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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961275/eggshell-ultrastructure-and-delivery-of-pharmacological-inhibitors-to-the-early-embryo-of-r-prolixus-by-ethanol-permeabilization-of-the-extraembryonic-layers
#1
Larissa Bomfim, Priscila Vieira, Ariene Fonseca, Isabela Ramos
Most vectors of arthropod-borne diseases produce large eggs with hard and opaque eggshells. In several species, it is still not possible to induce molecular perturbations to the embryo by delivery of molecules using microinjections or eggshell permeabilization without losing embryo viability, which impairs basic studies regarding development and population control. Here we tested the properties and permeability of the eggshell of R. prolixus, a Chagas disease vector, with the aim to deliver pharmacological inhibitors to the egg cytoplasm and allow controlled molecular changes to the embryo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959968/epigenetic-restriction-of-extraembryonic-lineages-mirrors-the-somatic-transition-to-cancer
#2
Zachary D Smith, Jiantao Shi, Hongcang Gu, Julie Donaghey, Kendell Clement, Davide Cacchiarelli, Andreas Gnirke, Franziska Michor, Alexander Meissner
In mammals, the canonical somatic DNA methylation landscape is established upon specification of the embryo proper and subsequently disrupted within many cancer types. However, the underlying mechanisms that direct this genome-scale transformation remain elusive, with no clear model for its systematic acquisition or potential developmental utility. Here, we analysed global remethylation from the mouse preimplantation embryo into the early epiblast and extraembryonic ectoderm. We show that these two states acquire highly divergent genomic distributions with substantial disruption of bimodal, CpG density-dependent methylation in the placental progenitor...
September 28, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951435/anteroposterior-polarity-and-elongation-in-the-absence-of-extraembryonic-tissues-and-spatially-localised-signalling-in-gastruloids-mammalian-embryonic-organoids
#3
D A Turner, M Girgin, L Alonso-Crisostomo, V Trivedi, P Baillie-Johnson, C R Glodowski, P C Hayward, J Collignon, C Gustavsen, P Serup, B Steventon, M Lutolf, Arias A Martinez
The establishment of the anteroposterior (AP) axis is a critical step during animal embryo development. In mammals, genetic studies have shown that this process relies on signals spatiotemporally deployed in the extraembryonic tissues that locate the position of the head and the onset of gastrulation, marked by T/Brachyury (T/Bra) at the posterior of the embryo. Here, we use Gastruloids, mESC-based organoids, as a model system to study this process. We find that Gastruloids localise T/Bra expression to one end and undergo elongation similar to the posterior region of the embryo suggesting that they develop an AP axis...
September 26, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947661/what-makes-the-maternal-x-chromosome-resistant-to-undergoing-imprinted-x-inactivation
#4
REVIEW
Takashi Sado
In the mouse, while either X chromosome is chosen for inactivation in a random fashion in the embryonic tissue, the paternally derived X chromosome is preferentially inactivated in the extraembryonic tissues. It has been shown that the maternal X chromosome is imprinted so as not to undergo inactivation in the extraembryonic tissues. X-linked noncoding Xist RNA becomes upregulated on the X chromosome that is to be inactivated. An antisense noncoding RNA, Tsix, which occurs at the Xist locus and has been shown to negatively regulate Xist expression in cis, is imprinted to be expressed from the maternal X in the extraembryonic tissues...
November 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947537/nuclear-movement-regulated-by-non-smad-nodal-signaling-via-jnk-is-associated-with-smad-signaling-during-zebrafish-endoderm-specification
#5
Shunya Hozumi, Shun Aoki, Yutaka Kikuchi
Although asymmetric nuclear positioning is observed during animal development, the regulation and significance of this nuclear positioning in cell differentiation remains poorly understood. Using zebrafish blastulae, we provide evidence that nuclear movement toward the yolk syncytial layer, which comprises extraembryonic tissue, occurs in the first endoderm specified cells during endoderm specification. Nodal signaling is essential for nuclear movement, whereas nuclear envelope proteins are involved in the movement through the microtubule formation...
September 25, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935707/the-eutheria-specific-mir-290-mir-371-cluster-modulates-placental-growth-and-maternal-fetal-transport
#6
Alireza Paikari, Cassandra Belair, Danial Saw, Robert Blelloch
A family of vertebrate-specific microRNAs called the ESCC microRNAs arises from two genetic loci in mammals, the miR-290/miR-371 and miR-302 loci. While the miR-302 locus is found broadly among vertebrates, the miR-290/miR-371 locus is unique to eutheria (placental mammals), suggesting a role in placental development. Here, we evaluate that role. A knockin reporter for the mouse miR-290 cluster gene is expressed throughout the embryo until gastrulation at which time it becomes specifically expressed in extraembryonic tissues and the germline...
September 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935706/suppression-of-erk-signalling-abolishes-primitive-endoderm-formation-but-does-not-promote-pluripotency-in-rabbit-embryo
#7
Anna Piliszek, Zofia E Madeja, Berenika Plusa
Formation of epiblast (EPI) - the founder line of all embryonic lineages - and extra-embryonic supportive tissues is one of the key events in mammalian development. The prevailing model of early mammalian development is based almost exclusively on the mouse. Here we provide a comprehensive, stage-by-stage analysis of the EPI and extraembryonic primitive endoderm (PrE) formation during pre-implantation development of the rabbit. Whilst we observed that rabbit embryos have several features in common with mouse embryos, including a stage-related initiation of lineage specification, our results demonstrate the existence of some key differences in lineage specification among mammals...
September 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920104/variable-phenotypic-penetrance-of-thrombosis-in-adult-mice-after-tissue-selective-and-temporally-controlled-thbd-gene-inactivation
#8
Thijs E van Mens, Hai-Po H Liang, Sreemanti Basu, Irene Hernandez, Mark Zogg, Jennifer May, Min Zhan, Qiuhui Yang, Jamie Foeckler, Shawn Kalloway, Rashmi Sood, Caren Sue Karlson, Hartmut Weiler
Thrombomodulin (Thbd) exerts pleiotropic effects on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and complement system activity by facilitating the thrombin-mediated activation of protein C and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and may have additional thrombin- and protein C (pC)-independent functions. In mice, complete Thbd deficiency causes embryonic death due to defective placental development. In this study, we used tissue-selective and temporally controlled Thbd gene ablation to examine the function of Thbd in adult mice...
June 27, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919262/pdgfra-is-not-essential-for-the-derivation-and-maintenance-of-mouse-extraembryonic-endoderm-stem-cell-lines
#9
Jiangwei Lin, Mona Khan, Bolek Zapiec, Peter Mombaerts
Extraembryonic endoderm stem (XEN) cell lines can be derived and maintained in vitro and reflect the primitive endoderm lineage. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) is thought to be essential for the derivation and maintenance of mouse XEN cell lines. Here, we have re-evaluated this requirement for PDGFRA. We derived multiple PDGFRA-deficient XEN cell lines from postimplantation and preimplantation embryos of a PDGFRA-GFP knockout strain. We also converted PDGFRA-deficient embryonic stem cell lines into XEN cell lines chemically by transient culturing with retinoic acid and Activin A...
October 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882402/visceral-endoderm-and-the-primitive-streak-interact-to-build-the-fetal-placental-interface-of-the-mouse-gastrula
#10
Adriana M Rodriguez, Karen M Downs
Hypoblast/visceral endoderm assists in amniote nutrition, axial positioning and formation of the gut. Here, we provide evidence, currently limited to humans and non-human primates, that hypoblast is a purveyor of extraembryonic mesoderm in the mouse gastrula. Fate mapping a unique segment of axial extraembryonic visceral endoderm associated with the allantoic component of the primitive streak, and referred to as the "AX", revealed that visceral endoderm supplies the placentae with extraembryonic mesoderm. Exfoliation of the AX was dependent upon contact with the primitive streak, which modulated Hedgehog signaling...
September 5, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854362/loss-of-apela-peptide-in-mice-causes-low-penetrance-embryonic-lethality-and-defects-in-early-mesodermal-derivatives
#11
Laina Freyer, Chih-Wei Hsu, Sonja Nowotschin, Andrea Pauli, Junji Ishida, Keiji Kuba, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, Alexander F Schier, Pamela A Hoodless, Mary E Dickinson, Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis
Apela (also known as Elabela, Ende, and Toddler) is a small signaling peptide that activates the G-protein-coupled receptor Aplnr to stimulate cell migration during zebrafish gastrulation. Here, using CRISPR/Cas9 to generate a null, reporter-expressing allele, we study the role of Apela in the developing mouse embryo. We found that loss of Apela results in low-penetrance cardiovascular defects that manifest after the onset of circulation. Three-dimensional micro-computed tomography revealed a higher penetrance of vascular remodeling defects, from which some mutants recover, and identified extraembryonic anomalies as the earliest morphological distinction in Apela mutant embryos...
August 29, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839011/eye-and-heart-morphogenesis-are-dependent-on-melatonin-signaling-in-chick-embryos
#12
Renato C Nogueira, Lucia de Fatima S Sampaio
Calmodulin is vital for chick embryos morphogenesis in the incubation time 48-66 h when the rudimentary C-shaped heart attains an S-shaped pattern and the optic vesicles develop into optic cups. Melatonin is in the extraembryonic yolk sac of the avian egg; melatonin binds calmodulin. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of melatonin in the formation of the chick embryo optic cups and S-shaped heart, by pharmacological methods and immunoassays. Mel1a melatonin receptor immunofluorescence was distributed in the optic cups and rudimentary hearts...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743464/stem-cell-therapy-for-abrogating-stroke-induced-neuroinflammation-and-relevant-secondary-cell-death-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Connor Stonesifer, Sydney Corey, Shaila Ghanekar, Zachary Diamandis, Sandra A Acosta, Cesar V Borlongan
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide. A key secondary cell death mechanism mediating neurological damage following the initial episode of ischemic stroke is the upregulation of endogenous neuroinflammatory processes to levels that destroy hypoxic tissue local to the area of insult, induce apoptosis, and initiate a feedback loop of inflammatory cascades that can expand the region of damage. Stem cell therapy has emerged as an experimental treatment for stroke, and accumulating evidence supports the therapeutic efficacy of stem cells to abrogate stroke-induced inflammation...
July 23, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729362/sema3f-semaphorin-3f-selectively-drives-an-extraembryonic-proangiogenic-program
#14
Donatella Regano, Alessia Visintin, Fabiana Clapero, Federico Bussolino, Donatella Valdembri, Federica Maione, Guido Serini, Enrico Giraudo
OBJECTIVE: Molecular pathways governing blood vessel patterning are vital to vertebrate development. Because of their ability to counteract proangiogenic factors, antiangiogenic secreted Sema3 (class 3 semaphorins) control embryonic vascular morphogenesis. However, if and how Sema3 may play a role in the control of extraembryonic vascular development is presently unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS: By characterizing genetically modified mice, here, we show that surprisingly Sema3F acts instead as a selective extraembryonic, but not intraembryonic proangiogenic cue...
September 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716426/hormone-dependent-uterine-epithelial-stromal-communication-for-pregnancy-support
#15
Xiaoqiu Wang, San-Pin Wu, Francesco J DeMayo
Human fertility is a relatively inefficient process. Despite the presence of visibly healthy embryos, 30% of pregnancies generated by assisted reproductive technology (ART) fail before the second trimester. The uterine microenvironment plays a critical role in establishing and maintaining a successful pregnancy that requires coordinated communication between the epithelial and stromal cells of the endometrium. The epithelial cells must cease proliferation and become permissive for the conceptus (embryo and associated extraembryonic membranes), while the stromal cells undergoes mesenchymal-to-epithelioid transformation to form the decidua in support of subsequent embryo development...
July 6, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712875/apical-constriction-in-distal-visceral-endoderm-cells-initiates-global-collective-cell-rearrangement-in-embryonic-visceral-endoderm-to-form-anterior-visceral-endoderm
#16
Go Shioi, Hideharu Hoshino, Takaya Abe, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Kazuki Nakao, Wenxiang Meng, Yasuhide Furuta, Toshihiko Fujimori, Shinichi Aizawa
The behavior of visceral endoderm cells was examined as the anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) formed from the distal visceral endoderm (DVE) using the mouse lines R26-H2B-EGFP and R26-PHA7-EGFP to visualize cell nuclei and adherens junction, respectively. The analysis using R26-H2B-EGFP demonstrated global cell rearrangement that was not specific to the DVE cells in the monolayer embryonic visceral endoderm sheet; each population of the endoderm cells moved collectively in a swirling movement as a whole. Most of the AVE cells at E6...
September 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701710/deficient-vitamin-e-uptake-during-development-impairs-neural-tube-closure-in-mice-lacking-lipoprotein-receptor-sr-bi
#17
Nicolás Santander, Carlos Lizama, María José Parga, Alonso Quiroz, Druso Pérez, Guadalupe Echeverría, Lorena Ulloa, Verónica Palma, Attilio Rigotti, Dolores Busso
SR-BI is the main receptor for high density lipoproteins (HDL) and mediates the bidirectional transport of lipids, such as cholesterol and vitamin E, between these particles and cells. During early development, SR-BI is expressed in extraembryonic tissue, specifically in trophoblast giant cells in the parietal yolk sac. We previously showed that approximately 50% of SR-BI(-/-) embryos fail to close the anterior neural tube and develop exencephaly, a perinatal lethal condition. Here, we evaluated the role of SR-BI in embryonic vitamin E uptake during murine neural tube closure...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606934/cell-lineage-of-timed-cohorts-of-tbx6-expressing-cells-in-wild-type-and-tbx6-mutant-embryos
#18
Daniel Concepcion, Andrew J Washkowitz, Akiko DeSantis, Phillip Ogea, Jason I Yang, Nataki C Douglas, Virginia E Papaioannou
Tbx6 is a T-box transcription factor with multiple roles in embryonic development as evidenced by dramatic effects on mesoderm cell fate determination, left/right axis determination, and somite segmentation in mutant mice. The expression of Tbx6 is restricted to the primitive streak and presomitic mesoderm, but some of the phenotypic features of mutants are not easily explained by this expression pattern. We have used genetically-inducible fate mapping to trace the fate of Tbx6-expressing cells in wild-type and mutant embryos to explain some of the puzzling features of the mutant phenotype...
July 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596585/tetraploid-embryonic-stem-cells-can-contribute-to-the-development-of-chimeric-fetuses-and-chimeric-extraembryonic-tissues
#19
Bingqiang Wen, Ruiqi Li, Keren Cheng, Enhong Li, Shaopeng Zhang, Jinzhu Xiang, Yanliang Wang, Jianyong Han
Our study examined the in vivo chimeric and survival capacities of chimeras created by injecting tetraploid embryonic stem cells (ESCs) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) into diploid embryos. At 3.5 days post-coitum (dpc) and 4.5 dpc, the tetraploid ESCs were able to contribute to the inner cell mass (ICM) just as diploid ESCs tagged with GFP. At 6.5 dpc, 8.0 dpc and 10.5 dpc, the tetraploid ESCs manifested in the same location as the diploid ESCs. The GFP cells in the extraembryonic tissues and fetuses of tetraploid ESC chimeras were tetraploid as determined by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS)...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579535/distributional-shift-of-urea-production-site-from-the-extraembryonic-yolk-sac-membrane-to-the-embryonic-liver-during-the-development-of-cloudy-catshark-scyliorhinus-torazame
#20
Wataru Takagi, Makiko Kajimura, Hironori Tanaka, Kumi Hasegawa, Shuntaro Ogawa, Susumu Hyodo
Urea is an essential osmolyte for marine cartilaginous fishes. Adult elasmobranchs and holocephalans are known to actively produce urea in the liver, muscle and other extrahepatic organs; however, osmoregulatory mechanisms in the developing cartilaginous fish embryo with an undeveloped urea-producing organ are poorly understood. We recently described the contribution of extraembryonic yolk sac membranes (YSM) to embryonic urea synthesis during the early developmental period of the oviparous holocephalan elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii)...
September 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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