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Evolutionary psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791968/the-whole-versus-the-sum-of-some-of-the-parts-toward-resolving-the-apparent-controversy-of-clitoral-versus-vaginal-orgasms
#1
James G Pfaus, Gonzalo R Quintana, Conall Mac Cionnaith, Mayte Parada
BACKGROUND: The nature of a woman's orgasm has been a source of scientific, political, and cultural debate for over a century. Since the Victorian era, the pendulum has swung from the vagina to the clitoris, and to some extent back again, with the current debate stuck over whether internal sensory structures exist in the vagina that could account for orgasms based largely on their stimulation, or whether stimulation of the external glans clitoris is always necessary for orgasm. METHOD: We review the history of the clitoral versus vaginal orgasm debate as it has evolved with conflicting ideas and data from psychiatry and psychoanalysis, epidemiology, evolutionary theory, feminist political theory, physiology, and finally neuroscience...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752339/evolutionary-psychiatry-a-new-college-special-interest-group
#2
Riadh Abed, Paul St John-Smith
Evolutionary science remains an overlooked area in psychiatry and medicine. The newly established Royal College of Psychiatrists' Evolutionary Psychiatry Special Interest Group aims to reverse this trend by raising the profile of evolutionary thinking among College members and others further afield. Here we provide a brief outline of the importance of the evolutionary approach to both the theory and practice of psychiatry and for future research.
October 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27254091/using-evolutionary-theory-to-guide-mental-health-research
#3
Zachary Durisko, Benoit H Mulsant, Kwame McKenzie, Paul W Andrews
Evolutionary approaches to medicine can shed light on the origins and etiology of disease. Such an approach may be especially useful in psychiatry, which frequently addresses conditions with heterogeneous presentation and unknown causes. We review several previous applications of evolutionary theory that highlight the ways in which psychiatric conditions may persist despite and because of natural selection. One lesson from the evolutionary approach is that some conditions currently classified as disorders (because they cause distress and impairment) may actually be caused by functioning adaptations operating "normally" (as designed by natural selection)...
March 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230900/commentary-on-the-cerebellar-system-and-what-it-signifies-from-a-biological-perspective-a-communication-by-christofredo-jakob-1866-1956-before-the-society-of-neurology-and-psychiatry-of-buenos-aires-december-1938
#4
REVIEW
Anny Tzouma, Daniel S Margulies, Lazaros C Triarhou
This commentary highlights a "cerebellar classic" by a pioneer of neurobiology, Christfried Jakob. Jakob discussed the connectivity between the cerebellum and mesencephalic, diencephalic, and telencephalic structures in an evolutionary, developmental, and histophysiological perspective. He proposed three evolutionary morphofunctional stages, the archicerebellar, paleocerebellar, and neocerebellar; he attributed the reduced cerebellospinal connections in humans, compared to other primates, to the perfection of the rubrolenticular and thalamocortical systems and the intense ascending pathways to the red nucleus in exchange for the more elementary descending efferent pathways...
August 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26644602/understanding-self-and-others-from-origins-to-disorders
#5
Caroline Catmur, Emily S Cross, Harriet Over
In order to interpret and engage with the social world, individuals must understand how they relate to others. Self-other understanding forms the backbone of social cognition and is a central concept explored by research into basic processes such as action perception and empathy, as well as research on more sophisticated social behaviours such as cooperation and intergroup interaction. This theme issue integrates the latest research into self-other understanding from evolutionary biology, anthropology, psychology, neuroscience and psychiatry...
January 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26642731/-three-essential-shared-capabilities-for-young-psychiatrists-brain-real-world-and-life-course-principles-toward-values-based-psychiatry
#6
Kiyoto Kasai
The discipline of psychiatry promotes well-being and recovery based on a comprehensive understanding of the patient from the perspectives of the brain, real-world, and life-course. Pursuant to efforts toward addressing social issues at a regional and national level, it is assumed that the psychiatrist can assist individuals based on an understanding of these three perspectives. This tripartite relationship goes beyond the history of extreme reductionism in neuroscience and the aftermath resulting from the anti-psychiatry movement to provide a foundation for the development of psychiatry and a theoretical groundwork for such basic psychiatric issues as what role pharmacotherapy plays in psychiatric treatment, just why the lives of people living in the community are thought to be important to an individual's well-being, and just what constitutes recovery...
2015: Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, Psychiatria et Neurologia Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26356777/arieti-and-bowlby-convergence-and-direct-influence
#7
Marco Bacciagaluppi
Arieti was a great specialist of schizophrenia and Bowlby was the initiator of attachment theory. Working independently on the two sides of the Atlantic, they converged on a range of topics, such as evolutionary theory, mourning, trauma, violence, and therapy as art and science. Later, Bowlby exerted a direct influence on Arieti, which Arieti acknowledged in his Love Can Be Found. Finally, the two authors cooperated in the second edition of the American Handbook of Psychiatry.
September 2015: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26354001/diametrical-diseases-reflect-evolutionary-genetic-tradeoffs-evidence-from-psychiatry-neurology-rheumatology-oncology-and-immunology
#8
REVIEW
Bernard J Crespi, Matthew C Go
Tradeoffs centrally mediate the expression of human adaptations. We propose that tradeoffs also influence the prevalence and forms of human maladaptation manifest in disease. By this logic, increased risk for one set of diseases commonly engenders decreased risk for another, diametric, set of diseases. We describe evidence for such diametric sets of diseases from epidemiological, genetic and molecular studies in four clinical domains: (i) psychiatry (autism vs psychotic-affective conditions), (ii) rheumatology (osteoarthritis vs osteoporosis), (iii) oncology and neurology (cancer vs neurodegenerative disorders) and (iv) immunology (autoimmunity vs infectious disease)...
2015: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26263233/the-evolutionary-diagnosis-of-mental-disorder
#9
Alfonso Troisi
Medicalization of human behavioral diversity is a recurrent theme in the history of psychiatry, and the problem of defining what is a genuine mental disorder is an unresolved question since the origins of clinical psychopathology. Darwinian psychiatry can formulate a definition of mental disorder that is value free and based on factual criteria. From an evolutionary perspective, genuine mental disorders are maladaptive conditions. The ultimate function of an adaptation is gene propagation via maximization of survival and reproduction...
May 2015: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26162463/managing-stigma-effectively-what-social-psychology-and-social-neuroscience-can-teach-us
#10
James L Griffith, Brandon A Kohrt
Psychiatric education is confronted with three barriers to managing stigma associated with mental health treatment. First, there are limited evidence-based practices for stigma reduction, and interventions to deal with stigma against mental health care providers are especially lacking. Second, there is a scarcity of training models for mental health professionals on how to reduce stigma in clinical services. Third, there is a lack of conceptual models for neuroscience approaches to stigma reduction, which are a requirement for high-tier competency in the ACGME Milestones for Psychiatry...
April 2016: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26090738/social-skills-adolf-meyer-s-revision-of-clinical-skill-for-the-new-psychiatry-of-the-twentieth-century
#11
Susan Lamb
Adolf Meyer (1866-1950) exercised considerable influence over the development of Anglo-American psychiatry during the first half of the twentieth century. The concepts and techniques he implemented at his prominent Phipps Psychiatric Clinic at Johns Hopkins remain important to psychiatric practice and neuro-scientific research today. In the 1890s, Meyer revised scientific medicine's traditional notion of clinical skill to serve what he called the 'New Psychiatry', a clinical discipline that embodied social and scientific ideals shared with other 'new' progressive reform movements in the United States...
July 2015: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25810058/schizotypy-do-not-worry-it-is-not-all-worrisome
#12
REVIEW
Christine Mohr, Gordon Claridge
A long-standing tradition in personality research in psychology, and nowadays increasingly in psychiatry, is that psychotic and psychotic-like thoughts are considered common experiences in the general population. Given their widespread occurrence, such experiences cannot merely reflect pathological functioning. Moreover, reflecting the multi-dimensionality of schizotypy, some dimensions might be informative for healthy functioning while others less so. Here, we explored these possibilities by reviewing research that links schizotypy to favorable functioning such as subjective wellbeing, cognitive functioning (major focus on creativity), and personality correlates...
March 2015: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25567489/the-great-opportunity-evolutionary-applications-to-medicine-and-public-health
#13
Randolph M Nesse, Stephen C Stearns
Evolutionary biology is an essential basic science for medicine, but few doctors and medical researchers are familiar with its most relevant principles. Most medical schools have geneticists who understand evolution, but few have even one evolutionary biologist to suggest other possible applications. The canyon between evolutionary biology and medicine is wide. The question is whether they offer each other enough to make bridge building worthwhile. What benefits could be expected if evolution were brought fully to bear on the problems of medicine? How would studying medical problems advance evolutionary research? Do doctors need to learn evolution, or is it valuable mainly for researchers? What practical steps will promote the application of evolutionary biology in the areas of medicine where it offers the most? To address these questions, we review current and potential applications of evolutionary biology to medicine and public health...
February 2008: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25528560/on-aims-and-methods-of-psychiatry-a-reminiscence-of-50-years-of-tinbergen-s-famous-questions-about-the-biology-of-behavior
#14
Martin Brüne
BACKGROUND: In 1963, Nicolaas Tinbergen published an article on "the aims and methods of ethology" in which he identified a fundamental framework for the scientific inquiry into the understanding of biological phenomena. In particular, he emphasized to not only study what he called the "proximate" causes, that is, mechanism and ontogeny of a given trait, but to include evolutionary explanations, i.e., the phylogeny and adaptive properties of that trait. DISCUSSION: While influential in the field of biology and to some degree medicine, psychiatry has fallen short of adopting Tinbergen's approach...
2014: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25377095/person-centred-care-clarifying-the-concept-in-the-context-of-inpatient-psychiatry
#15
Sebastian Gabrielsson, Stefan Sävenstedt, Karin Zingmark
This paper reports an analysis of the concept of person-centred care in the context of inpatient psychiatry. It has been suggested that person-centred care in inpatient psychiatry might differ from person-centred care in other contexts, indicating a need to clarify the concept in this specific context. Scholarly papers from health-related disciplines were identified following a systematic search of the electronic databases CINAHL, PUBMED and PsycINFO, covering records indexed up until March 2014. An evolutionary approach to concept analysis was applied, integrating principles for data extraction and analysis in integrative reviews...
September 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25060574/nutritional-psychiatry-research-an-emerging-discipline-and-its-intersection-with-global-urbanization-environmental-challenges-and-the-evolutionary-mismatch
#16
REVIEW
Alan C Logan, Felice N Jacka
In 21st-century public health, rapid urbanization and mental health disorders are a growing global concern. The relationship between diet, brain function and the risk of mental disorders has been the subject of intense research in recent years. In this review, we examine some of the potential socioeconomic and environmental challenges detracting from the traditional dietary patterns that might otherwise support positive mental health. In the context of urban expansion, climate change, cultural and technological changes and the global industrialization and ultraprocessing of food, findings related to nutrition and mental health are connected to some of the most pressing issues of our time...
July 24, 2014: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24343183/-evolutionary-medicine
#17
M Wjst
Evolutionary medicine allows new insights into long standing medical problems. Are we "really stoneagers on the fast lane"? This insight might have enormous consequences and will allow new answers that could never been provided by traditional anthropology. Only now this is made possible using data from molecular medicine and systems biology. Thereby evolutionary medicine takes a leap from a merely theoretical discipline to practical fields - reproductive, nutritional and preventive medicine, as well as microbiology, immunology and psychiatry...
December 2013: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24331284/what-is-a-mental-disorder-a-perspective-from-cognitive-affective-science
#18
REVIEW
Dan J Stein
Defining disease and disorder remains a key conceptual question in philosophy of medicine and psychiatry, and is currently a very practical matter for psychiatric nosology, given the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, and the upcoming International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision. There have been advances in the cognitive-affective science of human categorization, and it is timely to consider implications for our understanding of the category of psychiatric disorder...
December 2013: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23978231/mood-and-anxiety-disorders-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-a-response-to-rosati-et-al-2012
#19
COMMENT
Hope Ferdowsian, Debra Durham, Martin Brüne
Assessing the psychological health of nonhuman primates living in captivity is essential, since many experiments and behavioral observations involve captive animals. This area is a research priority because it has ethical consequences, in addition to its applications for understanding human and nonhuman primate behavior. In 2011, we published our international study's findings that chimpanzees with prior histories of experimentation, orphanage, illegal seizure, or violent human conflict were more likely to display signs of mood and anxiety disorders, compared with chimpanzees living in the wild...
August 2013: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23622061/decision-making-from-neuroscience-to-psychiatry
#20
REVIEW
Daeyeol Lee
Adaptive behaviors increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction and improve the quality of life. However, it is often difficult to identify optimal behaviors in real life due to the complexity of the decision maker's environment and social dynamics. As a result, although many different brain areas and circuits are involved in decision making, evolutionary and learning solutions adopted by individual decision makers sometimes produce suboptimal outcomes. Although these problems are exacerbated in numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders, their underlying neurobiological causes remain incompletely understood...
April 24, 2013: Neuron
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