary arterial hypertension, which are now approved indications...
April 17, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666358/revisiting-atrioventricular-nodal-ablation-and-cardiac-pacing-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-a-patient-with-dextrocardia
#3
Munish Sharma, Ritesh Neupane, Koroush Khalighi
BACKGROUND Poorly controlled ventricular rate associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) leads to tachycardia-induced left ventricular dysfunction. Atrioventricular (AV) nodal ablation and cardiac pacing is the standard of care in refractory congestive heart failure (CHF) due to AF with moderate to rapid ventricular response that failed conventional medical therapy. If the patient is not a candidate for AF ablation with pulmonary vein isolation and elimination of AF foci, this is an effective approach, but it does have some challenges when done in a patient with dextrocardia and situs inversus...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665366/3-7-bis-2-hydroxyethyl-icaritin-a-potent-inhibitor-of-phosphodiesterase-5-prevents-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-via-no-cgmp-activation-in-rats
#4
Tao-Hua Lan, Xiao-Ling Chen, Yun-Shan Wu, Hui-Liang Qiu, Jun-Zhe Li, Xin-Min Ruan, Dan-Ping Xu, Dong-Qun Lin
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic progressive disease which leads to elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and right heart failure. 3,7-Bis(2-hydroxyethyl)icaritin (ICT), an icariin derivatives, was reported to have potent inhibitory activity on phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of PAH. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of ICT on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rat model and reveal the underlying mechanism. MCT-induced PAH rat models were established with intragastric administration of ICT (10, 20, 40mg/kg/d), Icariin (ICA) (40mg/kg/d) and Sildenafil (25mg/kg/d)...
April 14, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664959/contemporary-survival-of-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-and-congenital-systemic-to-pulmonary-shunts
#5
Chodchanok Vijarnsorn, Kritvikrom Durongpisitkul, Paweena Chungsomprasong, Densiri Bositthipichet, Salisa Ketsara, Yuttapon Titaram, Prakul Chanthong, Supaluck Kanjanauthai, Jarupim Soongswang
OBJECTIVE: To compare survival of patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease (PAH-CHD) according to various clinical classifications with classifications of anatomical-pathophysiological systemic to pulmonary shunts in a single-center cohort. METHODS: All prevalent cases of PAH-CHD with hemodynamic confirmation by cardiac catheterization in 1995-2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who were younger than three months of age, or with single ventricle following surgery were excluded...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664678/endothelial-and-smooth-muscle-cell-interaction-via-foxm1-signaling-mediates-vascular-remodeling-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#6
Zhiyu Dai, Maggie M Zhu, Yi Peng, Hua Jin, Narsa Machireddy, Zhijian Qian, Xianming Zhang, You-Yang Zhao
RATIONALE: Angioproliferative vasculopathy is a hallmark of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, little is known how endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) crosstalk regulates the angioproliferative vascular remodeling. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the role of EC and SMC interaction and underlying signaling pathways in PH development. METHODS: SMC-specific Foxm1 or Cxcr4 knockout mice, EC-specific Foxm1 or Egln1 knockout mice, as well as EC-specific Egln1/Cxcl12 double knockout mice were used to assess the role of FoxM1 on SMC proliferation and PH...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664507/echocardiographic-evaluation-after-pediatric-heart-transplant-in-chile-initial-application-of-a-functional-protocol-with-global-longitudinal-strain
#7
Claudia Trincado, Víctor Molina, Gonzalo Urcelay, Paulina Dellepiane
INTRODUCTION: The echocardiographic evaluation of patients after heart transplantation is a useful tool. However, it is still necessary to define an optimal follow-up protocol. OBJECTIVE: To describe the results of the application of a functional echocardiographic protocol in patients being followed after pediatric heart transplantation. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Alls patients being followed at our institution after pediatric heart transplantation underwent an echocardiographic examination with a functional protocol that included global longitudinal strain...
February 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663123/creation-of-a-restrictive-atrial-communication-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-and-mid-range-ejection-fraction-effective-palliation-of-left-atrial-hypertension-and-pulmonary-congestion
#8
Anna Bauer, Markus Khalil, Monika Lüdemann, Jürgen Bauer, Anoosh Esmaeili, Roberta De-Rosa, Norbert F Voelkel, Hakan Akintuerk, Dietmar Schranz
BACKGROUND: Left atrial decompression is considered in patients with symptomatic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of transcatheter generation of a restrictive atrial septum communication to manage HFpEF from infancy to adulthood with cardiomyopathy and congenital heart defect. METHODS AND RESULTS: From June 2009 to December 2016, 24 patients (50% with an age less than 16 years) with HFpEF were palliated; NYHA-/Ross class IV (n = 10); median systemic ventricular ejection fraction 64 (range 35-78) %...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662889/effect-of-mir-29b-on-the-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-by-targeting-mcl-1-and-ccnd2
#9
Juan Chen, Yanping Li, Yun Li, Lijian Xie, Jianyi Wang, Yongwei Zhang, Tingting Xiao
The proliferation and apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) are considered to be key steps in the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). MicroRNAs (e.g., miR-29b) have been identified in various diseases to be critical modulators of cell growth and apoptosis by targeting Mcl-1 and CCND2. However, the role of miR-29b in PAH remains unknown. So we try to investigate the effect of miR-29b on Mcl-1 and CCND2 protein in PASMCs, analyze the effect of miR-29b on the proliferation of PASMCs, and explore the significance of miR-29b in the proliferation, apoptosis, and gene therapy of PAH...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660902/effect-of-rho-kinase-inhibitor-fasudil-on-the-expression-et-1-and-no-in-rats-with-hypoxic-pulmonary-hypertension
#10
Xing-Zhen Sun, Shu-Yan Li, Xiang-Yang Tian, Ze Hong, Jia-Xin Li
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to study the effect of Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil on the expression endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) in rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). METHODS: Twenty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, model group (HPH group) and HPH+fasudil group. The rat HPH model was established by intermittent hypoxia (IH) at atmospheric pressure. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI), ET-1 and NO levels, and pulmonary vascular structural changes were observed in all groups...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660247/pulmonary-functions-in-pseudoexfoliation-syndrome
#11
Muhammed Batur, Erbil Seven, Merhamet Tanrıkulu, Selami Ekin, Serek Tekin, Tekin Yasar
OBJECTIVES: It is well known that pseudoexfoliative material deteriorates iris dilatation function. This material was also found in lung tissue. The aim of the study was to evaluate pulmonary function in patients with pseudoexfoliation. METHODS: This prospective study included 60 pseudoexfoliation syndrome patients without any pulmonary diseases and 52 age- and gender-matched controls without any pulmonary diseases. Patients were asked about their cigarette use and the presence of any systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, and asthma...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658869/predictive-model-for-secundum-atrial-septal-defect-closure-with-pulmonary-artery-hypertension-in-adult-when-to-close
#12
Supomo Supomo, Adika Zhulhi Arjana, Handy Darmawan
BACKGROUND: Secundum atrial septal defect (SASD) closure is contraindicated in the presence of severe pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). However, there is no consensus on the threshold of severe PAH, in terms of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), which would contraindicate for defect closure surgery in adults. Furthermore, PAH can persist, or even increase in severity, after the closure. The aim of this study was to produce a predictive model correlating mPAP in adult SASD patients with PAH after defect closure surgery...
March 16, 2018: Heart Surgery Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657152/venous-thromboembolism-in-systemic-sclerosis-prevalence-risk-factors-and-effect-on-survival
#13
Sindhu R Johnson, Nabil Hakami, Zareen Ahmad, Duminda N Wijeysundera
OBJECTIVE: Whether systemic sclerosis (SSc) confers increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is uncertain. We evaluated the prevalence, risk factors, and effect of VTE on SSc survival. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted of subjects with SSc who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism classification criteria between 1970 and 2017. Deep vein thrombosis was defined as thrombus on extremity ultrasound. Pulmonary embolism was defined as thrombus on thorax computed tomography angiogram...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656317/inflammatory-response-of-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-exposed-to-oxidative-and-biophysical-stress
#14
Joanna Costa, Yan Zhu, Timothy Cox, Paul Fawcett, Thomas Shaffer, Deepthi Alapati
Pulmonary hypertension in the neonate requires treatment with oxygen and positive pressure ventilation, both known to induce lung injury. The direct response of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, the most abundant cells in the artery wall, to the stress of positive pressure and hyperoxia has not been previously studied. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells were cultured in temperature- and pressure-controlled air-tight chambers under conditions of positive pressure or hyperoxia for 24 h. Control cells were cultured in room air under atmospheric pressure...
April 14, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655950/strengths-and-weaknesses-of-echocardiography-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-hypertension
#15
Michele D'Alto, Eduardo Bossone, Alexander R Opotowsky, Stefano Ghio, Lawrence G Rudski, Robert Naeije
Doppler echocardiography is extensively used in clinical practice for the screening and detection of pulmonary hypertension (PH). It allows for accurate estimates of pulmonary artery pressures, but with moderate precision, which explains why it is more appropriate for population studies than for definitive diagnosis of PH in individual patients. Moreover, echocardiography allows one to distinguish different patterns of right ventricular remodelling in various forms of PH and enables clinically satisfactory differentiation between pre- and post-capillary PH...
April 7, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655882/incidence-and-mortality-of-adults-with-pulmonary-hypertension-and-congenital-heart-disease
#16
Sara Søndergaard Schwartz, Nicolas Madsen, Henning Bækgaard Laursen, Russel Hirsch, Morten Smærup Olsen
Reports on pulmonary hypertension (PH) in the aging congenital heart disease (CHD) population are few and focused on arterial PH and patients with systemic-to-pulmonary shunts. Our objective was to estimate incidence and mortality of adult-onset PH in the CHD population. Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified all patients diagnosed with CHD from 1963 to 1974 and 1977 to 2012. Patients were matched 1:10 by birth year and gender with general population subjects. Between 1977 and 2013 adults >18 years of age were followed up until PH diagnosis, death, or emigration, whichever came first, using data from the Danish National Registry of Patients...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655622/-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-associated-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-thirty-years-after-its-description
#17
José Luis Sandoval Gutiérrez
The development of pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with human immunodeficiency virus reduces the probability of survival in the patient affected compared to those without cardiopulmonary disease. The pathophysiology is uncertain. There are several lines of research to associate the different proteins of the virus in the endothelial lesion. From a therapeutic point of view there are treatment modalities that allow an acceptable life expectancy.
April 11, 2018: Archivos de Cardiología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653363/trapidil-improves-hemodynamic-echocardiographic-and-redox-state-parameters-of-right-ventricle-in-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-model
#18
Patrick Türck, Denise Santos Lacerda, Cristina Campos Carraro, Bruna Gazzi de Lima-Seolin, Rayane Brinck Teixeira, Jéssica Hellen Poletto Bonetto, Rafael Colombo, Paulo Cavalheiro Schenkel, Adriane Belló-Klein, Alex Sander da Rosa Araujo
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance and redox imbalance, leading to failure of right ventricle. Trapidil has been described to improve the redox balance and cardiac conditions. HYPOTHESIS: Trapidil can improve the redox balance and contribute to functional improvements of the RV in PAH. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male, 5week-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control, Control + Trapidil, Monocrotaline and Monocrotaline + Trapidil...
April 10, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653129/delivering-drugs-to-the-lungs-the-history-of-repurposing-in-the-treatment-of-respiratory-diseases
#19
Stephen P Newman
The repurposing of drug delivery by the pulmonary route has been applied to treatment and prophylaxis of an increasingly wide range of respiratory diseases. Repurposing has been most successful for the delivery of inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Repurposing utilizes the advantages that the pulmonary route offers in terms of more targeted delivery to the site of action, the use of smaller doses, and a lower incidence of side-effects...
April 10, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652794/the-voice-of-the-heart-vowel-like-sound-in-pulmonary-artery-hypertension
#20
Mohamed Elgendi, Prashant Bobhate, Shreepal Jain, Long Guo, Jennifer Rutledge, Yashu Coe, Roger Zemp, Dale Schuurmans, Ian Adatia
Increased blood pressure in the pulmonary artery is referred to as pulmonary hypertension and often is linked to loud pulmonic valve closures. For the purpose of this paper, it was hypothesized that pulmonary circulation vibrations will create sounds similar to sounds created by vocal cords during speech and that subjects with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) could have unique sound signatures across four auscultatory sites. Using a digital stethoscope, heart sounds were recorded at the cardiac apex, 2nd left intercostal space (2LICS), 2nd right intercostal space (2RICS), and 4th left intercostal space (4LICS) undergoing simultaneous cardiac catheterization...
April 13, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
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