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Anne Herrmann, Diana Moss, Violaine Sée
The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick embryo is a suitable and convenient platform for the assessment of tumor formation and metastatic dissemination. Here, we describe tumor cell engraftment on the extraembryonic CAM and further monitoring of tumor growth and metastasis.
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Clara Dombre, Nicolas Guyot, Thierry Moreau, Philippe Monget, Mylène Da Silva, Joël Gautron, Sophie Réhault-Godbert
Twenty-seven serpins belonging to clade A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I serpins are currently referenced in chicken genome databases. Phylogenetic analysis of chicken serpins revealed that ovalbumin (Serpinb14) and its paralogs ovalbumin-related protein Y (Serpinb14b) and ovalbumin-related protein X (Serpinb14c) are found in bird species. These clade B serpins are specifically expressed in reproductive tissues and exported in the egg where they constitute major protein components. These data suggest that these three paralogs have probably appeared in birds to face new environments and ensure the extra-uterine development of an embryo in a shell egg...
August 23, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Lisa A Vrooman, Frances Xin, Marisa S Bartolomei
In mammals, the extraembryonic tissues, which include the placenta, are crucial for embryonic development and growth. Because the placenta is no longer needed for postnatal life, however, it has been relatively understudied as a tissue of interest in biomedical research. Recently, increased efforts have been placed on understanding the placenta and how it may play a key role in human health and disease. In this review, we discuss two very different types of environmental exposures: assisted reproductive technologies and in utero exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals...
September 15, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Shiaulou Yuan, Martina Brueckner
Cilia play a key role in the determination of the left-right axis in vertebrates by generating and sensing flow of extraembryonic fluid at the left-right organizer (LRO). Perception of cilia-directed flow triggers a calcium signaling cascade which originates within the cilium itself and then is relayed into the surrounding mesendodermal tissue, thereby directing organ situs via the nodal pathway. Two types of cilia, motile and immotile, function simultaneously to coordinate and direct asymmetric intraciliary calcium signaling cues in the LRO...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Roberta Galli, Grit Preusse, Ortrud Uckermann, Thomas Bartels, Maria-Elisabeth Krautwald-Junghanns, Edmund Koch, Gerald Steiner
Male birds of egg-laying hen strains have no commercial value and are culled immediately after hatching, raising concerns for animal welfare. Existing experimental methods for in ovo sexing require taking samples and are applicable after embryos' sexual differentiation. We demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy enables contactless in ovo sex determination of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus f. dom.) already at day 3.5 of egg incubation. A sexing accuracy of 90% was obtained by analyzing the spectra of blood circulating in the extraembryonic vessels...
September 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Bernd Püschel, Jörg Männer
Due to its morphological similarity with the early human embryo, the pregastrulation-stage rabbit may represent an appropriate mammalian model for studying processes involved in early human development. The usability of mammalian embryos for experimental studies depends on the availability of whole embryo culture methods facilitating prolonged ex utero development. While currently used culture methods yield high success rates for embryos from primitive streak stages onward, the success rate of extended cultivation of preprimitive streak-stage mammalian embryos is low for all previously established methods and for all studied species...
August 11, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Mee Rie Sheen, Sandra L Warner, Jennifer L Fields, Jose R Conejo-Garcia, Steven Fiering
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway regulates many important cellular functions. The functional impact of deregulating the PIK3CA gene, encoding the p110α catalytic subunit of PI3K, is validated by frequent gain of function mutations in a range of human cancers. We generated a mouse model with an inducible constitutively active form of PI3K. In this model Cre recombinase activates expression of a myristoylated form of p110α (myr-p110α). The myristoylated version of p110α brings the protein to the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane, which mimics the normal activation mechanism for the p110α catalytic subunit and activates the PI3K enzyme...
October 2015: Open Life Sciences
V Garg, S Morgani, A-K Hadjantonakis
During mouse preimplantation development, three molecularly, morphologically, and spatially distinct lineages are formed, the embryonic epiblast, the extraembryonic primitive endoderm, and the trophectoderm. Stem cell lines representing each of these lineages have now been derived and can be indefinitely maintained and expanded in culture, providing an unlimited source of material to study the interplay of tissue-specific transcription factors and signaling pathways involved in these fundamental cell fate decisions...
2016: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
A A Lokken, A Ralston
The adult body is estimated to contain several hundred distinct cell types, each with a specialized physiological function. Failure to maintain cell fate can lead to devastating diseases and cancer, but understanding how cell fates are assigned and maintained during animal development provides new opportunities for human health intervention. The mouse is a premier model for evaluating the genetic regulation of cell fate during development because of the wide variety of tools for measuring and manipulating gene expression levels, the ability to access embryos at desired developmental stages, and the similarities between mouse and human development, particularly during the early stages of development...
2016: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Urs Schmidt-Ott, Chun Wai Kwan
Morphogenetic functions of the amnioserosa, the serosa, the amnion, and the yolk sac are reviewed on the basis of recent studies in flies (Drosophila, Megaselia), beetles (Tribolium), and hemipteran bugs (Oncopeltus). Three hypotheses are presented. First, it is suggested that the amnioserosa of Drosophila and the dorsal amnion of other fly species function in a similar manner. Second, it is proposed that in many species with an amniotic cavity, the amnion determines the site of serosa rupture, which, through interactions between the serosa and the amnion, enables the embryo to break free from the amniotic cavity and to close its backside...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Thorsten Horn, Kristen A Panfilio
Epithelial morphogenesis, the progressive restructuring of tissue sheets, is fundamental to embryogenesis. In insects, not only embryonic tissues but also extraembryonic (EE) epithelia play a crucial role in shaping the embryo. In Drosophila, the T-box transcription factor Dorsocross (Doc) is essential for EE tissue maintenance and therefore embryo survival. However, Drosophila possesses a single amnioserosa, whereas most insects have a distinct amnion and serosa. How does this derived situation compare with Doc function in the ancestral context of two EE epithelia? Here, we investigate the Doc orthologue in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, which is an excellent model for EE tissue complement and for functional, fluorescent live imaging approaches...
August 15, 2016: Development
Theresa M Cantu, John A Bowden, Jacob Scott, Jimena B Pérez-Viscasillas, Kevin Huncik, Matthew P Guillette, Louis J Guillette
Eicosanoids are signaling lipids known to regulate several physiological processes in the mammalian placenta, including the initiation of parturition. Though all amniotes construct similar extraembryonic membranes during development, the composition and function of eicosanoids in extraembryonic membranes of oviparous reptiles is largely unknown. The majority of effort placed in investigate eicosanoids is typically targeted toward defining the role of specific compounds in disease etiology; however, comprehensive characterization of several pathways in eicosanoid synthesis during development is also needed to better understand the complex role of these lipids in comparative species...
July 8, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Urs Schmidt-Ott, Jeremy A Lynch
The number of insect species that are amenable to functional genetic studies is growing rapidly and provides many new research opportunities in developmental and evolutionary biology. The holometabolous insects represent a disproportionate percentage of animal diversity and are thus well positioned to provide model species for a wide variety of developmental processes. Here we discuss emerging holometabolous models, and review some recent breakthroughs. For example, flies and midges were found to use structurally unrelated long-range pattern organizers, butterflies and moths revealed extensive pattern formation during oogenesis, new imaging possibilities in the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum showed how embryos break free of their extraembryonic membranes, and the complex genetics governing interspecies difference in head shape were revealed in Nasonia wasps...
July 8, 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Massimo De Felici
In most multicellular organisms, including mammals, germ cells are at the origin of new organisms and ensure the continuation of the genetic and epigenetic information across the generations.In the mammalian germ line, the primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the precursors of the primary oocytes and prospermatogonia of fetal ovaries and testes, respectively. In mammals such as the primates, in which the formation of the primary oocytes is largely asynchronous and occurs during a relatively long period, PGCs after the arrival into the XX gonadal ridges are termed oogonia which then become primary oocytes when entering into meiotic prophase I...
2016: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Brian A Benz, Sumeda Nandadasa, Megumi Takeuchi, Richard C Grady, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Rachel K LoPilato, Shinako Kakuda, Robert P T Somerville, Suneel S Apte, Robert S Haltiwanger, Bernadette C Holdener
Protein O-fucosyltransferase 2 (POFUT2) adds O-linked fucose to Thrombospondin Type 1 Repeats (TSR) in 49 potential target proteins. Nearly half the POFUT2 targets belong to the A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease with ThromboSpondin type-1 motifs (ADAMTS) or ADAMTS-like family of proteins. Both the mouse Pofut2 RST434 gene trap allele and the Adamts9 knockout were reported to result in early embryonic lethality, suggesting that defects in Pofut2 mutant embryos could result from loss of O-fucosylation on ADAMTS9...
August 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
Jiu-Zhen Jin, Yuanqi Zhu, Dennis Warner, Jixiang Ding
During mouse gastrulation, the primitive streak is formed on the posterior side of the embryo. Cells migrate out of the primitive streak to form the future mesoderm and endoderm. Fate mapping studies revealed a group of cell migrate through the proximal end of the primitive streak and give rise to the extraembryonic mesoderm tissues such as the yolk sac blood islands and allantois. However, it is not clear whether the formation of a morphological primitive streak is required for the development of these extraembryonic mesodermal tissues...
August 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Teresa Rayon, Sergio Menchero, Isabel Rollán, Inmaculada Ors, Anne Helness, Miguel Crespo, Andres Nieto, Véronique Azuara, Janet Rossant, Miguel Manzanares
The first intercellular differences during mammalian embryogenesis arise in the blastocyst, producing the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm. The trophectoderm is the first extraembryonic tissue and does not contribute to the embryo proper, its differentiation instead forming tissues that sustain embryonic development. Crucial roles in extraembryonic differentiation have been identified for certain transcription factors, but a comprehensive picture of the regulation of this early specification is still lacking...
2016: Scientific Reports
Christian Much, Tania Auchynnikava, Dinko Pavlinic, Andreas Buness, Juri Rappsilber, Vladimir Benes, Robin Allshire, Dónal O'Carroll
Dicer is a large multi-domain protein responsible for the ultimate step of microRNA and short-interfering RNA biogenesis. In human and mouse cell lines, Dicer has been shown to be important in the nuclear clearance of dsRNA as well as the establishment of chromatin modifications. Here we set out to unambiguously define the cellular localization of Dicer in mice to understand if this is a conserved feature of mammalian Dicer in vivo. To this end, we utilized an endogenously epitope tagged Dicer knock-in mouse allele...
June 2016: PLoS Genetics
Zhiyuan Chen, Darren E Hagen, Juanbin Wang, Christine G Elsik, Tieming Ji, Luiz G Siqueira, Peter J Hansen, Rocío M Rivera
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parental-allele-specific gene expression. Approximately 150 imprinted genes have been identified in humans and mice but less than 30 have been described as imprinted in cattle. For the purpose of de novo identification of imprinted genes in bovine, we determined global monoallelic gene expression in brain, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney and placenta of day ∼105 Bos taurus indicus × Bos taurus taurus F1 conceptuses using RNA sequencing. To accomplish this, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify parent-specific single nucleotide polymorphism alleles after filtering adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing sites...
July 2, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Hsiao-Huei Wu, Sera Choi, Pat Levitt
INTRODUCTION: Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neuromodulator, but recently has been shown to be involved in neurodevelopment. Although previous studies have demonstrated that the placenta is a major source of forebrain 5-HT during early forebrain development, the processes of how 5-HT production, metabolism, and transport from placenta to fetus are regulated are unknown. As an initial step in determining the mechanisms involved, we investigated the expression patterns of genes critical for 5-HT system function in mouse extraembryonic tissues...
June 2016: Placenta
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