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Henrique B Braz, Selma M Almeida-Santos, Christopher R Murphy, Michael B Thompson
The evolution of viviparity requires eggshell thinning to bring together the maternal uterus and extraembryonic membranes to form placentae for physiological exchanges. Eggshell thinning likely involves reduced activity of the uterine glands that secrete it. We tested these hypotheses by comparing the uterine and eggshell structure and histochemistry among oviparous and viviparous water snakes (Helicops) using phylogenetic methods. Eggshell thinning occurred convergently in all three origins of viviparity in Helicops and was accomplished by the loss of the mineral layer and thinning of the shell membrane...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Hiroki Nagai, Masahiro Shin, Wei Weng, Fumie Nakazawa, Lars Martin Jakt, Cantas Alev, Guojun Sheng
The field of hematopoietic and vascular developmental research owes its origin to the chick embryo. Many key concepts, such as the hematopoietic stem cell, hemangioblast and hemogenic endothelium, were first proposed in this model organism. Genetically tractable models have gradually replaced the chick in the past two decades. However, advances in comparative genomics, transcriptomics and promoteromics promise a re-emergence of the chick embryo as a powerful model for hematopoietic/vascular research. This review summarizes the current status of our understanding of early blood/vascular development in the chick, focusing primarily on the processes of primitive hematopoiesis and early vascular network formation in the extraembryonic and lateral plate mesoderm territories...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
R Imaniar, E Syahruddin, P Z Soepandi, A C Putra, F Nurwidya
BACKGROUND: As a rare tumor, yolk sac tumor is a type of neoplasm that appears like the yolk sac, extraembryonic mesenchyme, and allantois. The mediastinum is the second most frequent area after the gonadal area. CASE REPORT: We present an extremely rare case of 15 years old boy with mediastinal yolk sac tumor. The boy came with the chief complaint of swelling of the neck and face. Computed tomography scan of the chest revealed bulky mass with a cystic component that infiltrated the heart...
March 2018: Experimental Oncology
Seba Jamal Shbailat, Razan Ataallah Abuassaf
The route of egg white transfer into the yolk and the mechanisms underlying the digestion of egg proteins are unexplored in the fertilized egg of the duck, Anas platyrhynchos domestica. Here, we investigated the route(s) of egg white transfer and we determined the type of activated proteases during duck embryo development. Initially, we tested the electrophoretic patterns of egg proteins throughout development. Then, we used lysozyme as a reference protein to follow egg white transfer and we measured its activity...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Dimitri Fabrèges, Nathalie Daniel, Véronique Duranthon, Nadine Peyriéras
Mammalian embryo cloning by nuclear transfer has a low success rate. This is hypothesized to correlate with a high variability of early developmental steps segregating outer cells, fated to extraembryonic tissues, from inner cells, giving rise to the embryo proper. Exploring the cell lineage of wild-type embryos (WT) and clones, imaged in toto until hatching, highlights the respective contributions of cell proliferation, death and asymmetric divisions to phenotypic variability. Preferential cell death of inner cells in clones, probably pertaining to the epigenetic plasticity of the transferred nucleus, is identified as a major difference with consequences on the inner cell proportion...
March 22, 2018: Development
Sinem Civriz Bozdağ, Meltem Kurt Yüksel, Taner Demirer
Stem cells can be either totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent or unipotent. Totipotent cells have the capability to produce all cell types of the developing organism, including both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. The Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC) are the first defined adult stem cells (ASC) that give rise to all blood cells and immune system. Use of HSCs for treatment of hematologic malignancies, which is also called bone marrow (BM) transplantation or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) transplantation is the pioneer of cellular therapy and translational research...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Vicente Perez-Garcia, Elena Fineberg, Robert Wilson, Alexander Murray, Cecilia Icoresi Mazzeo, Catherine Tudor, Arnold Sienerth, Jacqueline K White, Elizabeth Tuck, Edward J Ryder, Diane Gleeson, Emma Siragher, Hannah Wardle-Jones, Nicole Staudt, Neha Wali, John Collins, Stefan Geyer, Elisabeth M Busch-Nentwich, Antonella Galli, James C Smith, Elizabeth Robertson, David J Adams, Wolfgang J Weninger, Timothy Mohun, Myriam Hemberger
Large-scale phenotyping efforts have demonstrated that approximately 25-30% of mouse gene knockouts cause intrauterine lethality. Analysis of these mutants has largely focused on the embryo and not the placenta, despite the crucial role of this extraembryonic organ for developmental progression. Here we screened 103 embryonic lethal and sub-viable mouse knockout lines from the Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders program for placental phenotypes. We found that 68% of knockout lines that are lethal at or after mid-gestation exhibited placental dysmorphologies...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Juan Jose Fraire-Zamora, Johannes Jaeger, Jérôme Solon
Evolution of morphogenesis is generally associated with changes in genetic regulation. Here, we report evidence indicating that dorsal closure, a conserved morphogenetic process in dipterans, evolved as the consequence of rearrangements in epithelial organization rather than signaling regulation. In Drosophila melanogaster , dorsal closure consists of a two-tissue system where the contraction of extraembryonic amnioserosa and a JNK/Dpp-dependent epidermal actomyosin cable result in microtubule-dependent seaming of the epidermis...
March 14, 2018: ELife
Cécilia Bassalert, Lorena Valverde-Estrella, Claire Chazaud
At the time of implantation, the mouse blastocyst has developed three cell lineages: the epiblast (Epi), the primitive endoderm (PrE), and the trophectoderm (TE). The PrE and TE are extraembryonic tissues but their interactions with the Epi are critical to sustain embryonic growth, as well as to pattern the embryo. We review here the cellular and molecular events that lead to the production of PrE and Epi lineages and discuss the different hypotheses that are proposed for the induction of these cell types. In the second part, we report the current knowledge about the epithelialization of the PrE...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Sergio Menchero, Julio Sainz de Aja, Miguel Manzanares
The trophectoderm (TE) is the first cell population to appear in the mammalian preimplantation embryo, as the result of the differentiation of totipotent blastomeres located on the outer surface of the late morula. Trophectodermal cells arrange in a monolayer covering the expanding blastocyst and acquire an epithelial phenotype with distinct apicobasal polarity and a basal lamina placed toward the blastocyst interior. During later development through the periimplantation and gastrulation stages, the TE gives rise to extraembryonic membranes and cell types that will eventually form most of the fetal placenta, the specialized organ through which the embryo obtains maternal nourishment necessary for subsequent exponential growth...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Sissy E Wamaitha, Kathy K Niakan
Understanding the progression of early human embryonic development prior to implantation is of fundamental biological importance. Greater insights into early developmental events may lead to clinical improvements, not only via the establishment of novel stem cell models with increased potential or more physiological relevance, but also by uncovering some underlying causes of infertility, miscarriages, and developmental disorders. The majority of human embryos available for study are those donated to research once they are surplus to family building following in vitro fertilization, though in some countries it is also possible to create embryos using donated gametes...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Anna Piliszek, Zofia E Madeja
During the first days following fertilization, cells of mammalian embryo gradually lose totipotency, acquiring distinct identity. The first three lineages specified in the mammalian embryo are pluripotent epiblast, which later gives rise to the embryo proper, and two extraembryonic lineages, hypoblast (also known as primitive endoderm) and trophectoderm, which form tissues supporting development of the fetus in utero. Most of our knowledge regarding the mechanisms of early lineage specification in mammals comes from studies in the mouse...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Stephen Frankenberg
Marsupials and monotremes differ from eutherian mammals in many features of their reproduction and development. Some features appear to be representative of transitional stages in evolution from therapsid reptiles to humans and mice, particularly with respect to the extraembryonic tissues that have undergone remarkable modifications to accommodate reduced egg size and quantity of yolk/deutoplasm, and increasing emphasis on viviparity and placentation. Trophoblast and hypoblast contribute the epithelial layers in most of the extraembryonic membranes and are the first two lineages to differentiate from the embryonic lineage...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Jennifer Watts, Alyson Lokken, Alexandra Moauro, Amy Ralston
Cells of the early embryo are totipotent because they will differentiate to produce the fetus and its surrounding extraembryonic tissues. By contrast, embryonic stem (ES) cells are considered to be merely pluripotent because they lack the ability to efficiently produce extraembryonic cell types. The relatively limited developmental potential of ES cells can be explained by the observation that ES cells are derived from the embryo after its cells have already begun to specialize and lose totipotency. Meanwhile, at the time that pluripotent ES cell progenitors are specified, so are the multipotent progenitors of two extraembryonic stem cell types: trophoblast stem (TS) cells and extraembryonic endoderm stem (XEN) cells...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Roberta Galli, Grit Preusse, Christian Schnabel, Thomas Bartels, Kerstin Cramer, Maria-Elisabeth Krautwald-Junghanns, Edmund Koch, Gerald Steiner
In order to provide an alternative to day-old chick culling in the layer hatcheries, a noninvasive method for egg sexing is required at an early stage of incubation before onset of embryo sensitivity. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy of blood offers the potential for precise and contactless in ovo sex determination of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus f. dom.) eggs already during the fourth incubation day. However, such kind of optical spectroscopy requires a window in the egg shell, is thus invasive to the embryo and leads to decreased hatching rates...
2018: PloS One
Mariela Giacchino, Pablo I F Inserra, Fernando D Lange, María C Gariboldi, Sergio R Ferraris, Alfredo D Vitullo
The South American hystricognathe Lagostomus maximus is a fossorial rodent whose females show unique reproductive characteristics. They have a 155-day long gestation, show massive polyovulation and a selective process of embryonic resorption in the first half of gestation. In order to explore and perform an in-situ characterization of the reproductive tract, we visualized internal structures through ultrasonography and video-endoscopy in pregnant and non-pregnant females. We describe the finding of protruding structures that lie on the yolk sac and their histological and ultrastructural characterization...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Molecular Histology
Najmeh Moein-Vaziri, Jafar Fallahi, Bahia Namavar-Jahromi, Majid Fardaei, Mozhdeh Momtahan, Zahra Anvar
Hydatidiform Mole (HM) is the most common form of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD), defined by hyper-proliferation of trophoblastic cells. HM is typified as abnormal proliferation of extraembryonic trophoblastic (placental) tissues and failure of embryonic tissues development and is the only GTD with Mendelian inheritance, which can reoccur in different pregnancies. Moles are categorized into Complete Hydatidiform Moles (CHM) or Partial Hydatidiform Moles (PHM) and a rare familial trait, which forms a CHM and despite having androgenetic pattern, shows normal biparental inheritance, conceived from one sperm and egg...
February 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
José Serrado Marques, Vera Teixeira, António Jacinto, Ana Teresa Tavares
During early vertebrate embryogenesis, both hematopoietic and endothelial lineages derive from a common progenitor known as the hemangioblast. Hemangioblasts derive from mesodermal cells that migrate from the posterior primitive streak into the extraembryonic yolk sac. In addition to primitive hematopoietic cells, recent evidence revealed that yolk sac hemangioblasts also give rise to tissue-resident macrophages and to definitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. In our previous work, we used a novel hemangioblast-specific reporter to isolate the population of chick yolk sac hemangioblasts and characterize its gene expression profile using microarrays...
January 31, 2018: Cells
R Mohammed, L Provitera, G Cavallaro, D Lattuada, G Ercoli, F Mosca, E Villamor
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has recently emerged as a biologically active gas with multiple effects on the cardiovascular system. We aimed to investigate the vasomotor actions of sodium sulfide (Na2S), which forms H2S and HS- in solution, in human umbilical artery (HUA) and vein (HUV) rings. In addition, we examined by immunocytochemistry the expression and localization of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulphurtransferase (MPST), the enzymes responsible for endogenous H2S production...
October 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Pin-Chi Tang, Gillian E MacKay, Jean H Flockhart, Margaret A Keighren, Anna Kopakaki, John D West
It has been shown previously that BALB/c strain embryos tend to contribute poorly to mouse aggregation chimaeras. In the present study we showed that BALB/c cells were not preferentially allocated to any extraembryonic lineages of mouse aggregation chimaeras, but their contribution decreased during the early postimplantation period and they were significantly depleted by E8.5. The development of BALB/c strain preimplantation embryos lagged behind embryos from some other strains and the contribution that BALB/c and other embryos made to chimaeras correlated with their developmental stage at E2...
January 12, 2018: Biology Open
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