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Extraembryonic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222787/nerve-growth-factor-induced-angiogenesis-2-the-quail-chorioallantoic-membrane-assay
#1
Philip Lazarovici, Adi Lahiani, Galit Gincberg, Dikla Haham, Cezary Marcinkiewicz, Peter I Lelkes
The avian chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a simple, highly vascularized extraembryonic membrane, which performs multiple functions during embryonic development. Therefore, the models of chicken and quail assays represent robust experimental platforms to study angiogenesis, which reflects perturbation of the entire vascular tree. This experimental approach, when combined with fractal morphometry, is sensitive to changes in vascular branching pattern and density. Nerve growth factor is a neurotrophin promoting angiogenesis in CAM models...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203909/dynamic-epigenomic-landscapes-during-early-lineage-specification-in-mouse-embryos
#2
Yu Zhang, Yunlong Xiang, Qiangzong Yin, Zhenhai Du, Xu Peng, Qiujun Wang, Miguel Fidalgo, Weikun Xia, Yuanyuan Li, Zhen-Ao Zhao, Wenhao Zhang, Jing Ma, Feng Xu, Jianlong Wang, Lei Li, Wei Xie
In mammals, all somatic development originates from lineage segregation in early embryos. However, the dynamics of transcriptomes and epigenomes acting in concert with initial cell fate commitment remains poorly characterized. Here we report a comprehensive investigation of transcriptomes and base-resolution methylomes for early lineages in peri- and postimplantation mouse embryos. We found allele-specific and lineage-specific de novo methylation at CG and CH sites that led to differential methylation between embryonic and extraembryonic lineages at promoters of lineage regulators, gene bodies, and DNA-methylation valleys...
December 4, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180571/zebrafish-nanog-is-primarily-required-in-extraembryonic-tissue
#3
James A Gagnon, Kamal Obbad, Alexander F Schier
The role of the zebrafish transcription factor Nanog has been controversial. It has been suggested that Nanog is primarily required for the proper formation of the extraembryonic yolk syncytial layer (YSL) and only indirectly regulates gene expression in embryonic cells. In an alternative scenario, Nanog has been proposed to directly regulate transcription in embryonic cells during zygotic genome activation. To clarify the roles of Nanog, we performed a detailed analysis of zebrafish nanog mutants. While zygotic nanog mutants survive to adulthood, maternal-zygotic and maternal mutants exhibit developmental arrest at the blastula stage...
November 27, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177765/xen-and-the-art-of-stem-cell-maintenance-molecular-mechanisms-maintaining-cell-fate-and-self-renewal-in-extraembryonic-endoderm-stem-xen-cell-lines
#4
Amy Ralston
The extraembryonic endoderm is one of the first cell types specified during mammalian development. This extraembryonic lineage is known to play multiple important roles throughout mammalian development, including guiding axial patterning and inducing formation of the first blood cells during embryogenesis. Moreover, recent studies have uncovered striking conservation between mouse and human embryos during the stages when extraembryonic endoderm cells are first specified, in terms of both gene expression and morphology...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177760/introduction
#5
Jason G Knott, Keith E Latham
In this special volume on "Chromatin regulation of early embryonic lineage specification," five leaders in the field of mammalian preimplantation embryo development provide their own perspectives on key molecular and cellular processes that mediate lineage formation during the first week of life. The first cell-fate decision involves the formation of the pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM) and extraembryonic trophectoderm (TE). The second cell-fate choice encompasses the transformation of ICM into extraembryonic primitive endoderm (PE) and pluripotent epiblast...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151149/impact-of-xist-rna-on-chromatin-modifications-and-transcriptional-silencing-maintenance-at-different-stages-of-imprinted-x-chromosome-inactivation-in-vole-microtus-levis
#6
Alexander I Shevchenko, Elena V Grigor'eva, Sergey P Medvedev, Irina S Zakharova, Elena V Dementyeva, Eugeny A Elisaphenko, Anastasia A Malakhova, Sophia V Pavlova, Suren M Zakian
In vole Microtus levis, cells of preimplantation embryo and extraembryonic tissues undergo imprinted X chromosome inactivation (iXCI) which is triggered by a long non-coding nuclear RNA, Xist. At early stages of iXCI, chromatin of vole inactive X chromosome is enriched with the HP1 heterochromatin-specific protein, trimethylated H3K9 and H4K20 attributable to constitutive heterochromatin. In the study, using vole trophoblast stem (TS) cells as a model of iXCI, we further investigated chromatin of the inactive X chromosome of M...
November 18, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139536/planar-polarity-of-the-extraembryonic-epithelia-in-the-preimplantation-porcine-conceptus
#7
Jacques-Edmond Flechon
The present review deals with the trophoblast structure during the free intrauterine life of the pig blastocyst. The term trophoblast is used here to describe the association of the first extraembryonic cell layers, the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm that are polarized epithelia, a fact established by ultrastructural and immunocytochemical data. The aim of this synthesis is to gather the relative works dispersed in the litterature and to explain the implication of the planar polarity of these cell layers on their developmental fate and roles...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119099/wnt-and-hedgehog-signaling-regulate-the-differentiation-of-f9-cells-into-extraembryonic-endoderm
#8
Gurjoth S J Deol, Tina N Cuthbert, Mohamed I Gatie, Danielle M Spice, Lindsay R Hilton, Gregory M Kelly
Mouse F9 cells differentiate into primitive extraembryonic endoderm (PrE) when treated with retinoic acid (RA), and this is accompanied by an up-regulation of Gata6. The role of the GATA6 network in PrE differentiation is known, and we have shown it directly activates Wnt6. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required by F9 cells to differentiate to PrE, and this, like most developmental processes, requires input from one or more additional pathways. We found both RA and Gata6 overexpression, can induce the expression of Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) and a subset of its target genes through Gli activation during PrE induction...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112847/evidence-for-converging-dna-methylation-pathways-in-placenta-and-cancer
#9
Matthew C Lorincz, Dirk Schübeler
CpG island promoters are generally devoid of DNA methylation in somatic cells but are frequently methylated during tumorigenesis. Reporting recently in Nature, Smith et al. (2017) show that the signaling-induced methylome in early extraembryonic tissues resembles that of many cancers, suggesting that placental nuclear programming might be co-opted in tumorigenesis.
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099092/human-embryonic-stem-cells-contribute-to-embryonic-and-extraembryonic-lineages-in-mouse-embryos-upon-inhibition-of-apoptosis
#10
Xuepeng Wang, Tianda Li, Tongtong Cui, Dawei Yu, Chao Liu, Liyuan Jiang, Guihai Feng, Lei Wang, Rui Fu, Xinxin Zhang, Jie Hao, Yukai Wang, Liu Wang, Qi Zhou, Wei Li, Baoyang Hu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084225/darker-eggs-of-mosquitoes-resist-more-to-dry-conditions-melanin-enhances-serosal-cuticle-contribution-in-egg-resistance-to-desiccation-in-aedes-anopheles-and-culex-vectors
#11
Luana C Farnesi, Helena C M Vargas, Denise Valle, Gustavo L Rezende
Mosquito vectors lay their white eggs in the aquatic milieu. During early embryogenesis water passes freely through the transparent eggshell, which at this moment is composed of exochorion and endochorion. Within two hours the endochorion darkens via melanization but even so eggs shrink and perish if removed from moisture. However, during mid-embryogenesis, cells of the extraembryonic serosa secrete the serosal cuticle, localized right below the endochorion, becoming the third and innermost eggshell layer. Serosal cuticle formation greatly reduces water flow and allows egg survival outside the water...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066359/postimplantation-mga-expression-and-embryonic-lethality-of-two-gene-trap-alleles
#12
Sally F Burn, Andrew J Washkowitz, Svetlana Gavrilov, Virginia E Papaioannou
BACKGROUND: The dual-specificity T-box/basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor MGA is part of the MAX-interacting network of proteins. In the mouse, MGA is necessary for the survival of the pluripotent epiblast cells of the peri-implantation embryo and a null, gene-trap allele Mga(Gt) results in embryonic lethality shortly after implantation. We have used this allele to document expression of Mga in postimplantation embryos and also investigated a second, hypomorphic gene-trap allele, Mga(Inv)...
October 21, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961275/eggshell-ultrastructure-and-delivery-of-pharmacological-inhibitors-to-the-early-embryo-of-r-prolixus-by-ethanol-permeabilization-of-the-extraembryonic-layers
#13
Larissa Bomfim, Priscila Vieira, Ariene Fonseca, Isabela Ramos
Most vectors of arthropod-borne diseases produce large eggs with hard and opaque eggshells. In several species, it is still not possible to induce molecular perturbations to the embryo by delivery of molecules using microinjections or eggshell permeabilization without losing embryo viability, which impairs basic studies regarding development and population control. Here we tested the properties and permeability of the eggshell of R. prolixus, a Chagas disease vector, with the aim to deliver pharmacological inhibitors to the egg cytoplasm and allow controlled molecular changes to the embryo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959968/epigenetic-restriction-of-extraembryonic-lineages-mirrors-the-somatic-transition-to-cancer
#14
Zachary D Smith, Jiantao Shi, Hongcang Gu, Julie Donaghey, Kendell Clement, Davide Cacchiarelli, Andreas Gnirke, Franziska Michor, Alexander Meissner
In mammals, the canonical somatic DNA methylation landscape is established upon specification of the embryo proper and subsequently disrupted within many cancer types. However, the underlying mechanisms that direct this genome-scale transformation remain elusive, with no clear model for its systematic acquisition or potential developmental utility. Here, we analysed global remethylation from the mouse preimplantation embryo into the early epiblast and extraembryonic ectoderm. We show that these two states acquire highly divergent genomic distributions with substantial disruption of bimodal, CpG density-dependent methylation in the placental progenitor...
September 28, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951435/anteroposterior-polarity-and-elongation-in-the-absence-of-extraembryonic-tissues-and-spatially-localised-signalling-in-gastruloids-mammalian-embryonic-organoids
#15
D A Turner, M Girgin, L Alonso-Crisostomo, V Trivedi, P Baillie-Johnson, C R Glodowski, P C Hayward, J Collignon, C Gustavsen, P Serup, B Steventon, M Lutolf, Arias A Martinez
The establishment of the anteroposterior (AP) axis is a critical step during animal embryo development. In mammals, genetic studies have shown that this process relies on signals spatiotemporally deployed in the extraembryonic tissues that locate the position of the head and the onset of gastrulation, marked by T/Brachyury (T/Bra) at the posterior of the embryo. Here, we use Gastruloids, mESC-based organoids, as a model system to study this process. We find that Gastruloids localise T/Bra expression to one end and undergo elongation similar to the posterior region of the embryo suggesting that they develop an AP axis...
September 26, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947661/what-makes-the-maternal-x-chromosome-resistant-to-undergoing-imprinted-x-inactivation
#16
REVIEW
Takashi Sado
In the mouse, while either X chromosome is chosen for inactivation in a random fashion in the embryonic tissue, the paternally derived X chromosome is preferentially inactivated in the extraembryonic tissues. It has been shown that the maternal X chromosome is imprinted so as not to undergo inactivation in the extraembryonic tissues. X-linked noncoding Xist RNA becomes upregulated on the X chromosome that is to be inactivated. An antisense noncoding RNA, Tsix, which occurs at the Xist locus and has been shown to negatively regulate Xist expression in cis, is imprinted to be expressed from the maternal X in the extraembryonic tissues...
November 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947537/nuclear-movement-regulated-by-non-smad-nodal-signaling-via-jnk-is-associated-with-smad-signaling-during-zebrafish-endoderm-specification
#17
Shunya Hozumi, Shun Aoki, Yutaka Kikuchi
Although asymmetric nuclear positioning is observed during animal development, the regulation and significance of this nuclear positioning in cell differentiation remains poorly understood. Using zebrafish blastulae, we provide evidence that nuclear movement toward the yolk syncytial layer, which comprises extraembryonic tissue, occurs in the first endoderm specified cells during endoderm specification. Nodal signaling is essential for nuclear movement, whereas nuclear envelope proteins are involved in the movement through the microtubule formation...
September 25, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935707/the-eutheria-specific-mir-290-cluster-modulates-placental-growth-and-maternal-fetal-transport
#18
Alireza Paikari, Cassandra D Belair, Daniel Saw, Robert Blelloch
The vertebrate-specific ESCC microRNA family arises from two genetic loci in mammals: miR-290/miR-371 and miR-302. The miR-302 locus is found broadly among vertebrates, whereas the miR-290/miR-371 locus is unique to eutheria, suggesting a role in placental development. Here, we evaluate that role. A knock-in reporter for the mouse miR-290 cluster is expressed throughout the embryo until gastrulation, when it becomes specifically expressed in extraembryonic tissues and the germline. In the placenta, expression is limited to the trophoblast lineage, where it remains highly expressed until birth...
October 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935706/suppression-of-erk-signalling-abolishes-primitive-endoderm-formation-but-does-not-promote-pluripotency-in-rabbit-embryo
#19
Anna Piliszek, Zofia E Madeja, Berenika Plusa
Formation of epiblast (EPI) - the founder line of all embryonic lineages - and extra-embryonic supportive tissues is one of the key events in mammalian development. The prevailing model of early mammalian development is based almost exclusively on the mouse. Here, we provide a comprehensive, stage-by-stage analysis of EPI and extra-embryonic primitive endoderm (PrE) formation during preimplantation development of the rabbit. Although we observed that rabbit embryos have several features in common with mouse embryos, including a stage-related initiation of lineage specification, our results demonstrate the existence of some key differences in lineage specification among mammals...
October 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920104/variable-phenotypic-penetrance-of-thrombosis-in-adult-mice-after-tissue-selective-and-temporally-controlled-thbd-gene-inactivation
#20
Thijs E van Mens, Hai-Po H Liang, Sreemanti Basu, Irene Hernandez, Mark Zogg, Jennifer May, Min Zhan, Qiuhui Yang, Jamie Foeckler, Shawn Kalloway, Rashmi Sood, Caren Sue Karlson, Hartmut Weiler
Thrombomodulin (Thbd) exerts pleiotropic effects on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and complement system activity by facilitating the thrombin-mediated activation of protein C and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and may have additional thrombin- and protein C (pC)-independent functions. In mice, complete Thbd deficiency causes embryonic death due to defective placental development. In this study, we used tissue-selective and temporally controlled Thbd gene ablation to examine the function of Thbd in adult mice...
June 27, 2017: Blood Advances
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