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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925785/accelerating-scientific-advancement-for-pediatric-rare-lung-disease-research-report-from-a-national-institutes-of-health-nhlbi-workshop-september-3-and-4-2015
#1
Lisa R Young, Bruce C Trapnell, Kenneth D Mandl, Daniel T Swarr, Jennifer A Wambach, Carol J Blaisdell
Pediatric rare lung disease (PRLD) is a term that refers to a heterogeneous group of rare disorders in children. In recent years, this field has experienced significant progress marked by scientific discoveries, multicenter and interdisciplinary collaborations, and efforts of patient advocates. Although genetic mechanisms underlie many PRLDs, pathogenesis remains uncertain for many of these disorders. Furthermore, epidemiology and natural history are insufficiently defined, and therapies are limited. To develop strategies to accelerate scientific advancement for PRLD research, the NHLBI of the National Institutes of Health convened a strategic planning workshop on September 3 and 4, 2015...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924551/mycotoxins-a-fungal-genomics-perspective
#2
Daren W Brown, Scott E Baker
The chemical and enzymatic diversity in the fungal kingdom is staggering. Large-scale fungal genome sequencing projects are generating a massive catalog of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes and pathways. Fungal natural products are a boon and bane to man as valuable pharmaceuticals and harmful toxins. Understanding how these chemicals are synthesized will aid the development of new strategies to limit mycotoxin contamination of food and feeds as well as expand drug discovery programs. A survey of work focused on the fumonisin family of mycotoxins highlights technological advances and provides a blueprint for future studies of other fungal natural products...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924080/global-epidemiology-and-burden-of-hcv-infection-and-hcv-related-disease
#3
REVIEW
Aaron P Thrift, Hashem B El-Serag, Fasiha Kanwal
Chronic HCV infection is a global health problem that affects >184 million people worldwide. HCV is associated with several hepatic and extrahepatic disorders, including several malignancies. The burden of HCV-related disorders is influenced by the number of new and existing cases, number of existing cases and the natural history of the infection. The natural history of HCV is affected by several demographic, virological, clinical and lifestyle factors. Major variations exist in the burden of HCV among different populations and geographical regions, as well as over time...
December 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923647/mouse-sensitization-and-exposure-are-associated-with-asthma-severity-in-urban-children
#4
Torie Grant, Charles Aloe, Matthew Perzanowski, Wanda Phipatanakul, Mary E Bollinger, Rachel Miller, Elizabeth C Matsui
BACKGROUND: Mouse sensitization and exposure are associated with uncontrolled asthma, but whether they are associated with asthma severity, an intrinsic disease characteristic and long-term outcome predictor, is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine relationships between mouse sensitization and/or exposure and asthma severity in urban children. METHODS: A total of 645 children (5-17 years) with uncontrolled asthma underwent mouse sensitization evaluation...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923645/evaluation-of-antioxidant-activity-of-phenolic-fractions-from-the-leaves-and-petals-of-dandelion-in-human-plasma-treated-with-h2o2-and-h2o2-fe
#5
Dariusz Jędrejek, Bogdan Kontek, Bernadetta Lis, Anna Stochmal, Beata Olas
Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) is a widespread perennial of the Asteraceae family. Dandelion is a rich source of different bioactive compounds, including phenolic compounds, terpenes, carbohydrates, proteins, fatty acids, vitamin and minerals. However, the content of phenolics in tested extracts by various authors was not always well described. Dandelion is also a commonly available food with a long history of human use and as such poses little risk of harm. In this study, we focused on four different phenolic fractions from leaves and petals of dandelion, which might be of great interest...
December 3, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923231/congenital-absence-of-the-pericardium-a-systematic-approach-to-diagnosis-and-management
#6
Bo Xu, Jorge Betancor, Craig Asher, Adriana Rosario, Allan Klein
Congenital absence of the pericardium (CAP) is a rare condition. Failure to recognize the clinical features of this condition can lead to incorrect and delayed diagnosis. Limited data are available regarding the optimal approach to diagnose and manage patients with suspected CAP. Due to the rare nature of CAP, this condition can present diagnostic and management dilemmas for clinicians. Using 3 cases of CAP as a framework, a clinically focused review on the diagnosis and management of CAP is presented. Clinicians will be provided with a systematic approach to evaluating patients with suspected CAP, incorporating key history, examination, and multimodality cardiovascular imaging investigations...
December 7, 2016: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923219/nonoperative-versus-operative-treatment-of-displaced-ankle-fractures-in-diabetics
#7
Andrew J Lovy, James Dowdell, Aakash Keswani, Steven Koehler, Jaehon Kim, Steven Weinfeld, David Joseph
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a risk factor for complications related to displaced ankle fractures. Limited literature exists comparing complication rates in nonoperative versus operative treatment of displaced ankle fractures in diabetics. No study has highlighted the natural history of nonoperative treatment of displaced ankle fractures in diabetics. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all adult ankle fractures from September 2011 through December 2014. Inclusion was limited to ambulatory adults (>18 years) with closed, displaced (widened mortise) ankle fractures with diabetes mellitus...
November 14, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922622/the-natural-course-of-spinal-cord-injury-changes-over-40-years-among-those-with-exceptional-survival
#8
J S Krause, J C Newman, J M R Clark, M Dunn
OBJECTIVES: To identify 40-year longitudinal changes in health, activity, employment, life satisfaction and self-rated adjustment after spinal cord injury. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal, mailed self-report. METHODS: Participants were identified from outpatient records of a Midwestern USA university hospital in 1973. Follow-ups were conducted in 1984 and approximate 10-year intervals thereafter. A total of 49 participants completed each of the five assessments...
December 6, 2016: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922016/gabaergic-anxiolytic-drug-in-water-increases-migration-behaviour-in-salmon
#9
Gustav Hellström, Jonatan Klaminder, Fia Finn, Lo Persson, Anders Alanärä, Micael Jonsson, Jerker Fick, Tomas Brodin
Migration is an important life-history event in a wide range of taxa, yet many migrations are influenced by anthropogenic change. Although migration dynamics are extensively studied, the potential effects of environmental contaminants on migratory physiology are poorly understood. In this study we show that an anxiolytic drug in water can promote downward migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in both laboratory setting and in a natural river tributary. Exposing salmon smolt to a dilute concentration of a GABAA receptor agonist (oxazepam) increased migration intensity compared with untreated smolt...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921406/house-dust-mites-confer-a-distinct-immunological-feature-among-dermatitis
#10
Safa Baris, Ahmet Ozen, Tuba Akdeniz, Elif Karakoc-Aydiner, Ovgu Aydin, Hulya Ercan, Ismail Ogulur, Yildiz Camcioglu, Reha Cengizlier, Cuyan Demirkesen, Deniz Yucelten, Gulderen Demirel, Isil B Barlan
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a heterogeneous disease with regard to clinical phenotype and natural history. We investigated T cell subtypes and cytokine responses in peripheral blood and skin lesions of AD patients with various sensitivities. Immunological studies were performed in 27 subjects: 9 house dust mite (HDM)-sensitized; 6 subjects with sensitizations other than HDM; 7 non-allergic AD patients and 5 healthy controls. Among those, skin biopsy samples of 13 subjects were evaluated for immunohistochemical analyses, as well...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921293/coloniality-and-migration-are-related-to-selection-on-mhc-genes-in-birds
#11
Piotr Minias, Linda A Whittingham, Peter O Dunn
The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) plays a key role in pathogen recognition as a part of vertebrate adaptive immune system. The great diversity of MHC genes in natural populations is maintained by different forms of balancing selection and its strength should correlate with the diversity of pathogens to which a population is exposed and the rate of exposure. Despite this prediction, little is known about how the life-history characteristics affect selection at the MHC. Here, we examined whether the strength of balancing selection on MHC class II genes in birds (as measured with nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions, dN) was related to their social or migratory behaviour, two life-history characteristics correlated with pathogen exposure...
December 6, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921000/distress-in-infertile-males-in-manipal-india-a-clinic-based-study
#12
Ansha Patel, Podila Satya Venkata Narasimha Sharma, Pratapkumar Narayan, Binu Valsalakumari Sreekumaran Nair, Dinesh Narayanakurup, Praveena Joglekar Pai
BACKGROUND: Being infertile comes as an overwhelming realization for couples trying to conceive. In consideration of rising rates of infertility worldwide, clinicians in India have also begun exploring this field for new possibilities, development and research. The purpose of this study was to estimate the proportion and predictors of infertility specific stress in males diagnosed with primary infertility. METHODS: This cross-sectional research was conducted in an assisted reproduction center, Manipal, India, on 300 infertile married males...
October 2016: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920627/the-role-of-nsaids-in-breast-cancer-prevention-and-relapse-current-evidence-and-future-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
Demetrios Moris, Michalis Kontos, Eleftherios Spartalis, Ian S Fentiman
Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have received considerable interest as potential chemopreventive agents. The aim of this review is to summarize the accumulated knowledge on the effect of NSAIDs on breast cancer incidence and natural history, and the underlying pathophysiology. NSAIDs mainly block inflammation by inhibiting cyclooxygenase enzymes, leading to lower prostaglandin synthesis. The latter has been reported to affect breast cancer risk through hormonal and inflammation-related pathways...
October 2016: Breast Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920382/adaptation-to-fragmentation-evolutionary-dynamics-driven-by-human-influences
#14
REVIEW
Pierre-Olivier Cheptou, Anna L Hargreaves, Dries Bonte, Hans Jacquemyn
Fragmentation-the process by which habitats are transformed into smaller patches isolated from each other-has been identified as a major threat for biodiversity. Fragmentation has well-established demographic and population genetic consequences, eroding genetic diversity and hindering gene flow among patches. However, fragmentation should also select on life history, both predictably through increased isolation, demographic stochasticity and edge effects, and more idiosyncratically via altered biotic interactions...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919582/external-validation-of-a-prognostic-model-for-predicting-nonresponse-following-knee-arthroplasty
#15
Daniel L Riddle, Gregory J Golladay, William A Jiranek, Robert A Perera
BACKGROUND: Instruments designed to predict the extent of pain and function following knee arthroplasty (KA) recovery has strong potential to guide patients and clinicians in shared decision making. Our purpose was to test the external validity of a recently developed prognostic instrument designed to estimate the probability of nonresponse following KA. METHODS: We used data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI), a 9-year multisite National Institutes of Health study designed to examine the natural history of knee osteoarthritis in 4796 subjects...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919428/anxiety-and-comorbid-depression-following-traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-community-based-sample-of-young-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#16
A J Osborn, J L Mathias, A K Fairweather-Schmidt, K J Anstey
BACKGROUND: Anxiety is common following a traumatic brain injury (TBI), but who is most at risk, and to what extent, is not well understood. METHODS: Longitudinal data from a randomly-selected community sample (Wave 1: 7397, Wave 2: 6621 and Wave 3: 6042) comprising three adult cohorts (young: 20-24 years of age, middle-aged: 40-44, older: 60-64), were analysed. The association between TBI history, anxiety and comorbid depression was assessed, controlling for age, sex, marital/employment status, medical conditions, recent life events, alcohol consumption, social support and physical activity...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919414/early-diagnosis-in-patients-with-transthyretin-familial-amyloid-polyneuropathy-a-comparative-study
#17
Manuel Raya-Cruz, Juan Buades-Reines, Cristina Gállego-Lezáun, Tomás Ripoll-Vera, Mercedes Usón-Martín, Eugenia Cisneros-Barroso
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Transthyretin-associated familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is a disease caused by the deposit of abnormal transthyretin on tissues, mainly nerves. Small nerve fibers are altered earlier during the course of the disease; hence, detection of their involvement may have serious consequences on the natural history of disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study, was carried out on symptomatic patients, involving the conduct of several tests for small nerve fibers: Vibration, Touch Pressure (TP) and Heat Pain (HP)...
December 2, 2016: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917978/pastoralism-and-wildlife-historical-and-current-perspectives-in-the-east-african-rangelands-of-kenya-and-tanzania
#18
F Lankester, A Davis
The relationship between pastoralists, their livestock, wildlife and the rangelands of East Africa is multi-directional, complex and long-standing. The tumultuous events of the past century, however, have rewritten the nature of this relationship, reshaping the landscapes that were created, and relied upon, by both pastoralists and wildlife. Presently, much of the interaction between wildlife and pastoralists takes place in and around protected areas, the most contentious occurring in pastoral lands surrounding national parks...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917872/advances-in-the-study-of-berberine-and-its-derivatives-a-focus-on-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-tumor-effects-in-the-digestive-system
#19
REVIEW
Kun Zou, Zhao Li, Yong Zhang, Hao-Yue Zhang, Bo Li, Wei-Liang Zhu, Ji-Ye Shi, Qi Jia, Yi-Ming Li
It has been widely recognized that inflammation, particularly chronic inflammation, can increase the risk of cancer and that the simultaneous treatment of inflammation and cancer may produce excellent therapeutic effects. Berberine, an alkaloid isolated from Rhizoma coptidis, has broad applications, particularly as an antibacterial agent in the clinic with a long history. Over the past decade, many reports have demonstrated that this natural product and its derivatives have high activity against both cancer and inflammation...
December 5, 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917752/genetic-and-environmental-factors-in-invasive-cervical-cancer-design-and-methods-of-a-classical-twin-study
#20
Dorothy A Machalek, John D Wark, Sepehr N Tabrizi, John L Hopper, Minh Bui, Gillian S Dite, Alyssa M Cornall, Marian Pitts, Dorota Gertig, Bircan Erbas, Suzanne M Garland
BACKGROUND: Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary prerequisite for development of cervical cancer and its precursor lesion, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). However, HPV infection is not sufficient to drive this process, and genetic and environmental factors may also play a role. METHODS/DESIGN: The Cervical Cancer, Genetics and Environment Twin Study was established to investigate the environmental and genetic influences on variation in susceptibility to cervical pre-cancer in 25- to 69-year-old monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins recruited through the Australian Twin Registry...
December 5, 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
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