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Mariela Giacchino, Pablo I F Inserra, Fernando D Lange, María C Gariboldi, Sergio R Ferraris, Alfredo D Vitullo
The South American hystricognathe Lagostomus maximus is a fossorial rodent whose females show unique reproductive characteristics. They have a 155-day long gestation, show massive polyovulation and a selective process of embryonic resorption in the first half of gestation. In order to explore and perform an in-situ characterization of the reproductive tract, we visualized internal structures through ultrasonography and video-endoscopy in pregnant and non-pregnant females. We describe the finding of protruding structures that lie on the yolk sac and their histological and ultrastructural characterization...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Molecular Histology
Najmeh Moein-Vaziri, Jafar Fallahi, Bahia Namavar-Jahromi, Majid Fardaei, Mozhdeh Momtahan, Zahra Anvar
Hydatidiform Mole (HM) is the most common form of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD), defined by hyper-proliferation of trophoblastic cells. HM is typified as abnormal proliferation of extraembryonic trophoblastic (placental) tissues and failure of embryonic tissues development and is the only GTD with Mendelian inheritance, which can reoccur in different pregnancies. Moles are categorized into Complete Hydatidiform Moles (CHM) or Partial Hydatidiform Moles (PHM) and a rare familial trait, which forms a CHM and despite having androgenetic pattern, shows normal biparental inheritance, conceived from one sperm and egg...
February 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
José Serrado Marques, Vera Teixeira, António Jacinto, Ana Teresa Tavares
During early vertebrate embryogenesis, both hematopoietic and endothelial lineages derive from a common progenitor known as the hemangioblast. Hemangioblasts derive from mesodermal cells that migrate from the posterior primitive streak into the extraembryonic yolk sac. In addition to primitive hematopoietic cells, recent evidence revealed that yolk sac hemangioblasts also give rise to tissue-resident macrophages and to definitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. In our previous work, we used a novel hemangioblast-specific reporter to isolate the population of chick yolk sac hemangioblasts and characterize its gene expression profile using microarrays...
January 31, 2018: Cells
R Mohammed, L Provitera, G Cavallaro, D Lattuada, G Ercoli, F Mosca, E Villamor
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has recently emerged as a biologically active gas with multiple effects on the cardiovascular system. We aimed to investigate the vasomotor actions of sodium sulfide (Na2S), which forms H2S and HS- in solution, in human umbilical artery (HUA) and vein (HUV) rings. In addition, we examined by immunocytochemistry the expression and localization of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulphurtransferase (MPST), the enzymes responsible for endogenous H2S production...
October 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Pin-Chi Tang, Gillian E MacKay, Jean H Flockhart, Margaret A Keighren, Anna Kopakaki, John D West
It has been shown previously that BALB/c strain embryos tend to contribute poorly to mouse aggregation chimaeras. In the present study we showed that BALB/c cells were not preferentially allocated to any extraembryonic lineages of mouse aggregation chimaeras, but their contribution decreased during the early postimplantation period and they were significantly depleted by E8.5. The development of BALB/c strain preimplantation embryos lagged behind embryos from some other strains and the contribution that BALB/c and other embryos made to chimaeras correlated with their developmental stage at E2...
January 12, 2018: Biology Open
Stavros Nikolaou, Xenia Hadjikypri, Giasemia Ioannou, Artemis Elia, Pantelis Georgiades
The early stages of mouse placentogenesis (placenta formation) involve poorly understood patterning events within polar trophectoderm-derived trophoblast, the progenitor of all placental trophoblast cell types. By early postimplantation [embryonic day 5.5 (E5.5)], this patterning causes early trophoblast to become subdivided into extraembryonic ectoderm (ExE) and ectoplacental cone (EPC). A prerequisite to understanding this patterning requires knowing the location of ExE-EPC border and being able to distinguish the entire ExE from EPC at E5...
January 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Feng Wang, Kurtis N McCannell, Ana Bošković, Xiaochun Zhu, JongDae Shin, Jun Yu, Judith Gallant, Meg Byron, Jeanne B Lawrence, Lihua J Zhu, Stephen N Jones, Oliver J Rando, Thomas G Fazzio, Ingolf Bach
During female mouse embryogenesis, two forms of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) ensure dosage compensation from sex chromosomes. Beginning at the four-cell stage, imprinted XCI (iXCI) exclusively silences the paternal X (Xp), and this pattern is maintained in extraembryonic cell types. Epiblast cells, which give rise to the embryo proper, reactivate the Xp (XCR) and undergo a random form of XCI (rXCI) around implantation. Both iXCI and rXCI depend on the long non-coding RNA Xist. The ubiquitin ligase RLIM is required for iXCI in vivo and occupies a central role in current models of rXCI...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
Katherine E Trevers, Ravindra S Prajapati, Mark Hintze, Matthew J Stower, Anna C Strobl, Monica Tambalo, Ramya Ranganathan, Natalia Moncaut, Mohsin A F Khan, Claudio D Stern, Andrea Streit
Around the time of gastrulation in higher vertebrate embryos, inductive interactions direct cells to form central nervous system (neural plate) or sensory placodes. Grafts of different tissues into the periphery of a chicken embryo elicit different responses: Hensen's node induces a neural plate whereas the head mesoderm induces placodes. How different are these processes? Transcriptome analysis in time course reveals that both processes start by induction of a common set of genes, which later diverge. These genes are remarkably similar to those induced by an extraembryonic tissue, the hypoblast, and are normally expressed in the pregastrulation stage epiblast...
December 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Philip Lazarovici, Adi Lahiani, Galit Gincberg, Dikla Haham, Cezary Marcinkiewicz, Peter I Lelkes
The avian chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a simple, highly vascularized extraembryonic membrane, which performs multiple functions during embryonic development. Therefore, the models of chicken and quail assays represent robust experimental platforms to study angiogenesis, which reflects perturbation of the entire vascular tree. This experimental approach, when combined with fractal morphometry, is sensitive to changes in vascular branching pattern and density. Nerve growth factor is a neurotrophin promoting angiogenesis in CAM models...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yu Zhang, Yunlong Xiang, Qiangzong Yin, Zhenhai Du, Xu Peng, Qiujun Wang, Miguel Fidalgo, Weikun Xia, Yuanyuan Li, Zhen-Ao Zhao, Wenhao Zhang, Jing Ma, Feng Xu, Jianlong Wang, Lei Li, Wei Xie
In mammals, all somatic development originates from lineage segregation in early embryos. However, the dynamics of transcriptomes and epigenomes acting in concert with initial cell fate commitment remains poorly characterized. Here we report a comprehensive investigation of transcriptomes and base-resolution methylomes for early lineages in peri- and postimplantation mouse embryos. We found allele-specific and lineage-specific de novo methylation at CG and CH sites that led to differential methylation between embryonic and extraembryonic lineages at promoters of lineage regulators, gene bodies, and DNA-methylation valleys...
January 2018: Nature Genetics
James A Gagnon, Kamal Obbad, Alexander F Schier
The role of the zebrafish transcription factor Nanog has been controversial. It has been suggested that Nanog is primarily required for the proper formation of the extraembryonic yolk syncytial layer (YSL) and only indirectly regulates gene expression in embryonic cells. In an alternative scenario, Nanog has been proposed to directly regulate transcription in embryonic cells during zygotic genome activation. To clarify the roles of Nanog, we performed a detailed analysis of zebrafish nanog mutants. While zygotic nanog mutants survive to adulthood, maternal-zygotic and maternal mutants exhibit developmental arrest at the blastula stage...
November 27, 2017: Development
Amy Ralston
The extraembryonic endoderm is one of the first cell types specified during mammalian development. This extraembryonic lineage is known to play multiple important roles throughout mammalian development, including guiding axial patterning and inducing formation of the first blood cells during embryogenesis. Moreover, recent studies have uncovered striking conservation between mouse and human embryos during the stages when extraembryonic endoderm cells are first specified, in terms of both gene expression and morphology...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Jason G Knott, Keith E Latham
In this special volume on "Chromatin regulation of early embryonic lineage specification," five leaders in the field of mammalian preimplantation embryo development provide their own perspectives on key molecular and cellular processes that mediate lineage formation during the first week of life. The first cell-fate decision involves the formation of the pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM) and extraembryonic trophectoderm (TE). The second cell-fate choice encompasses the transformation of ICM into extraembryonic primitive endoderm (PE) and pluripotent epiblast...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Alexander I Shevchenko, Elena V Grigor'eva, Sergey P Medvedev, Irina S Zakharova, Elena V Dementyeva, Eugeny A Elisaphenko, Anastasia A Malakhova, Sophia V Pavlova, Suren M Zakian
In vole Microtus levis, cells of preimplantation embryo and extraembryonic tissues undergo imprinted X chromosome inactivation (iXCI) which is triggered by a long non-coding nuclear RNA, Xist. At early stages of iXCI, chromatin of vole inactive X chromosome is enriched with the HP1 heterochromatin-specific protein, trimethylated H3K9 and H4K20 attributable to constitutive heterochromatin. In the study, using vole trophoblast stem (TS) cells as a model of iXCI, we further investigated chromatin of the inactive X chromosome of M...
November 18, 2017: Chromosoma
Jacques-Edmond Flechon
The present review deals with the trophoblast structure during the free intrauterine life of the pig blastocyst. The term trophoblast is used here to describe the association of the first extraembryonic cell layers, the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm that are polarized epithelia, a fact established by ultrastructural and immunocytochemical data. The aim of this synthesis is to gather the relative works dispersed in the litterature and to explain the implication of the planar polarity of these cell layers on their developmental fate and roles...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Gurjoth S J Deol, Tina N Cuthbert, Mohamed I Gatie, Danielle M Spice, Lindsay R Hilton, Gregory M Kelly
Mouse F9 cells differentiate into primitive extraembryonic endoderm (PrE) when treated with retinoic acid (RA), and this is accompanied by an up-regulation of Gata6. The role of the GATA6 network in PrE differentiation is known, and we have shown it directly activates Wnt6. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required by F9 cells to differentiate to PrE, and this, like most developmental processes, requires input from one or more additional pathways. We found both RA and Gata6 overexpression, can induce the expression of Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) and a subset of its target genes through Gli activation during PrE induction...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Matthew C Lorincz, Dirk Schübeler
CpG island promoters are generally devoid of DNA methylation in somatic cells but are frequently methylated during tumorigenesis. Reporting recently in Nature, Smith et al. (2017) show that the signaling-induced methylome in early extraembryonic tissues resembles that of many cancers, suggesting that placental nuclear programming might be co-opted in tumorigenesis.
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
Xuepeng Wang, Tianda Li, Tongtong Cui, Dawei Yu, Chao Liu, Liyuan Jiang, Guihai Feng, Lei Wang, Rui Fu, Xinxin Zhang, Jie Hao, Yukai Wang, Liu Wang, Qi Zhou, Wei Li, Baoyang Hu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Cell Research
Luana C Farnesi, Helena C M Vargas, Denise Valle, Gustavo L Rezende
Mosquito vectors lay their white eggs in the aquatic milieu. During early embryogenesis water passes freely through the transparent eggshell, which at this moment is composed of exochorion and endochorion. Within two hours the endochorion darkens via melanization but even so eggs shrink and perish if removed from moisture. However, during mid-embryogenesis, cells of the extraembryonic serosa secrete the serosal cuticle, localized right below the endochorion, becoming the third and innermost eggshell layer. Serosal cuticle formation greatly reduces water flow and allows egg survival outside the water...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sally F Burn, Andrew J Washkowitz, Svetlana Gavrilov, Virginia E Papaioannou
BACKGROUND: The dual-specificity T-box/basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor MGA is part of the MAX-interacting network of proteins. In the mouse, MGA is necessary for the survival of the pluripotent epiblast cells of the peri-implantation embryo and a null, gene-trap allele Mga(Gt) results in embryonic lethality shortly after implantation. We have used this allele to document expression of Mga in postimplantation embryos and also investigated a second, hypomorphic gene-trap allele, Mga(Inv)...
October 21, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
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