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Haemorrhagic fever

Covadonga Alonso, Manuel Borca, Linda Dixon, Yolanda Revilla, Fernando Rodriguez, Jose M Escribano, Ictv Report Consortium
The family Asfarviridae includes the single species African swine fever virus, isolates of which have linear dsDNA genomes of 170-194 kbp. Virions have an internal core, an internal lipid membrane, an icosahedral capsid and an outer lipid envelope. Infection of domestic pigs and wild boar results in an acute haemorrhagic fever with transmission by contact or ingestion, or by ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. Indigenous pigs act as reservoirs in Africa, where infection is endemic, and from where introductions occur periodically to Europe...
March 22, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Bilge Öztoprak, İbrahim Öztoprak, Aynur Engin
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the central nervous system involvement in Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in conjunction with clinical and laboratory findings. METHODS: Between July 2015 and August 2016, 36 patients with CCHF were undergone brain MRI including SWI. Two MRIs, one at the time of admission and the second in the convalescent period, were performed for each patient in order to see if there is any sign of central nervous system (CNS) involvement, especially in terms of intracranial haemorrhage or viral encephalitis...
March 12, 2018: European Radiology
Peter Okokhere, Andres Colubri, Chukwuemeka Azubike, Christopher Iruolagbe, Omoregie Osazuwa, Shervin Tabrizi, Elizabeth Chin, Sara Asad, Ehi Ediale, Mojeed Rafiu, Donatus Adomeh, Ikponmwosa Odia, Rebecca Atafo, Chris Aire, Sylvanus Okogbenin, Meike Pahlman, Beate Becker-Ziaja, Danny Asogun, Terrence Fradet, Ben Fry, Stephen F Schaffner, Christian Happi, George Akpede, Stephan Günther, Pardis C Sabeti
BACKGROUND: Lassa fever is a viral haemorrhagic disease endemic to west Africa. No large-scale studies exist from Nigeria, where the Lassa virus (LASV) is most diverse. LASV diversity, coupled with host genetic and environmental factors, might cause differences in disease pathophysiology. Small-scale studies in Nigeria suggest that acute kidney injury is an important clinical feature and might be a determinant of survival. We aimed to establish the demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors associated with mortality in Nigerian patients with Lassa fever, and hypothesised that LASV was the direct cause of intrinsic renal damage for a subset of the patients with Lassa fever...
March 6, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Seyit Ali Büyüktuna, Halef Okan Doğan, Mehmet Bakir, Nazif Elaldi, Mustafa Gökhan Gözel, Aynur Engin
INTRODUCTION: Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease. Reactive oxygen species that are mainly generated by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) enzyme family have a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of many diseases. The serum levels of NOX isoforms in patients with CCHF have yet to be assessed. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted at Cumhuriyet University, Turkey. Only patients with CCHF confirmed by the National Reference Virology Laboratory were enrolled in the study...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Ferdinando B Freitas, Gonçalo Frouco, Carlos Martins, Fernando Ferreira
African swine fever virus is the etiological agent of a contagious and fatal acute haemorrhagic viral disease for which there are no vaccines or therapeutic options. The ASFV encodes for a putative E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (ORF I215L) that shows sequence homology with eukaryotic counterparts. In the present study, we showed that pI215L acts as an E2-ubiquitin like enzyme in a large range of pH values and temperatures, after short incubation times. Further experiments revealed that pI215L is polyubiquitinated instead of multi-mono-ubiquitinated and Cys85 residue plays an essential role in the transthioesterification reaction...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fumihiro Kato, Yuki Ishida, Akihiko Kawakami, Tomohiko Takasaki, Masayuki Saijo, Tomoyuki Miura, Takayuki Hishiki
Dengue virus (DENV) causes a wide range of illnesses in humans, including dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever. Current animal models of DENV infection are limited for understanding infectious diseases in humans. Bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata), a type of Old World monkey, have been used to study experimental and natural infections by flaviviruses, but Old World monkeys have not yet been used as DENV infection models. In this study, the replication levels of several DENV strains were evaluated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Harsha A Dissanayake, Suranjith L Seneviratne
Dengue fever is the commonest viral haemorrhagic fever worldwide and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropics. Dengue viral infections are frequently associated with varying degrees of liver injury. Liver injury is more severe in dengue haemorrhagic fever or severe dengue. We review the current knowledge on liver involvement following dengue viral infections and explore the links between clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, and their impact on management.
March 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat, Moslem Sarani, Sadegh Chinikar, Zakiye Telmadarraiy, Abdolreza Salahi Moghaddam, Kamal Azam, Norbert Nowotny, Anthony R Fooks, Nariman Shahhosseini
Background & objectives: Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) causes severe disease with fatality rate of 30%. The virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick, direct contact with the products of infected livestock as well as nosocomially. The disease occurs sporadically throughout many of African, Asian and European countries. Different species of ticks serve either as vector or reservoir for CCHFV. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of CCHFV in hard ticks (Ixodidae) in the Golestan Province of Iran...
October 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Rahşan Erturk, Ömer Poyraz, Turabi Güneş
Background & objectives: Q fever caused by Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic infection that spreads to human beings from animals. This study was aimed to demographically examine the C. burnetii seroprevalence in the people living in villages where Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is endemic, in terms of various risk factors such as tick bites, tick contact, and occupational groups. Methods: A total of 440 serum samples from those living in rural areas of Sivas and Tokat regions in Turkey were included in the study as a risk group; 387of them were serologically CCHFV positive (as confirmed in our previous research)...
October 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Aleix Elizalde-Torrent, Fernando Val, Ingrid Cardoso C Azevedo, Wuelton M Monteiro, Luiz C L Ferreira, Carmen Fernández-Becerra, Hernando A Del Portillo, Marcus V G Lacerda
BACKGROUND: Splenomegaly is one of the most common features of malaria. However, spontaneous splenic rupture, although unusual, represents a severe complication often leading to death. It is mostly seen in acute infection and primary attack, and it is most commonly associated with Plasmodium vivax. Here, a case of spontaneous splenic rupture diagnosed with a portable ultrasound apparatus shortly after starting treatment and with recurrent parasitaemia after splenectomy, is reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: In November 2015, a 45-year-old Brazilian man presented to the hospital in Manaus with fever, headache and myalgia...
February 13, 2018: Malaria Journal
James K Jankovich, Dave Chapman, Debra T Hansen, Mark D Robida, Andrey Loskutov, Felicia Craciunescu, Alex Borovkov, Karen Kibler, Lynnette Goatley, Katherine King, Christopher L Netherton, Geraldine Taylor, Bertram Jacobs, Kathryn Sykes, Linda K Dixon
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes an acute haemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs with high socio-economic impact. No vaccine is available limiting options for control. Although live attenuated ASFV can induce up to one hundred percent protection against lethal challenge, little is known of the antigens which induce this protective response. To identify additional ASFV immunogenic and potentially protective antigens we cloned 47 viral genes in individual plasmids for gene vaccination and in recombinant vaccinia viruses...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Virology
Robert W Cross, Chad E Mire, Heinz Feldmann, Thomas W Geisbert
The filoviruses - Ebola virus and Marburg virus - cause lethal haemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Filoviruses present a global health threat both as naturally acquired diseases and as potential agents of bioterrorism. In the recent 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus, the most promising therapies for post-exposure use with demonstrated efficacy in the gold-standard NHP models of filovirus disease were unable to show statistically significant protection in patients infected with Ebola virus...
January 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
Ahmad Mursel Anam, Raihan Rabbani, Farzana Shumy
We report a case of spontaneous calf muscle haematoma, formed during the recovery phase of dengue haemorrhagic fever, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been encountered before. A 45-year-old man presented with features of severe dengue and got admitted to our intensive care unit. He was treated with intravenous fluid therapy and supportive measures, and gradually improved, initially. However, during the recovery phase, he suddenly developed painful left calf, which was found tender, hot and swollen on physical examination...
January 26, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Dorothy Ng, Aparna Ghosh, Mark Jit, Suranjith L Seneviratne
Dengue viral infections are endemic or epidemic in virtually all tropical countries. Among individuals infected with the dengue virus, severe dengue syndromes (i.e., dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndromes) tend to affect only some and this may be due to a combination of host genetic susceptibility and viral factors. In this review article we analyse and discuss the present knowledge of non-human leucocyte antigen host genetic susceptibility to severe dengue syndromes. The relevance of genetic polymorphisms in the pathways of antigen recognition, uptake, processing and presentation, activation of interferon α responses, mast cell and complement activation and T cell activation and dengue disease severity has been reviewed and analysed...
January 17, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Isabella Eckerle, Violeta Briciu, Onder Ergonul, Mihaela Lupse, Anna Papa, Amanda Radulescu, Sotirios Tsiodras, Christine Tsitou, Christian Drosten, Véronique Nussenblatt, Chantal Reusken, Louise Sigfrid, Nick J Beeching
BACKGROUND: Arboviruses are an emerging group of viruses that are causing increasing health concerns globally, including in Europe. Clinical presentation usually consists of a non-specific febrile illness that may be accompanied by rash, arthralgia and arthritis and/or with neurological or haemorrhagic syndromes. The range of differential diagnoses of other infectious and non-infectious aetiologies is broad, presenting a challenge for physicians. While knowledge of the geographic distribution of pathogens and the current epidemiological situation, incubation periods, exposure risk factors and vaccination history can help guide the diagnostic approach, the non-specific and variable clinical presentation can delay final diagnosis...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Sheila Moura Pone, Yara Hahr Marques Hökerberg, Patricia Brasil, Cecília Carmen de Araújo Nicolai, Rogério Ferrari, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira
In 2007-2008, the city of Rio de Janeiro underwent an epidemiological change, with increases in the incidence in children and in severe forms of dengue. To describe the clinical profile and spatial distribution of dengue we performed an ecological study based on dengue surveillance data using the Brazilian classification (2005): dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue with complications. χ 2 test was used to describe the clinical and socio-demographic variables (P < 0.05). Spatial distribution of incidence and case-fatality was explored with thematic maps, Moran and Geary indices (P < 0...
February 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Nadeera Sirisena, Faseeha Noordeen, LakKumar Fernando
The objectives of the study were to compare the DENV NS1 and nucleic acid positivity in dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) patients and to evaluate the usefulness of these parameters in severe dengue. Blood samples were collected from 91 patients with DF or DHF (fever days 3-9) from Gampaha and Negombo General Hospitals, Sri Lanka and tested for DENV NS1 antigen and nucleic acid. On fever day 3, 67% of the DF and 33% of the DHF patients had DENV nucleic acid whereas 50% of the DF and 67% of the DHF patients had NS1...
September 2017: Virusdisease
Claudio De Liberato, Raffaele Frontoso, Adele Magliano, Alessandro Montemaggiori, Gian Luca Autorino, Marcello Sala, Andrew Bosworth, Maria Teresa Scicluna
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), endemic in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, is caused by a tibovirus (CCHFV) transmitted in particular by the Hyalomma genus of the Ixodidae family that can remain attached to the host for up to 26days, which in case of migratory birds allows long distance carriage. Although CCHF in domestic ruminants is usually subclinical, they may become reservoirs and act as sentinels for the introduction and/or circulation of CCHFV. In this study, possible CCHFV introduction and circulation in Italy were monitored by tick sampling on migratory birds and by a serosurvey conducted on sheep...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Dominique Goedhals, Janusz T Paweska, Felicity J Burt
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a member of the Orthonairovirus genus of the Nairoviridae family and is associated with haemorrhagic fever in humans. Although T lymphocyte responses are known to play a role in protection from and clearance of viral infections, specific T cell epitopes have yet to be identified for CCHFV following infection. A panel of overlapping peptides covering the CCHFV nucleoprotein and the structural glycoproteins, GN and GC, were screened by ELISpot assay to detect interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in vitro by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from eleven survivors with previous laboratory confirmed CCHFV infection...
December 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
S J Dickson, K A Clay, M Adam, C Ardley, M S Bailey, D S Burns, A T Cox, D G Craig, M Espina, G Fitchett, J Grindrod, D E Hinsley, S Horne, E Hutley, A M Johnston, R L C Kao, L E Lamb, S Lewis, D Marion, A J Moore, T C Nicholson-Roberts, A Phillips, J Praught, P S Rees, I Schoonbaert, T Trinick, D R Wilson, A J Simpson, D Wang, M K O'Shea, T E Fletcher
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist describing supportive care management, laboratory abnormalities and outcomes in patients with EVD (Ebola virus disease) in West Africa. We report data which constitute the first description of the provision of enhanced EVD case management protocols in a West African setting. METHODS: Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected by retrospective review of clinical and laboratory records of patients with confirmed EVD admitted between 5 November 2014 and 30 June 2015...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Infection
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