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Haemorrhagic fever

Takashi Suzuki, Joseph H Osei, Akihiro Sasaki, Michelle Adimazoya, Maxwell Appawu, Daniel Boakye, Nobuo Ohta, Samuel Dadzie
BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the emerging diseases that can mostly only be controlled by vector control since there is no vaccine for the disease. Although, Dengue has not been reported in Ghana, movement of people from neighbouring countries where the disease has been reported can facilitate transmission of the disease. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried on the University of Ghana campus to determine the risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide susceptibility status of Ae...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
N M Al-Namnam, P Nambiar, P Shanmuhasuntharam, M Harris
Dengue is a mosquito transmitted flaviviral infection which can give rise to severe haemorrhage (dengue haemorrhagic fever/DHF) and with capillary leakage induces hypovolemic shock (dengue shock syndrome/DSS). Although dengue symptoms and complications have been known for many decades there has only been one documented case of osteonecrosis of the maxilla which was treated by excision of the necrotic bone. In this case of dengue infection, extensive maxillary osteonecrosis and minimal root resorption appeared to follow factitious injury with a toothpick but resolved with nonsurgical management...
October 15, 2016: Australian Dental Journal
Kristina Bergstedt Oscarsson, Alette Brorstad, Maria Baudin, Anne Lindberg, Annika Forssén, Magnus Evander, Marie Eriksson, Clas Ahlm
BACKGROUND: The rodent borne Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) causes haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in central and northern Europe. The number of cases has increased and northern Sweden has experienced large outbreaks in 1998 and 2006-2007 which raised questions regarding the level of immunity in the human population. METHODS: A randomly selected population aged between 25 and 74 years from northern Sweden were invited during 2009 to participate in a WHO project for monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease...
October 13, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Vincent Madelain, Jérémie Guedj, France Mentré, Thi Huyen Tram Nguyen, Frédéric Jacquot, Lisa Oestereich, Takumi Kadota, Koichi Yamada, Anne-Marie Taburet, Xavier de Lamballerie, Hervé Raoul
Favipiravir is a RNA polymerase inhibitor that showed a strong antiviral efficacy in vitro and in small animal models of several viruses responsible for hemorrhagic fever (HF) including Ebola virus. The aim of this work was to characterize the complex pharmacokinetics of favipiravir in non-human primates (NHP) in order to guide future efficacy studies of favipiravir in large animal models.Four different studies were conducted in 30 uninfected cynomolgus macaques of Chinese (n=17) or Mauritian (n=13) origin treated with intravenous favipiravir for 7 to 14 days with maintenance doses of 60 to 180 mg/kg BID...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Harshad L Patel, Dhl Patel, A A Nikam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
C Sadanandane, A Elango, Noonu Marja, P V Sasidharan, K H K Raju, P Jambulingam
Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a zoonotic viral haemorrhagic fever and has been endemic to Karnataka State, India. Outbreaks of KFD were reported in new areas of Wayanad and Malappuram districts of Kerala, India during 2014-2015. Investigation of the outbreaks was carried out in these districts during May 2015. The line-list data of KFD cases available with District Medical Office, Wayanad were analysed. Case investigation was carried out to determine the risk factors associated with the outbreak and possible site of contraction infections...
September 21, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Maria Baudin, Ammar M Jumaa, Huda J E Jomma, Mubarak S Karsany, Göran Bucht, Jonas Näslund, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander, Nahla Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that causes infections in animals and human beings in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever lead to mass abortions in livestock, but such abortions have not been identified in human beings. Our aim was to investigate the cause of miscarriages in febrile pregnant women in an area endemic for Rift Valley fever. METHODS: Pregnant women with fever of unknown origin who attended the governmental hospital of Port Sudan, Sudan, between June 30, 2011, and Nov 17, 2012, were sampled at admission and included in this cross-sectional study...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
Manfred Weidmann, Tatjana Avsic-Zupanc, Silvia Bino, Michelle Bouloy, Felicity Burt, Sadegh Chinikar, Iva Christova, Isuf Dedushaj, Ahmed El-Sanousi, Nazif Elaldi, Roger Hewson, Frank T Hufert, Isme Humolli, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Zeliha Koçak Tufan, Gülay Korukluoglu, Pieter Lyssen, Ali Mirazimi, Johan Neyts, Matthias Niedrig, Aykut Ozkul, Anna Papa, Janusz Paweska, Amadou A Sall, Connie S Schmaljohn, Robert Swanepoel, Yavuz Uyar, Friedemann Weber, Herve Zeller
In countries from which Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is absent, the causative virus CCHF virus (CCHFV) is classified as a hazard group 4 agent and handled in containment level 4. In contrast, most endemic countries out of necessity have had to perform diagnostic tests under biosafety level (BSL) -2 or -3 conditions. In particular, Turkey and several of the Balkan countries have safely processed more than 100000 samples over many years in BSL-2 laboratories. It is therefore advocated that biosafety requirements for CCHF diagnostic procedures should be revised, to allow the required tests to be performed under enhanced BSL-2 conditions with appropriate biosafety laboratory equipment and personal protective equipment used according to standardized protocols in the affected countries...
September 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Amoolya Bhat, Vijaya Chowdappa, Smita Surendra Masamatti
INTRODUCTION: Dengue affects more than 50 million people per year and is one of the most common causes of severe thrombocytopaenia. Thrombocytopaenia is a common complication of dengue and other viral fevers apart from malaria, typhoid, leptospirosis, leukaemia and megaloblastic anaemia. A platelet count of <20,000/μl is characteristically seen in dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue fever. It results from immune complex mediated platelet destruction or bone marrow suppression. Severe thrombocytopaenia <10,000/μl is one of the indications for prophylactic platelet transfusion therapy to prevent haemorrhage...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Asma Bashir, Preben Sørensen
BACKGROUND: We have previously suggested that surgical gloves could be a possible means for transferring microorganisms from skin flora to shunt material during surgery. The objectives of this study were to examine (1) whether the rate of shunt infections was reduced after introducing intraoperative glove change before handling the shunt material; (2) clinical presentation of shunt infections, microbiological data, and treatment management; and (3) predictors of shunt infections. METHODS: A retrospective study of 432 shunt operations in 295 adults was undertaken over a 7-year period...
September 14, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Aser García Rada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Lian F Thomas, Richard P Bishop, Cynthia Onzere, Michael T Mcintosh, Karissa A Lemire, William A de Glanville, E Anne J Cook, Eric M Fèvre
BACKGROUND: African swine fever (ASF), caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a severe haemorrhagic disease of pigs, outbreaks of which can have a devastating impact upon commercial and small-holder pig production. Pig production in western Kenya is characterised by low-input, free-range systems practised by poor farmers keeping between two and ten pigs. These farmers are particularly vulnerable to the catastrophic loss of livestock assets experienced in an ASF outbreak. This study wished to expand our understanding of ASFV epidemiology during a period when no outbreaks were reported...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Anne Carolinne Bezerra Perdigão, Izabel Letícia Cavalcante Ramalho, Maria Izabel Florindo Guedes, Deborah Nunes Melo Braga, Luciano Pamplona Góes Cavalcanti, Maria Elisabeth Lisboa de Melo, Rafael Montenegro de Carvalho Araújo, Elza Gadelha Lima, Luciene Alexandre Bié da Silva, Lia de Carvalho Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho Araújo
We report on four patients with fatal influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus coinfections. Clinical, necropsy and histopathologic findings presented in all cases were characteristic of influenza-dengue coinfections, and all were laboratory-confirmed for both infections. The possibility of influenza and dengue coinfection should be considered in locations where these two viruses' epidemic periods coincide to avoid fatal outcomes. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4)...
September 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Giovanni Lo Iacono, Andrew A Cunningham, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet, Robert F Garry, Donald S Grant, Melissa Leach, Lina M Moses, Gordon Nichols, John S Schieffelin, Jeffrey G Shaffer, Colleen T Webb, James L N Wood
A considerable amount of disease is transmitted from animals to humans and many of these zoonoses are neglected tropical diseases. As outbreaks of SARS, avian influenza and Ebola have demonstrated, however, zoonotic diseases are serious threats to global public health and are not just problems confined to remote regions. There are two fundamental, and poorly studied, stages of zoonotic disease emergence: 'spillover', i.e. transmission of pathogens from animals to humans, and 'stuttering transmission', i.e. when limited human-to-human infections occur, leading to self-limiting chains of transmission...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Xuan Zhang, Xiaoli Liu, Meifang Yang, Huihui Dong, Lichen Xv, Lanjuan Li
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) is the endoscopic treatment of acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage, however, prophylaxis antibiotic during EVL is controversial. METHODS: We reported a 60-year-old man with diabetes, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma who received EVL for esophageal variceal haemorrhage. RESULTS: On the second day after EVL, the patient developed fever and chills. A week after EVL, the blood cultures were viridans streptococcus positive, and echocardiogram showed a vegetation on the cardiac valve...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Anuradha Balasubramanian, Mark Manzano, Tadahisa Teramoto, Rajendra Pilankatta, Radhakrishnan Padmanabhan
The mosquito-borne dengue virus serotypes 1-4 (DENV1-4) and West Nile virus (WNV) cause serious illnesses worldwide associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, there are about 390 million infections every year leading to ∼500,000 dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases and ∼25,000 deaths, mostly among children. Antiviral therapies could reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with flaviviral infections, but currently there are no drugs available for treatment...
October 2016: Antiviral Research
P Singh, M Chhabra, P Sharma, R Jaiswal, G Singh, V Mittal, A Rai, S Venkatesh
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an emerging zoonotic disease in India which is prevalent in neighbouring countries. CCHF virus (CCHFV) is a widespread tick-borne virus which is endemic in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East. In the present study, samples of clinically suspected human cases from different areas of northern-western India were tested for the presence of CCHFV by RT-PCR through amplification of nucleocapsid (N) gene of CCHFV. Positive samples were sequenced to reveal the prevailing CCHFV genotype(s) and phylogenetic relatedness...
August 15, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
L A Reperant, I H Brown, O L Haenen, M D de Jong, A D M E Osterhaus, A Papa, E Rimstad, J-F Valarcher, T Kuiken
Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance...
July 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Lesley J Scott
Tetravalent, live-attenuated, dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia(®); CYD-TDV) is the first vaccine approved for the prevention of dengue disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) serotypes 1-4 in individuals aged 9-45 or 9-60 years living in high dengue endemic areas. This narrative review discusses the immunogenicity, protective efficacy, reactogenicity and safety of CYD-TDV in the prevention of dengue disease. In Latin American and Asian phase 3 trials in children and adolescents (n > 30,000), the recommended three-dose CYD-TDV regimen was efficacious in preventing virologically-confirmed dengue (VCD) during the period from 28 days after the last dose (month 13) to month 25, meeting the primary endpoint criteria...
September 2016: Drugs
C C Andrade, K I Young, W L Johnson, M E Villa, C A Buraczyk, W B Messer, K A Hanley
Each of the four serotypes of mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV-1-4) comprises multiple, genetically distinct strains. Competitive displacement between strains within a serotype is a common feature of DENV epidemiology and can trigger outbreaks of dengue disease. We investigated the mechanisms underlying two sequential displacements by DENV-3 strains in Sri Lanka that each coincided with abrupt increases in dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) incidence. First, the post-DHF strain displaced the pre-DHF strain in the 1980s...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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