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Immune modulatory agents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079913/intravenous-immunoglobulin-in-the-treatment-of-hematologic-disorders-in-pediatrics
#1
Gabriela Villanueva, Jill L O de Jong, Jennifer L McNeer
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is pooled immunoglobulin G derived from human blood donors. It was introduced in the early 1980s to treat immunodeficiency disorders. Since then, its use has expanded to other fields such as neurology, rheumatology, and hematology. IVIG has been used to provide passive immunity in qualitative and quantitative immunoglobulin disorders, to neutralize antibodies in immune-mediated diseases, and as an immune modulatory agent. The difficulty of producing IVIG in high quantities, in addition to a growing list of "off-label" indications, has resulted in a worldwide shortage and increase in cost...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079912/intravenous-immunoglobulin-in-the-treatment-of-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases
#2
Deirdre De Ranieri, Nana Sarkoah Fenny
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been used as antibody replacement therapy in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) for more than 50 years. Its role as a therapeutic agent has expanded over the past couple of decades as its anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory mechanisms of action have been elucidated. It is now used "off-label" to treat other autoimmune diseases. This article focuses on the role of IVIG in the treatment of PIDDs characterized by absent or deficient antibody production. Replacement doses are given on a monthly basis in these conditions as a prophylactic measure to prevent acute and serious bacterial infections...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045749/histologic-assessment-of-lichenoid-dermatitis-observed-in-patients-with-advanced-malignancies-on-antiprogramed-cell-death-1-anti-pd-1-therapy-with-or-without-ipilimumab
#3
Shaun Chou, Shelley Ji Eun Hwang, Giuliana Carlos, Deepal Wakade, Pablo Fernandez-Penas
Lichenoid drug reaction is a common adverse reaction in patients taking immune-modulatory agents such as antiprogramed cell death (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 agents. The authors describe the clinical and histologic features of lichenoid drug reaction in 20 biopsies from 15 patients on anti-PD-1 agents and 9 biopsies from 7 patients on anti-PD-1 plus ipilimumab therapy. Clinically, all except 2 patients presented with discrete, violaceous exanthematous papules to plaques. The lichenoid inflammation in the majority (18 of 29 biopsies) was florid although histology was quite heterogeneous...
January 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929422/co-administration-of-lipid-nanoparticles-and-sub-unit-vaccine-antigens-is-required-for-increase-in-antigen-specific-immune-responses-in-mice
#4
Elizabeth A Thoryk, Gokul Swaminathan, Steven Meschino, Kara S Cox, Marian Gindy, Danilo R Casimiro, Andrew J Bett
A vast body of evidence suggests that nanoparticles function as potent immune-modulatory agents. We have previously shown that Merck proprietary Lipid NanoParticles (LNPs) markedly boost B-cell and T-cell responses to sub-unit vaccine antigens in mice. To further evaluate the specifics of vaccine delivery and dosing regimens in vivo, we performed immunogenicity studies in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice using two model antigens, Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) and Ovalbumin (OVA), respectively. To assess the requirement for co-administration of antigen and LNP for the elicitation of immune responses, we evaluated immune responses after administering antigen and LNP to separate limbs, or administering antigen and LNP to the same limb but separated by 24 h...
December 6, 2016: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917363/future-therapy-for-hepatitis-b-virus-role-of-immunomodulators
#5
REVIEW
Edward A Pham, Ryan B Perumpail, Benjamin J Fram, Jeffrey S Glenn, Aijaz Ahmed, Robert G Gish
Although currently available therapies for chronic hepatitis B virus infection can suppress viremia and provide long-term benefits for patients, they do not lead to a functional cure for most patients. Advances in our understanding of the virus-host interaction and the recent remarkable success of immunotherapy in cancer offer new and promising strategies for developing immune modulators that may become important components of a total therapeutic approach to hepatitis B, some of which are now in clinical development...
2016: Current Hepatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863194/pomalidomide-for-symptomatic-kaposi-s-sarcoma-in-people-with-and-without-hiv-infection-a-phase-i-ii-study
#6
Mark N Polizzotto, Thomas S Uldrick, Kathleen M Wyvill, Karen Aleman, Cody J Peer, Margaret Bevans, Irini Sereti, Frank Maldarelli, Denise Whitby, Vickie Marshall, Priscila H Goncalves, Vikram Khetani, William D Figg, Seth M Steinberg, Jerome B Zeldis, Robert Yarchoan
Purpose Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multicentric tumor caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Unmet needs include therapies that are oral, anthracycline sparing, and deliverable in resource-limited settings. We evaluated pomalidomide, an oral immune modulatory agent, in patients with symptomatic KS. Methods The primary objectives were to assess tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and activity. Initial dosage level was 5 mg once per day for 21 days per 28-day cycle, with a de-escalated level of 3 mg if not tolerable, and aspirin 81 mg once per day thromboprophylaxis...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854198/investigation-of-the-cytotoxicity-antioxidative-and-immune-modulatory-effects-of-ligusticum-porteri-osha-root-extract-on-human-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes
#7
Khanh Nguyen, Jean Sparks, Felix O Omoruyi
OBJECTIVE: Ligusticum porteri is a traditional Native American herb. The roots of L. porteri are traditionally used in the treatment of many diseases, however, its cytotoxicity, antioxidative and immune-modulatory effects need to be investigated. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the root extract at different doses on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). METHODS: The lymphocytes were incubated with different concentrations of the root extracts (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/mL) and harvested every 6 h for 2 d (P<0...
November 2016: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802061/the-importance-of-correctly-timing-cancer-immunotherapy
#8
Elham Beyranvand Nejad, Marij J P Welters, Ramon Arens, Sjoerd H van der Burg
The treatment options for cancer-surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy-are now supplemented with immunotherapy. Previously underappreciated but now gaining strong interest are the immune modulatory properties of the three conventional modalities. Moreover, there is a better understanding of the needs and potential of the different immune therapeutic platforms. Key to improved treatment will be the combinations of modalities that complete each other's shortcomings. Area covered: Tumor-specific T-cells are required for optimal immunotherapy...
January 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782338/the-versatile-functions-of-complement-c3-derived-ligands
#9
REVIEW
Anna Erdei, Noémi Sándor, Bernadett Mácsik-Valent, Szilvia Lukácsi, Mariann Kremlitzka, Zsuzsa Bajtay
The complement system is a major component of immune defense. Activation of the complement cascade by foreign substances and altered self-structures may lead to the elimination of the activating agent, and during the enzymatic cascade, several biologically active fragments are generated. Most immune regulatory effects of complement are mediated by the activation products of C3, the central component. The indispensable role of C3 in opsonic phagocytosis as well as in the regulation of humoral immune response is known for long, while the involvement of complement in T-cell biology have been revealed in the past few years...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708419/suppression-of-the-cd8-t-cell-response-by-human-papillomavirus-type-16-e7-occurs-in-langerhans-cell-depleted-mice
#10
K Jemon, C-M Leong, K Ly, S L Young, A D McLellan, M H Hibma
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an epitheliotropic virus that is the primary causal agent for cervical cancer. Langerhans cells (LC) are skin antigen presenting cells that are reduced in number in HPV-infected skin. The aim of this study was to understand the immune-modulatory effects of HPV16 E7 on LC and on the CD8 T cell response to a skin-expressed antigen. To test this, HPV16 E7 was expressed in mouse skin keratinocytes with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova). Similar to what is observed in HPV-infected human skin, LC numbers were significantly reduced in E7-expressing mouse skin...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679506/quantifying-the-therapeutic-requirements-and-potential-for-combination-therapy-to-prevent-bacterial-coinfection-during-influenza
#11
Amber M Smith
Secondary bacterial infections (SBIs) exacerbate influenza-associated disease and mortality. Antimicrobial agents can reduce the severity of SBIs, but many have limited efficacy or cause adverse effects. Thus, new treatment strategies are needed. Kinetic models describing the infection process can help determine optimal therapeutic targets, the time scale on which a drug will be most effective, and how infection dynamics will change under therapy. To understand how different therapies perturb the dynamics of influenza infection and bacterial coinfection and to quantify the benefit of increasing a drug's efficacy or targeting a different infection process, I analyzed data from mice treated with an antiviral, an antibiotic, or an immune modulatory agent with kinetic models...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579006/milk-derived-bioactive-peptides-and-their-impact-on-human-health-a-review
#12
REVIEW
D P Mohanty, S Mohapatra, S Misra, P S Sahu
Milk-derived bioactive peptides have been identified as potential ingredients of health-promoting functional foods. These bioactive peptides are targeted at diet-related chronic diseases especially the non-communicable diseases viz., obesity, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Peptides derived from the milk of cow, goat, sheep, buffalo and camel exert multifunctional properties, including anti-microbial, immune modulatory, anti-oxidant, inhibitory effect on enzymes, anti-thrombotic, and antagonistic activities against various toxic agents...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555846/modulation-of-alloimmunity-by-heat-shock-proteins
#13
REVIEW
Thiago J Borges, Benjamin J Lang, Rafael L Lopes, Cristina Bonorino
The immunological mechanisms that evolved for host defense against pathogens and injury are also responsible for transplant rejection. Host rejection of foreign tissue was originally thought to be mediated mainly by T cell recognition of foreign MHC alleles. Management of solid organ transplant rejection has thus focused mainly on inhibition of T cell function and matching MHC alleles between donor and host. Recently, however, it has been demonstrated that the magnitude of the initial innate immune responses upon transplantation has a decisive impact on rejection...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490409/impact-of-immune-modulatory-drugs-on-regulatory-t-cell
#14
Akiko Furukawa, Steven A Wisel, Qizhi Tang
Immunosuppression strategies that selectively inhibit effector T cells while preserving and even enhancing CD4FOXP3 regulatory T cells (Treg) permit immune self-regulation and may allow minimization of immunosuppression and associated toxicities. Many immunosuppressive drugs were developed before the identity and function of Treg were appreciated. A good understanding of the interactions between Treg and immunosuppressive agents will be valuable to the effective design of more tolerable immunosuppression regimens...
November 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460490/inhibitory-effect-of-the-extract-of-phellodendron-amurense-ruprecht-root-on-collagen-induced-arthritis-in-mice
#15
Hyo Won Jung, Kyung-Ho Kim, Yong-Ki Park
OBJECTIVE: To investigated whether the dried root of Phellodendron amurense Ruprecht (Phellodendri cortex; PC) extract improves arthritic symptoms through anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effects in collagen-induced arthritis in mice. METHODS: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was induced in male DBA/1 mice by immunization with type II collagen (ColII). CIA mice were divided into 5 groups (n=10 per a group) with normal, CIA control, PC extract (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg)-treated, and meloxicam (50 mg/kg)-treated as the reference drug...
July 26, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456662/triple-negative-breast-cancer-a-tale-of-two-decades
#16
Arwa Mohammed Ali, Jawaher Ali Ansari, Nashwa Mohammed AbdelAziz, Waleed Aabozeed, Ahmed Warith, Khalid Alsaleh, Jean-Marc Nabholtz
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease entity constituting about 15% of breast cancer cases worldwide. TNBC is associated with poor prognosis and lack of sustained response to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Tumoral heterogeneity and the presence of several subtypes of TNBC such as Basal like (BL)-1, BL-2, immune-modulatory, luminal androgen receptor, mesenchymal, and mesenchymal/stem like subtype and claudin low subtype, may explain some of the difficulties faced in managing this challenging disease subgroup...
July 25, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452645/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-as-multifunctional-cellular-therapeutics-a-potential-role-for-extracellular-vesicles
#17
REVIEW
Jillian Stephen, Elena Lopez Bravo, David Colligan, Alasdair R Fraser, Juraj Petrik, John D M Campbell
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), multipotent cells present in tissues throughout the body, can reconstitute adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic tissues, but are also of great interest as mediators of immune modulation and suppression. MSCs are able to improve transplant engraftment, treat graft versus host disease and suppress T cell responses and therefore have great potential as therapeutic agents. Their immune modulatory capacity is mediated through both cell-to-cell contact and cytokine secretion, but it is becoming clear that extracellular vesicles (EV) produced by MSC also possess immunomodulatory properties...
August 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451032/development-of-a-flow-cytometry-based-potency-assay-for-measuring-the-in-vitro-immunomodulatory-properties-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#18
Andreia Ribeiro, Thomas Ritter, Matthew Griffin, Rhodri Ceredig
Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) have well-documented modulatory effects on multiple immune cell types. Although these effects are linked to their therapeutic benefit in diverse diseases, a reliable, quantitative assay of the immunomodulatory potency of individual human MSC preparations is lacking. The aims of this study were to develop an optimised rapid turnaround, flow cytometry-based whole-blood assay to monitor MSC potency and to validate its application to MSC immunomodulation...
September 2016: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411325/mimics-of-host-defense-proteins-strategies-for-translation-to-therapeutic-applications
#19
Richard W Scott, Gregory N Tew
New infection treatments are urgently needed to combat the rising threat of multi-drug resistant bacteria. Despite early clinical set-backs attention has re-focused on host defense proteins (HDPs), as potential sources for new and effective antimicrobial treatments. HDPs appear to act at multiple targets and their repertoire includes disruptive membrane and intracellular activities against numerous types of pathogens as well as immune modulatory functions in the host. Importantly, these novel activities are associated with a low potential for emergence of resistance and little cross-resistance with other antimicrobial agents...
July 13, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382195/apolipoprotein-a-i-a-molecule-of-diverse-function
#20
REVIEW
Manaswini Mangaraj, Rachita Nanda, Suchismita Panda
Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) an indispensable component and a major structural protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), plays a vital role in reverse cholesterol transport and cellular cholesterol homeostasis since its identification. Its multifunctional role in immunity, inflammation, apoptosis, viral, bacterial infection etc. has crossed its boundary of its potential of protecting cardiovascular system and lowering cardiovascular disease risk, attributing HDL to be known as a protective fat removal particle...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
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