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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057738/a-population-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-derives-from-gata4-expressing-progenitors-located-in-the-placenta-and-lateral-mesoderm-of-mice
#1
Ana Cañete, Rita Carmona, Laura Ariza, Maria Jose Sanchez, Anabel Rojas, Ramon Muñoz-Chápuli
GATA transcription factors are expressed in mesoderm and endoderm during development. GATA1-3, but not GATA4, are critically involved in hematopoiesis. An enhancer (G2) of the mouse Gata4 gene directs its expression throughout the lateral mesoderm and the allantois, beginning at E7.5, becoming restricted to the septum transversum by E10.5, and disappearing by midgestation. We have studied the developmental fate of the G2-Gata4 cell lineage using a G2-Gata4Cre;R26REYFP mouse line. We found a substantial number of YFP+ hematopoietic cells of lymphoid, myeloid and erythroid lineages in embryos...
January 5, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057273/eomesodermin-at-dawn-of-cell-fate-decisions-during-early-embryogenesis
#2
S Probst, S J Arnold
Proteins of the large family of T-box transcription factors are implicated in a broad spectrum of developmental processes. Loss-of-function mutations of T-box(Tbx) factors frequently cause severe embryonic phenotypes, often resulting from defects in cell fate specification and lineage differentiation. This review summarizes current knowledge on the functions of the T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin (Eomes) from postfertilization development until gastrulation stages of vertebrate embryos. Eomes exhibits evolutionary conserved functions in cell lineage specification and morphogenesis during gastrulation in all studied vertebrate model systems...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057263/t-box-genes-in-drosophila-mesoderm-development
#3
I Reim, M Frasch, C Schaub
In Drosophila there are eight genes encoding transcription factors of the T-box family, which are known to exert a variety of crucial developmental functions during ectodermal patterning processes, neuronal cell specification, mesodermal tissue development, and the development of extraembryonic tissues. In this review, we focus on the prominent roles of Drosophila T-box genes in mesodermal tissues. First, we describe the contributions of brachyenteron (byn) and optomotor-blind-related-gene-1 (org-1) to the development of the visceral mesoderm...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049782/derivation-and-culture-of-extra-embryonic-endoderm-stem-cell-lines
#4
Peter Rugg-Gunn
Whereas embryonic stem (ES) cells are isolated from the embryonic lineage of the blastocyst, other stable stem cell lines can be derived from the extraembryonic tissues of the early mouse embryo. Trophoblast stem (TS) cells are derived from trophectoderm and early postimplantation trophoblast, and extraembryonic endoderm stem (XEN) cells are derived from primitive endoderm. The derivation of XEN cell lines from 3.5-dpc mouse blastocysts, described here, is similar to the derivation of TS cell lines. TS and XEN cells can self-renew in vitro and differentiate in vitro and in chimeras (in vivo) in a lineage-appropriate manner, showing the developmental potential of their origin, thus providing important models to study the mouse extraembryonic lineages...
January 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043657/breaking-the-first-lineage-barrier-many-roads-to-trophoblast-stem-cell-fate
#5
Caroline Kubaczka, Franziska Kaiser, Hubert Schorle
Recently, direct cell fate conversion attempts between the embryonic and extra-embryonic lineage gained new momentum. Two concomitant publications were published, describing the successful generation of transgene-independent, self-renewing trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) from murine fibroblasts. Cells were faithfully converted, displaying high similarity to blastocyst or extraembryonic ectoderm derived TSCs. Here, we summarize and compare published attempts aiming at the direct induction of trophoblast-fate from either mouse embryonic stem cells or fibroblasts...
December 23, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005004/functional-evolution-of-a-morphogenetic-gradient
#6
Chun Wai Kwan, Jackie Gavin-Smyth, Edwin L Ferguson, Urs Schmidt-Ott
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) pattern the dorsal-ventral axis of bilaterian embryos; however, their roles in the evolution of body plan are largely unknown. We examined their functional evolution in fly embryos. BMP signaling specifies two extraembryonic tissues, the serosa and amnion, in basal-branching flies such as Megaselia abdita, but only one, the amnioserosa, in Drosophila melanogaster. The BMP signaling dynamics are similar in both species until the beginning of gastrulation, when BMP signaling broadens and intensifies at the edge of the germ rudiment in Megaselia, while remaining static in Drosophila...
December 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991575/efficient-derivation-of-extraembryonic-endoderm-stem-cell-lines-from-mouse-postimplantation-embryos
#7
Jiangwei Lin, Mona Khan, Bolek Zapiec, Peter Mombaerts
Various types of stem cell lines have been derived from preimplantation or postimplantation mouse embryos: embryonic stem cell lines, epiblast stem cell lines, and trophoblast stem cell lines. It is not known if extraembryonic endoderm stem (XEN) cell lines can be derived from postimplantation mouse embryos. Here, we report the derivation of 77 XEN cell lines from 85 postimplantation embryos at embryonic day E5.5 or E6.5, in parallel to the derivation of 41 XEN lines from 69 preimplantation embryos at the blastocyst stage...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966169/in-ovo-sexing-of-chicken-eggs-by-fluorescence-spectroscopy
#8
Roberta Galli, Grit Preusse, Ortrud Uckermann, Thomas Bartels, Maria-Elisabeth Krautwald-Junghanns, Edmund Koch, Gerald Steiner
Culling of day-old male chicks in production of laying hen strains involves several millions of animals every year worldwide and is ethically controversial. In an attempt to provide an alternative, optical spectroscopy was investigated to determine nondestructively in ovo the sex of early embryos of the domestic chicken. The extraembryonic blood circulation system was accessed by producing a window in the egg shell and the flowing blood was illuminated with a near-infrared laser. The strong fluorescence and the weak Raman signals were acquired and spectroscopically analyzed between 800 and 1000 nm...
December 14, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959670/preattachment-embryos-of-domestic-animals-insights-into-development-and-paracrine-secretions
#9
Olivier Sandra, Gilles Charpigny, Laurent Galio, Isabelle Hue
In mammalian species, endometrial receptivity is driven by maternal factors independently of embryo signals. When pregnancy initiates, paracrine secretions of the preattachment embryo are essential both for maternal recognition and endometrium preparation for implantation and for coordinating development of embryonic and extraembryonic tissues of the conceptus. This review mainly focuses on domestic large animal species. We first illustrate the major steps of preattachment embryo development, including elongation in bovine, ovine, porcine, and equine species...
December 5, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959583/unusual-presentations-of-gynecologic-tumors-extragonadal-yolk-sac-tumor-of-the-vulva
#10
Elizabeth D Euscher
Extragonadal germ cell tumors are uncommon, and although they morphologically resemble their gonadal counterparts, unexpected gonadal presentation increases the potential for erroneous diagnoses. Yolk sac tumor is a malignant germ cell tumor characterized by an extraembryonic yolk sac line of differentiation, and relative to other germ cell tumors, is characterized by varied and diverse histologic patterns. When occurring outside of typical age parameters or in extragonadal locations, the histologic variability of yolk sac tumor and its tendency to mimic somatic tumors pose diagnostic challenges...
December 13, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956642/dna-demethylation-is-initiated-in-the-central-cells-of-arabidopsis-and-rice
#11
Kyunghyuk Park, M Yvonne Kim, Martin Vickers, Jin-Sup Park, Youbong Hyun, Takashi Okamoto, Daniel Zilberman, Robert L Fischer, Xiaoqi Feng, Yeonhee Choi, Stefan Scholten
Cytosine methylation is a DNA modification with important regulatory functions in eukaryotes. In flowering plants, sexual reproduction is accompanied by extensive DNA demethylation, which is required for proper gene expression in the endosperm, a nutritive extraembryonic seed tissue. Endosperm arises from a fusion of a sperm cell carried in the pollen and a female central cell. Endosperm DNA demethylation is observed specifically on the chromosomes inherited from the central cell in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, and maize, and requires the DEMETER DNA demethylase in Arabidopsis DEMETER is expressed in the central cell before fertilization, suggesting that endosperm demethylation patterns are inherited from the central cell...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940919/massive-dysregulation-of-genes-involved-in-cell-signaling-and-placental-development-in-cloned-cattle-conceptus-and-maternal-endometrium
#12
Fernando H Biase, Chanaka Rabel, Michel Guillomot, Isabelle Hue, Kalista Andropolis, Colleen A Olmstead, Rosane Oliveira, Richard Wallace, Daniel Le Bourhis, Christophe Richard, Evelyne Campion, Aurélie Chaulot-Talmon, Corinne Giraud-Delville, Géraldine Taghouti, Hélène Jammes, Jean-Paul Renard, Olivier Sandra, Harris A Lewin
A major unresolved issue in the cloning of mammals by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is the mechanism by which the process fails after embryos are transferred to the uterus of recipients before or during the implantation window. We investigated this problem by using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to compare the transcriptomes in cattle conceptuses produced by SCNT and artificial insemination (AI) at day (d) 18 (preimplantation) and d 34 (postimplantation) of gestation. In addition, endometrium was profiled to identify the communication pathways that might be affected by the presence of a cloned conceptus, ultimately leading to mortality before or during the implantation window...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923121/basal-cell-extracellular-matrix-adhesion-regulates-force-transmission-during-tissue-morphogenesis
#13
Katharine Goodwin, Stephanie J Ellis, Emily Lostchuck, Teresa Zulueta-Coarasa, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez, Guy Tanentzapf
Tissue morphogenesis requires force-generating mechanisms to organize cells into complex structures. Although many such mechanisms have been characterized, we know little about how forces are integrated across developing tissues. We provide evidence that integrin-mediated cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion modulates the transmission of apically generated tension during dorsal closure (DC) in Drosophila. Integrin-containing adhesive structures resembling focal adhesions were identified on the basal surface of the amnioserosa (AS), an extraembryonic epithelium essential for DC...
December 5, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858359/the-chorioallantoic-membrane-of-the-chick-embryo-to-assess-tumor-formation-and-metastasis
#14
Anne Herrmann, Diana Moss, Violaine Sée
The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick embryo is a suitable and convenient platform for the assessment of tumor formation and metastatic dissemination. Here, we describe tumor cell engraftment on the extraembryonic CAM and further monitoring of tumor growth and metastasis.
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565683/egg-serpins-the-chicken-and-or-the-egg-dilemma
#15
Clara Dombre, Nicolas Guyot, Thierry Moreau, Philippe Monget, Mylène Da Silva, Joël Gautron, Sophie Réhault-Godbert
Twenty-seven serpins belonging to clade A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I serpins are currently referenced in chicken genome databases. Phylogenetic analysis of chicken serpins revealed that ovalbumin (Serpinb14) and its paralogs ovalbumin-related protein Y (Serpinb14b) and ovalbumin-related protein X (Serpinb14c) are found in bird species. These clade B serpins are specifically expressed in reproductive tissues and exported in the egg where they constitute major protein components. These data suggest that these three paralogs have probably appeared in birds to face new environments and ensure the extra-uterine development of an embryo in a shell egg...
August 23, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523298/morphologic-and-molecular-changes-in-the-placenta-what-we-can-learn-from-environmental-exposures
#16
REVIEW
Lisa A Vrooman, Frances Xin, Marisa S Bartolomei
In mammals, the extraembryonic tissues, which include the placenta, are crucial for embryonic development and growth. Because the placenta is no longer needed for postnatal life, however, it has been relatively understudied as a tissue of interest in biomedical research. Recently, increased efforts have been placed on understanding the placenta and how it may play a key role in human health and disease. In this review, we discuss two very different types of environmental exposures: assisted reproductive technologies and in utero exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals...
September 15, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514920/visualization-and-manipulation-of-cilia-and-intraciliary-calcium-in-the-zebrafish-left-right-organizer
#17
Shiaulou Yuan, Martina Brueckner
Cilia play a key role in the determination of the left-right axis in vertebrates by generating and sensing flow of extraembryonic fluid at the left-right organizer (LRO). Perception of cilia-directed flow triggers a calcium signaling cascade which originates within the cilium itself and then is relayed into the surrounding mesendodermal tissue, thereby directing organ situs via the nodal pathway. Two types of cilia, motile and immotile, function simultaneously to coordinate and direct asymmetric intraciliary calcium signaling cues in the LRO...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512829/in-ovo-sexing-of-domestic-chicken-eggs-by-raman-spectroscopy
#18
Roberta Galli, Grit Preusse, Ortrud Uckermann, Thomas Bartels, Maria-Elisabeth Krautwald-Junghanns, Edmund Koch, Gerald Steiner
Male birds of egg-laying hen strains have no commercial value and are culled immediately after hatching, raising concerns for animal welfare. Existing experimental methods for in ovo sexing require taking samples and are applicable after embryos' sexual differentiation. We demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy enables contactless in ovo sex determination of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus f. dom.) already at day 3.5 of egg incubation. A sexing accuracy of 90% was obtained by analyzing the spectra of blood circulating in the extraembryonic vessels...
September 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508409/use-of-the-coelomic-grafting-technique-for-prolonged-ex-utero-cultivation-of-late-preprimitive-streak-stage-rabbit-embryos
#19
Bernd Püschel, Jörg Männer
Due to its morphological similarity with the early human embryo, the pregastrulation-stage rabbit may represent an appropriate mammalian model for studying processes involved in early human development. The usability of mammalian embryos for experimental studies depends on the availability of whole embryo culture methods facilitating prolonged ex utero development. While currently used culture methods yield high success rates for embryos from primitive streak stages onward, the success rate of extended cultivation of preprimitive streak-stage mammalian embryos is low for all previously established methods and for all studied species...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482546/myristoylated-p110%C3%AE-causes-embryonic-death-due-to-developmental-and-vascular-defects
#20
Mee Rie Sheen, Sandra L Warner, Jennifer L Fields, Jose R Conejo-Garcia, Steven Fiering
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway regulates many important cellular functions. The functional impact of deregulating the PIK3CA gene, encoding the p110α catalytic subunit of PI3K, is validated by frequent gain of function mutations in a range of human cancers. We generated a mouse model with an inducible constitutively active form of PI3K. In this model Cre recombinase activates expression of a myristoylated form of p110α (myr-p110α). The myristoylated version of p110α brings the protein to the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane, which mimics the normal activation mechanism for the p110α catalytic subunit and activates the PI3K enzyme...
October 2015: Open Life Sciences
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