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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322735/stella-collaborates-in-distinct-mesendodermal-cell-subpopulations-at-the-fetal-placental-interface-in-the-mouse-gastrula
#1
Adam D Wolfe, Adriana M Rodriguez, Karen M Downs
The allantois-derived umbilical component of the chorio-allantoic placenta shuttles fetal blood to and from the chorion, thereby ensuring fetal-maternal exchange. The progenitor populations that establish and supply the fetal-umbilical interface lie, in part, within the base of the allantois, where the germ line is claimed to segregate from the soma. Results of recent studies in the mouse have reported that STELLA (DPPA-3, PGC7) co-localizes with PRDM1 (BLIMP1), the bimolecular signature of putative primordial germ cells (PGCs) throughout the fetal-placental interface...
March 16, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319357/par3-in-chick-lens-placode-development
#2
Maraysa de Oliveira Melo, Ricardo Moraes Borges, Chao Yun Irene Yan
The lens originates from a simple cuboidal epithelium, which, on its basal side, contacts the optic vesicle, whilst facing the extraembryonic environment on its apical side. As this epithelium changes into the pseudostratified lens placode, its cells elongate and become narrower at their apical ends. This is due to the formation of an apical actin network, whose appearance is restricted to cells of the placodal region, as a result of region-specific signaling mechanisms that remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the polarity protein PAR3 and the phosphorylation state of its Threonine 833 (T833) aPKC-binding site in the recruitment of aPKC and in the establishment of actin network in the chick lens placode...
March 20, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301581/assessing-tn5-and-sleeping-beauty-for-transpositional-transgenesis-by-cytoplasmic-injection-into-bovine-and-ovine-zygotes
#3
R J Bevacqua, R Fernandez-Martin, N G Canel, A Gibbons, D Texeira, F Lange, G Vans Landschoot, V Savy, O Briski, M I Hiriart, E Grueso, Z Ivics, O Taboga, W A Kues, S Ferraris, D F Salamone
Transgenic domestic animals represent an alternative to bioreactors for large-scale production of biopharmaceuticals and could also provide more accurate biomedical models than rodents. However, their generation remains inefficient. Recently, DNA transposons allowed improved transgenesis efficiencies in mice and pigs. In this work, Tn5 and Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon systems were evaluated for transgenesis by simple cytoplasmic injection in livestock zygotes. In the case of Tn5, the transposome complex of transposon nucleic acid and Tn5 protein was injected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299650/the-role-of-runx1-in-embryonic-blood-cell-formation
#4
Amanda D Yzaguirre, Marella F T R de Bruijn, Nancy A Speck
The de novo generation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) occurs solely during embryogenesis from a population of epithelial cells called hemogenic endothelium (HE). During midgestation HE cells in multiple intra- and extraembryonic vascular beds leave the vessel wall as they transition into HSPCs in a process termed the endothelial to hematopoietic transition (EHT). Runx1 expression in HE cells orchestrates the transcriptional switch necessary for the transdifferentiation of endothelial cells into functional HSPCs...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298438/single-cell-analysis-reveals-lineage-segregation-in-early-post-implantation-mouse-embryos
#5
Jing Wen, Yanwu Zeng, Zhuoqing Fang, Junjie Gu, Laixiang Ge, Fan Tang, Zepeng Qu, Jing Hu, Yaru Cui, Kunshan Zhang, Junbang Wang, Siguang Li, Yi Sun, Ying Jin
The mammalian post-implantation embryo has been extensively investigated at the tissue level. However, to unravel the molecular basis for the cell-fate plasticity and determination, it is essential to study the characteristics of individual cells. Especially, the individual definitive endoderm (DE) cells have not been characterized in vivo. Here, we report gene expression patterns in single cells freshly isolated from mouse embryos on days 5.5 and 6.5. Initial transcriptome data from 124 single cells yielded signature genes for the epiblast, visceral endoderm, and extra-embryonic ectoderm and revealed a unique distribution pattern of fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) ligands and receptors...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281537/moving-towards-totipotency-without-a-single-mir-acle
#6
Noam Maoz, Yosef Buganim
Totipotency is the ability of a single cell to form an entire embryo, including extra-embryonic tissues, an ability we have yet to recapitalize, in vitro. In a recent paper published in Science, Choi et al. showed that pluripotent stem cells lacking microRNA miR-34a, have an expanded cell fate potential allowing differentiation into not only embryonic but also extraembryonic lineages.
March 10, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271994/nkx2-5-marks-angioblasts-that-contribute-to-hemogenic-endothelium-of-the-endocardium-and-dorsal-aorta
#7
Lyad Zamir, Reena Singh, Elisha Nathan, Ralph Patrick, Oren Yifa, Yfat Yahalom-Ronen, Alaa A Arraf, Thomas M Schultheiss, Shengbao Suo, Jing-Dong Jackie Han, Guangdun Peng, Naihe Jing, Yuliang Wang, Nathan Palpant, Patrick Pl Tam, Richard P Harvey, Eldad Tzahor
Novel regenerative therapies may stem from deeper understanding of the mechanisms governing cardiovascular lineage diversification. Using enhancer mapping and live imaging in avian embryos, and genetic lineage tracing in mice, we investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of cardiovascular progenitor populations. We show that expression of the cardiac transcription factor Nkx2.5 marks a mesodermal population outside of the cardiac crescent in the extraembryonic and lateral plate mesoderm, with characteristics of hemogenic angioblasts...
March 8, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249357/gastrulation-in-an-annual-killifish-molecular-and-cellular-events-during-germ-layer-formation-in-austrolebias
#8
Luisa Pereiro, Felix Loosli, Juan Fernández, Steffen Härtel, Joachim Wittbrodt, Miguel L Concha
BACKGROUND: Comparative studies beyond the traditional model organisms have been instrumental in enhancing our understanding of the conserved and derived features of gastrulation, a fundamental process in which the germ layers are specified and shaped to form the body axis. Here, we analysed gastrulation in a vertebrate group with an extreme mode of early development, the annual killifish. RESULTS: Gastrulation in annual killifish of the genus Austrolebias takes place after the initially dispersed deep blastomeres congregate to form the so-called reaggregate...
March 1, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244655/the-plasticity-of-germ-cell-cancers-and-its-dependence-on-the-cellular-microenvironment
#9
REVIEW
Daniel Nettersheim, Hubert Schorle
So far, the understanding of germ cell cancer (GCC) pathogenesis is based on a model, where seminomas and non-seminomas represent distinct entities although originating from a common precursor termed germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS). Embryonal carcinomas (ECs), the stem cell population of the non-seminomas, is pluri- to totipotent and able to differentiate into cells of all three germ layers, giving rise to teratomas or tumours mimicking extraembryonic tissues (yolk sac tumours, choriocarcinomas). With regard to gene expression, (epi)genetics and histology, seminomas are highly similar to GCNIS and primordial germ cells, but limited in development...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165148/a-correlative-study-of-the-allantois-in-pig-and-rabbit-highlighting-the-diversity-of-extraembryonic-tissues-in-four-mammalian-species-including-mouse-and-man
#10
Waad Hassan, Christoph Viebahn
Despite its conserved role in placenta and umbilical cord formation, the mammalian allantois shows remarkable diversity in size and form as well as in the timing of its appearance and attachment to the chorion. In the mouse, the common allantoic diverticulum is lacking; instead, the allantoic core domain is defined as a progenitor center for allantoic development. In this study, the allantoises of the pig and the rabbit as two nonrodent mammals of increasing significance in biomedical research are compared (1) morphologically using high resolution light and electron microscopy and (2) molecularly using brachyury mRNA expression as a mesodermal marker...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161053/htr-8-svneo-cell-line-contains-a-mixed-population-of-cells
#11
Wassim Abou-Kheir, Joanna Barrak, Ola Hadadeh, Georges Daoud
INTRODUCTION: The placenta, a transient organ in humans, is essential for pregnancy maintenance and fetal development. Trophoblast and stromal cells are the main cell types present in human placenta. Trophoblast cells are derivatives of the trophectoderm layer and fulfill the endocrine, exchange, invasion and implantation processes of the placenta, whereas stromal cells are of extraembryonic mesenchymal origin and are important for villous formation and maintenance. Different cell lines were developed to study trophoblast functions including BeWo, JEG-3 and JAR from chorioncarcinoma while HTR-8/SVneo was developed using first trimester extravillous trophoblast infected with simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40)...
February 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152080/nox1-and-nox4-are-required-for-the-differentiation-of-mouse-f9-cells-into-extraembryonic-endoderm
#12
Benjamin J Dickson, Mohamed I Gatie, Danielle M Spice, Gregory M Kelly
Mouse F9 cells differentiate to primitive endoderm (PrE) when treated with retinoic acid (RA). Differentiation is accompanied by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and while treating F9 cells with antioxidants attenuates differentiation, H2O2 treatment alone is sufficient to induce PrE. We identified the NADPH oxidase (NOX) complexes as candidates for the source of this endogenous ROS, and within this gene family, and over the course of differentiation, Nox1 and Nox 4 show the greatest upregulation induced by RA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134930/xist-dependent-imprinted-x-inactivation-and-the-early-developmental-consequences-of-its-failure
#13
Maud Borensztein, Laurène Syx, Katia Ancelin, Patricia Diabangouaya, Christel Picard, Tao Liu, Jun-Bin Liang, Ivaylo Vassilev, Rafael Galupa, Nicolas Servant, Emmanuel Barillot, Azim Surani, Chong-Jian Chen, Edith Heard
The long noncoding RNA Xist is expressed from only the paternal X chromosome in mouse preimplantation female embryos and mediates transcriptional silencing of that chromosome. In females, absence of Xist leads to postimplantation lethality. Here, through single-cell RNA sequencing of early preimplantation mouse embryos, we found that the initiation of imprinted X-chromosome inactivation absolutely requires Xist. Lack of paternal Xist leads to genome-wide transcriptional misregulation in the early blastocyst and to failure to activate the extraembryonic pathway that is essential for postimplantation development...
March 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114387/gene-expression-noise-enhances-robust-organization-of-the-early-mammalian-blastocyst
#14
William R Holmes, Nabora Soledad Reyes de Mochel, Qixuan Wang, Huijing Du, Tao Peng, Michael Chiang, Olivier Cinquin, Ken Cho, Qing Nie
A critical event in mammalian embryo development is construction of an inner cell mass surrounded by a trophoectoderm (a shell of cells that later form extraembryonic structures). We utilize multi-scale, stochastic modeling to investigate the design principles responsible for robust establishment of these structures. This investigation makes three predictions, each supported by our quantitative imaging. First, stochasticity in the expression of critical genes promotes cell plasticity and has a critical role in accurately organizing the developing mouse blastocyst...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102431/totipotency-in-the-mouse
#15
REVIEW
Guangming Wu, Lei Lei, Hans R Schöler
In mammals, the unicellular zygote starts the process of embryogenesis and differentiates into all types of somatic cells, including both fetal and extraembryonic lineages-in a highly organized manner to eventually give rise to an entire multicellular organism comprising more than 200 different tissue types. This feature is referred to as totipotency. Upon fertilization, oocyte maternal factors epigenetically reprogram the genomes of the terminally differentiated oocyte and spermatozoon and turn the zygote into a totipotent cell...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057738/a-population-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-derives-from-gata4-expressing-progenitors-located-in-the-placenta-and-lateral-mesoderm-of-mice
#16
Ana Cañete, Rita Carmona, Laura Ariza, Maria Jose Sanchez, Anabel Rojas, Ramon Muñoz-Chápuli
GATA transcription factors are expressed in mesoderm and endoderm during development. GATA1-3, but not GATA4, are critically involved in hematopoiesis. An enhancer (G2) of the mouse Gata4 gene directs its expression throughout the lateral mesoderm and the allantois, beginning at E7.5, becoming restricted to the septum transversum by E10.5, and disappearing by midgestation. We have studied the developmental fate of the G2-Gata4 cell lineage using a G2-Gata4Cre;R26REYFP mouse line. We found a substantial number of YFP+ hematopoietic cells of lymphoid, myeloid and erythroid lineages in embryos...
January 5, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057273/eomesodermin-at-dawn-of-cell-fate-decisions-during-early-embryogenesis
#17
S Probst, S J Arnold
Proteins of the large family of T-box transcription factors are implicated in a broad spectrum of developmental processes. Loss-of-function mutations of T-box(Tbx) factors frequently cause severe embryonic phenotypes, often resulting from defects in cell fate specification and lineage differentiation. This review summarizes current knowledge on the functions of the T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin (Eomes) from postfertilization development until gastrulation stages of vertebrate embryos. Eomes exhibits evolutionary conserved functions in cell lineage specification and morphogenesis during gastrulation in all studied vertebrate model systems...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057263/t-box-genes-in-drosophila-mesoderm-development
#18
I Reim, M Frasch, C Schaub
In Drosophila there are eight genes encoding transcription factors of the T-box family, which are known to exert a variety of crucial developmental functions during ectodermal patterning processes, neuronal cell specification, mesodermal tissue development, and the development of extraembryonic tissues. In this review, we focus on the prominent roles of Drosophila T-box genes in mesodermal tissues. First, we describe the contributions of brachyenteron (byn) and optomotor-blind-related-gene-1 (org-1) to the development of the visceral mesoderm...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049782/derivation-and-culture-of-extra-embryonic-endoderm-stem-cell-lines
#19
Peter Rugg-Gunn
Whereas embryonic stem (ES) cells are isolated from the embryonic lineage of the blastocyst, other stable stem cell lines can be derived from the extraembryonic tissues of the early mouse embryo. Trophoblast stem (TS) cells are derived from trophectoderm and early postimplantation trophoblast, and extraembryonic endoderm stem (XEN) cells are derived from primitive endoderm. The derivation of XEN cell lines from 3.5-dpc mouse blastocysts, described here, is similar to the derivation of TS cell lines. TS and XEN cells can self-renew in vitro and differentiate in vitro and in chimeras (in vivo) in a lineage-appropriate manner, showing the developmental potential of their origin, thus providing important models to study the mouse extraembryonic lineages...
January 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043657/breaking-the-first-lineage-barrier-many-roads-to-trophoblast-stem-cell-fate
#20
Caroline Kubaczka, Franziska Kaiser, Hubert Schorle
Recently, direct cell fate conversion attempts between the embryonic and extra-embryonic lineage gained new momentum. Two concomitant publications were published, describing the successful generation of transgene-independent, self-renewing trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) from murine fibroblasts. Cells were faithfully converted, displaying high similarity to blastocyst or extraembryonic ectoderm derived TSCs. Here, we summarize and compare published attempts aiming at the direct induction of trophoblast-fate from either mouse embryonic stem cells or fibroblasts...
December 23, 2016: Placenta
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