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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165148/a-correlative-study-of-the-allantois-in-pig-and-rabbit-highlighting-the-diversity-of-extraembryonic-tissues-in-four-mammalian-species-including-mouse-and-man
#1
Waad Hassan, Christoph Viebahn
Despite its conserved role in placenta and umbilical cord formation, the mammalian allantois shows remarkable diversity in size and form as well as in the timing of its appearance and attachment to the chorion. In the mouse, the common allantoic diverticulum is lacking; instead, the allantoic core domain is defined as a progenitor center for allantoic development. In this study, the allantoises of the pig and the rabbit as two nonrodent mammals of increasing significance in biomedical research are compared (1) morphologically using high resolution light and electron microscopy and (2) molecularly using brachyury mRNA expression as a mesodermal marker...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161053/htr-8-svneo-cell-line-contains-a-mixed-population-of-cells
#2
Wassim Abou-Kheir, Joanna Barrak, Ola Hadadeh, Georges Daoud
INTRODUCTION: The placenta, a transient organ in humans, is essential for pregnancy maintenance and fetal development. Trophoblast and stromal cells are the main cell types present in human placenta. Trophoblast cells are derivatives of the trophectoderm layer and fulfill the endocrine, exchange, invasion and implantation processes of the placenta, whereas stromal cells are of extraembryonic mesenchymal origin and are important for villous formation and maintenance. Different cell lines were developed to study trophoblast functions including BeWo, JEG-3 and JAR from chorioncarcinoma while HTR-8/SVneo was developed using first trimester extravillous trophoblast infected with simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40)...
February 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152080/nox1-and-nox4-are-required-for-the-differentiation-of-mouse-f9-cells-into-extraembryonic-endoderm
#3
Benjamin J Dickson, Mohamed I Gatie, Danielle M Spice, Gregory M Kelly
Mouse F9 cells differentiate to primitive endoderm (PrE) when treated with retinoic acid (RA). Differentiation is accompanied by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and while treating F9 cells with antioxidants attenuates differentiation, H2O2 treatment alone is sufficient to induce PrE. We identified the NADPH oxidase (NOX) complexes as candidates for the source of this endogenous ROS, and within this gene family, and over the course of differentiation, Nox1 and Nox 4 show the greatest upregulation induced by RA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134930/xist-dependent-imprinted-x-inactivation-and-the-early-developmental-consequences-of-its-failure
#4
Maud Borensztein, Laurène Syx, Katia Ancelin, Patricia Diabangouaya, Christel Picard, Tao Liu, Jun-Bin Liang, Ivaylo Vassilev, Rafael Galupa, Nicolas Servant, Emmanuel Barillot, Azim Surani, Chong-Jian Chen, Edith Heard
The long noncoding RNA Xist is expressed from only the paternal X chromosome in mouse preimplantation female embryos and mediates transcriptional silencing of that chromosome. In females, absence of Xist leads to postimplantation lethality. Here, through single-cell RNA sequencing of early preimplantation mouse embryos, we found that the initiation of imprinted X-chromosome inactivation absolutely requires Xist. Lack of paternal Xist leads to genome-wide transcriptional misregulation in the early blastocyst and to failure to activate the extraembryonic pathway that is essential for postimplantation development...
January 30, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114387/gene-expression-noise-enhances-robust-organization-of-the-early-mammalian-blastocyst
#5
William R Holmes, Nabora Soledad Reyes de Mochel, Qixuan Wang, Huijing Du, Tao Peng, Michael Chiang, Olivier Cinquin, Ken Cho, Qing Nie
A critical event in mammalian embryo development is construction of an inner cell mass surrounded by a trophoectoderm (a shell of cells that later form extraembryonic structures). We utilize multi-scale, stochastic modeling to investigate the design principles responsible for robust establishment of these structures. This investigation makes three predictions, each supported by our quantitative imaging. First, stochasticity in the expression of critical genes promotes cell plasticity and has a critical role in accurately organizing the developing mouse blastocyst...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102431/totipotency-in-the-mouse
#6
REVIEW
Guangming Wu, Lei Lei, Hans R Schöler
In mammals, the unicellular zygote starts the process of embryogenesis and differentiates into all types of somatic cells, including both fetal and extraembryonic lineages-in a highly organized manner to eventually give rise to an entire multicellular organism comprising more than 200 different tissue types. This feature is referred to as totipotency. Upon fertilization, oocyte maternal factors epigenetically reprogram the genomes of the terminally differentiated oocyte and spermatozoon and turn the zygote into a totipotent cell...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057738/a-population-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-derives-from-gata4-expressing-progenitors-located-in-the-placenta-and-lateral-mesoderm-of-mice
#7
Ana Cañete, Rita Carmona, Laura Ariza, Maria Jose Sanchez, Anabel Rojas, Ramon Muñoz-Chápuli
GATA transcription factors are expressed in mesoderm and endoderm during development. GATA1-3, but not GATA4, are critically involved in hematopoiesis. An enhancer (G2) of the mouse Gata4 gene directs its expression throughout the lateral mesoderm and the allantois, beginning at E7.5, becoming restricted to the septum transversum by E10.5, and disappearing by midgestation. We have studied the developmental fate of the G2-Gata4 cell lineage using a G2-Gata4Cre;R26REYFP mouse line. We found a substantial number of YFP+ hematopoietic cells of lymphoid, myeloid and erythroid lineages in embryos...
January 5, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057273/eomesodermin-at-dawn-of-cell-fate-decisions-during-early-embryogenesis
#8
S Probst, S J Arnold
Proteins of the large family of T-box transcription factors are implicated in a broad spectrum of developmental processes. Loss-of-function mutations of T-box(Tbx) factors frequently cause severe embryonic phenotypes, often resulting from defects in cell fate specification and lineage differentiation. This review summarizes current knowledge on the functions of the T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin (Eomes) from postfertilization development until gastrulation stages of vertebrate embryos. Eomes exhibits evolutionary conserved functions in cell lineage specification and morphogenesis during gastrulation in all studied vertebrate model systems...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057263/t-box-genes-in-drosophila-mesoderm-development
#9
I Reim, M Frasch, C Schaub
In Drosophila there are eight genes encoding transcription factors of the T-box family, which are known to exert a variety of crucial developmental functions during ectodermal patterning processes, neuronal cell specification, mesodermal tissue development, and the development of extraembryonic tissues. In this review, we focus on the prominent roles of Drosophila T-box genes in mesodermal tissues. First, we describe the contributions of brachyenteron (byn) and optomotor-blind-related-gene-1 (org-1) to the development of the visceral mesoderm...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049782/derivation-and-culture-of-extra-embryonic-endoderm-stem-cell-lines
#10
Peter Rugg-Gunn
Whereas embryonic stem (ES) cells are isolated from the embryonic lineage of the blastocyst, other stable stem cell lines can be derived from the extraembryonic tissues of the early mouse embryo. Trophoblast stem (TS) cells are derived from trophectoderm and early postimplantation trophoblast, and extraembryonic endoderm stem (XEN) cells are derived from primitive endoderm. The derivation of XEN cell lines from 3.5-dpc mouse blastocysts, described here, is similar to the derivation of TS cell lines. TS and XEN cells can self-renew in vitro and differentiate in vitro and in chimeras (in vivo) in a lineage-appropriate manner, showing the developmental potential of their origin, thus providing important models to study the mouse extraembryonic lineages...
January 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043657/breaking-the-first-lineage-barrier-many-roads-to-trophoblast-stem-cell-fate
#11
Caroline Kubaczka, Franziska Kaiser, Hubert Schorle
Recently, direct cell fate conversion attempts between the embryonic and extra-embryonic lineage gained new momentum. Two concomitant publications were published, describing the successful generation of transgene-independent, self-renewing trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) from murine fibroblasts. Cells were faithfully converted, displaying high similarity to blastocyst or extraembryonic ectoderm derived TSCs. Here, we summarize and compare published attempts aiming at the direct induction of trophoblast-fate from either mouse embryonic stem cells or fibroblasts...
December 23, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005004/functional-evolution-of-a-morphogenetic-gradient
#12
Chun Wai Kwan, Jackie Gavin-Smyth, Edwin L Ferguson, Urs Schmidt-Ott
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) pattern the dorsal-ventral axis of bilaterian embryos; however, their roles in the evolution of body plan are largely unknown. We examined their functional evolution in fly embryos. BMP signaling specifies two extraembryonic tissues, the serosa and amnion, in basal-branching flies such as Megaselia abdita, but only one, the amnioserosa, in Drosophila melanogaster. The BMP signaling dynamics are similar in both species until the beginning of gastrulation, when BMP signaling broadens and intensifies at the edge of the germ rudiment in Megaselia, while remaining static in Drosophila...
December 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991575/efficient-derivation-of-extraembryonic-endoderm-stem-cell-lines-from-mouse-postimplantation-embryos
#13
Jiangwei Lin, Mona Khan, Bolek Zapiec, Peter Mombaerts
Various types of stem cell lines have been derived from preimplantation or postimplantation mouse embryos: embryonic stem cell lines, epiblast stem cell lines, and trophoblast stem cell lines. It is not known if extraembryonic endoderm stem (XEN) cell lines can be derived from postimplantation mouse embryos. Here, we report the derivation of 77 XEN cell lines from 85 postimplantation embryos at embryonic day E5.5 or E6.5, in parallel to the derivation of 41 XEN lines from 69 preimplantation embryos at the blastocyst stage...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966169/in-ovo-sexing-of-chicken-eggs-by-fluorescence-spectroscopy
#14
Roberta Galli, Grit Preusse, Ortrud Uckermann, Thomas Bartels, Maria-Elisabeth Krautwald-Junghanns, Edmund Koch, Gerald Steiner
Culling of day-old male chicks in production of laying hen strains involves several millions of animals every year worldwide and is ethically controversial. In an attempt to provide an alternative, optical spectroscopy was investigated to determine nondestructively in ovo the sex of early embryos of the domestic chicken. The extraembryonic blood circulation system was accessed by producing a window in the egg shell and the flowing blood was illuminated with a near-infrared laser. The strong fluorescence and the weak Raman signals were acquired and spectroscopically analyzed between 800 and 1000 nm...
December 14, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959670/preattachment-embryos-of-domestic-animals-insights-into-development-and-paracrine-secretions
#15
Olivier Sandra, Gilles Charpigny, Laurent Galio, Isabelle Hue
In mammalian species, endometrial receptivity is driven by maternal factors independently of embryo signals. When pregnancy initiates, paracrine secretions of the preattachment embryo are essential both for maternal recognition and endometrium preparation for implantation and for coordinating development of embryonic and extraembryonic tissues of the conceptus. This review mainly focuses on domestic large animal species. We first illustrate the major steps of preattachment embryo development, including elongation in bovine, ovine, porcine, and equine species...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959583/unusual-presentations-of-gynecologic-tumors-extragonadal-yolk-sac-tumor-of-the-vulva
#16
Elizabeth D Euscher
Extragonadal germ cell tumors are uncommon, and although they morphologically resemble their gonadal counterparts, unexpected gonadal presentation increases the potential for erroneous diagnoses. Yolk sac tumor is a malignant germ cell tumor characterized by an extraembryonic yolk sac line of differentiation, and relative to other germ cell tumors, is characterized by varied and diverse histologic patterns. When occurring outside of typical age parameters or in extragonadal locations, the histologic variability of yolk sac tumor and its tendency to mimic somatic tumors pose diagnostic challenges...
February 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956642/dna-demethylation-is-initiated-in-the-central-cells-of-arabidopsis-and-rice
#17
Kyunghyuk Park, M Yvonne Kim, Martin Vickers, Jin-Sup Park, Youbong Hyun, Takashi Okamoto, Daniel Zilberman, Robert L Fischer, Xiaoqi Feng, Yeonhee Choi, Stefan Scholten
Cytosine methylation is a DNA modification with important regulatory functions in eukaryotes. In flowering plants, sexual reproduction is accompanied by extensive DNA demethylation, which is required for proper gene expression in the endosperm, a nutritive extraembryonic seed tissue. Endosperm arises from a fusion of a sperm cell carried in the pollen and a female central cell. Endosperm DNA demethylation is observed specifically on the chromosomes inherited from the central cell in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, and maize, and requires the DEMETER DNA demethylase in Arabidopsis DEMETER is expressed in the central cell before fertilization, suggesting that endosperm demethylation patterns are inherited from the central cell...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940919/massive-dysregulation-of-genes-involved-in-cell-signaling-and-placental-development-in-cloned-cattle-conceptus-and-maternal-endometrium
#18
Fernando H Biase, Chanaka Rabel, Michel Guillomot, Isabelle Hue, Kalista Andropolis, Colleen A Olmstead, Rosane Oliveira, Richard Wallace, Daniel Le Bourhis, Christophe Richard, Evelyne Campion, Aurélie Chaulot-Talmon, Corinne Giraud-Delville, Géraldine Taghouti, Hélène Jammes, Jean-Paul Renard, Olivier Sandra, Harris A Lewin
A major unresolved issue in the cloning of mammals by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is the mechanism by which the process fails after embryos are transferred to the uterus of recipients before or during the implantation window. We investigated this problem by using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to compare the transcriptomes in cattle conceptuses produced by SCNT and artificial insemination (AI) at day (d) 18 (preimplantation) and d 34 (postimplantation) of gestation. In addition, endometrium was profiled to identify the communication pathways that might be affected by the presence of a cloned conceptus, ultimately leading to mortality before or during the implantation window...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923121/basal-cell-extracellular-matrix-adhesion-regulates-force-transmission-during-tissue-morphogenesis
#19
Katharine Goodwin, Stephanie J Ellis, Emily Lostchuck, Teresa Zulueta-Coarasa, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez, Guy Tanentzapf
Tissue morphogenesis requires force-generating mechanisms to organize cells into complex structures. Although many such mechanisms have been characterized, we know little about how forces are integrated across developing tissues. We provide evidence that integrin-mediated cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion modulates the transmission of apically generated tension during dorsal closure (DC) in Drosophila. Integrin-containing adhesive structures resembling focal adhesions were identified on the basal surface of the amnioserosa (AS), an extraembryonic epithelium essential for DC...
December 5, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858359/the-chorioallantoic-membrane-of-the-chick-embryo-to-assess-tumor-formation-and-metastasis
#20
Anne Herrmann, Diana Moss, Violaine Sée
The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick embryo is a suitable and convenient platform for the assessment of tumor formation and metastatic dissemination. Here, we describe tumor cell engraftment on the extraembryonic CAM and further monitoring of tumor growth and metastasis.
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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