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Immune modulatory agents

Anna Erdei, Noémi Sándor, Bernadett Mácsik-Valent, Szilvia Lukácsi, Mariann Kremlitzka, Zsuzsa Bajtay
The complement system is a major component of immune defense. Activation of the complement cascade by foreign substances and altered self-structures may lead to the elimination of the activating agent, and during the enzymatic cascade, several biologically active fragments are generated. Most immune regulatory effects of complement are mediated by the activation products of C3, the central component. The indispensable role of C3 in opsonic phagocytosis as well as in the regulation of humoral immune response is known for long, while the involvement of complement in T-cell biology have been revealed in the past few years...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
K Jemon, C-M Leong, K Ly, S L Young, A D McLellan, M H Hibma
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an epitheliotropic virus that is the primary causal agent for cervical cancer. Langerhans cells (LC) are skin antigen presenting cells that are reduced in number in HPV-infected skin. The aim of this study was to understand the immune-modulatory effects of HPV16 E7 on LC and on the CD8 T cell response to a skin-expressed antigen. To test this, HPV16 E7 was expressed in mouse skin keratinocytes with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova). Similar to what is observed in HPV-infected human skin, LC numbers were significantly reduced in E7-expressing mouse skin...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Amber M Smith
Secondary bacterial infections (SBIs) exacerbate influenza-associated disease and mortality. Antimicrobial agents can reduce the severity of SBIs, but many have limited efficacy or cause adverse effects. Thus, new treatment strategies are needed. Kinetic models describing the infection process can help determine optimal therapeutic targets, the time scale on which a drug will be most effective, and how infection dynamics will change under therapy. To understand how different therapies perturb the dynamics of influenza infection and bacterial coinfection and to quantify the benefit of increasing a drug's efficacy or targeting a different infection process, I analyzed data from mice treated with an antiviral, an antibiotic, or an immune modulatory agent with kinetic models...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
D P Mohanty, S Mohapatra, S Misra, P S Sahu
Milk-derived bioactive peptides have been identified as potential ingredients of health-promoting functional foods. These bioactive peptides are targeted at diet-related chronic diseases especially the non-communicable diseases viz., obesity, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Peptides derived from the milk of cow, goat, sheep, buffalo and camel exert multifunctional properties, including anti-microbial, immune modulatory, anti-oxidant, inhibitory effect on enzymes, anti-thrombotic, and antagonistic activities against various toxic agents...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Thiago J Borges, Benjamin J Lang, Rafael L Lopes, Cristina Bonorino
The immunological mechanisms that evolved for host defense against pathogens and injury are also responsible for transplant rejection. Host rejection of foreign tissue was originally thought to be mediated mainly by T cell recognition of foreign MHC alleles. Management of solid organ transplant rejection has thus focused mainly on inhibition of T cell function and matching MHC alleles between donor and host. Recently, however, it has been demonstrated that the magnitude of the initial innate immune responses upon transplantation has a decisive impact on rejection...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Akiko Furukawa, Steven A Wisel, Qizhi Tang
Immunosuppression strategies that selectively inhibit effector T cells while preserving and even enhancing CD4FOXP3 regulatory T cells (Treg) permit immune self-regulation and may allow minimization of immunosuppression and associated toxicities. Many immunosuppressive drugs were developed before the identity and function of Treg were appreciated. A good understanding of the interactions between Treg and immunosuppressive agents will be valuable to the effective design of more tolerable immunosuppression regimens...
August 3, 2016: Transplantation
Hyo Won Jung, Kyung-Ho Kim, Yong-Ki Park
OBJECTIVE: To investigated whether the dried root of Phellodendron amurense Ruprecht (Phellodendri cortex; PC) extract improves arthritic symptoms through anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effects in collagen-induced arthritis in mice. METHODS: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was induced in male DBA/1 mice by immunization with type II collagen (ColII). CIA mice were divided into 5 groups (n=10 per a group) with normal, CIA control, PC extract (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg)-treated, and meloxicam (50 mg/kg)-treated as the reference drug...
July 26, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Arwa Mohammed Ali, Jawaher Ali Ansari, Nashwa Mohammed AbdelAziz, Waleed Aabozeed, Ahmed Warith, Khalid Alsaleh, Jean-Marc Nabholtz
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease entity constituting about 15% of breast cancer cases worldwide. TNBC is associated with poor prognosis and lack of sustained response to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Tumoral heterogeneity and the presence of several subtypes of TNBC such as Basal like (BL)-1, BL-2, immune-modulatory, luminal androgen receptor, mesenchymal, and mesenchymal/stem like subtype and claudin low subtype, may explain some of the difficulties faced in managing this challenging disease subgroup...
July 25, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Jillian Stephen, Elena Lopez Bravo, David Colligan, Alasdair R Fraser, Juraj Petrik, John D M Campbell
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), multipotent cells present in tissues throughout the body, can reconstitute adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic tissues, but are also of great interest as mediators of immune modulation and suppression. MSCs are able to improve transplant engraftment, treat graft versus host disease and suppress T cell responses and therefore have great potential as therapeutic agents. Their immune modulatory capacity is mediated through both cell-to-cell contact and cytokine secretion, but it is becoming clear that extracellular vesicles (EV) produced by MSC also possess immunomodulatory properties...
August 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Andreia Ribeiro, Thomas Ritter, Matthew Griffin, Rhodri Ceredig
Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) have well-documented modulatory effects on multiple immune cell types. Although these effects are linked to their therapeutic benefit in diverse diseases, a reliable, quantitative assay of the immunomodulatory potency of individual human MSC preparations is lacking. The aims of this study were to develop an optimised rapid turnaround, flow cytometry-based whole-blood assay to monitor MSC potency and to validate its application to MSC immunomodulation...
September 2016: Immunology Letters
Richard W Scott, Gregory N Tew
New infection treatments are urgently needed to combat the rising threat of multi-drug resistant bacteria. Despite early clinical set-backs attention has re-focused on host defense proteins (HDPs), as potential sources for new and effective antimicrobial treatments. HDPs appear to act at multiple targets and their repertoire includes disruptive membrane and intracellular activities against numerous types of pathogens as well as immune modulatory functions in the host. Importantly, these novel activities are associated with a low potential for emergence of resistance and little cross-resistance with other antimicrobial agents...
July 13, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Manaswini Mangaraj, Rachita Nanda, Suchismita Panda
Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) an indispensable component and a major structural protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), plays a vital role in reverse cholesterol transport and cellular cholesterol homeostasis since its identification. Its multifunctional role in immunity, inflammation, apoptosis, viral, bacterial infection etc. has crossed its boundary of its potential of protecting cardiovascular system and lowering cardiovascular disease risk, attributing HDL to be known as a protective fat removal particle...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Masayuki Maeda, Hisashi Shoji, Tetsuro Shirakura, Takahiro Takuma, Kazuhisa Ugajin, Kunihiko Fukuchi, Yoshihito Niki, Keiko Ishino
It is well known that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) produces many virulence factors, such as hemolysins, leukocidins, proteases, enterotoxins, exfoliative toxins, and immune-modulatory factors. The aim of study was to identify staphylococcal pathogenicity that may affect the prognosis of patients with MRSA bacteremia. We obtained 149 MRSA strains from blood cultures between January 2009 and December 2014 in our institution. We collected information on patient characteristics, laboratory data, staphylococcal toxin genes, and susceptibility of the strain toward anti-MRSA agent and analyzed them as factors contributing to 30-d mortality...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Masataka Kuwana
Current therapeutic strategies for autoimmune diseases primarily rely on immunosuppression, but global immune suppression results in an increased risk for severe infection and malignancy. In contrast, immuomodulation is another therapeutic approach employing intrinsic or environmental regulators that exert modulatory effects by intervening multiple checkpoints of the immune system, leading to correction of dysregulated immune responses. We have learned that immunomodulation by intravenous immunoglobulin is highly efficacious and safe in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), an autoimmune disease mediated by IgG antiplatelet autoantibodies...
April 2016: Seminars in Hematology
P Chedid, T Boussetta, P M-C Dang, S A Belambri, V Marzaioli, M Fasseau, F Walker, A Couvineau, J El-Benna, J-C Marie
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (NOX2) are required for microbial clearance; however, when produced in excess they exacerbate inflammatory response and injure surrounding tissues. NOX2 is a multicomponent enzyme composed of membrane-associated cytochrome b588 and cytosolic components p47(phox), p67(phox), p40(phox), and rac1/2. We investigated whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), an endogenous immune-modulatory peptide, could affect ROS production by NOX2 in primary human phagocytes...
June 8, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Anna S Berghoff, Vyshak A Venur, Matthias Preusser, Manmeet S Ahluwalia
Cancer immunotherapy has been a subject of intense research over the last several years, leading to new approaches for modulation of the immune system to treat malignancies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-CLTA-4 antibodies and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies) potentiate the host's own antitumor immune response. These immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown impressive clinical efficacy in advanced melanoma, metastatic kidney cancer, and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-all malignancies that frequently cause brain metastases...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Bartosz Miziołek, Beata Bergler-Czop, Anna Stańkowska, Ligia Brzezińska-Wcisło
Oral isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoinc acid) is a derivative of vitamin A and belongs to the first generation of retinoids, which act as synthetic isomers of retinoic acid (RA). It is a very effective agent in a treatment of acne vulgaris; however, multiple side effects related to therapy with retinoids preclude the use of isotretinoin in less severe acne vulgaris. A significant limitation for the administration of isotretinoin appears in case of concomitant kidney disease with a special attention regarding the safety of the agent in patients with lupus nephritis (LN)...
May 10, 2016: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Cristina E Gallegos, Severino Michelin, Diana Dubner, Edgardo D Carosella
Radiotherapy has been employed for the treatment of oncological patients for nearly a century, and together with surgery and chemotherapy, radiation oncology constitutes one of the three pillars of cancer therapy. Ionizing radiation has complex effects on neoplastic cells and on tumor microenvironment: beyond its action as a direct cytotoxic agent, tumor irradiation triggers a series of alterations in tumoral cells, which includes the de novo synthesis of particular proteins and the up/down-regulation of cell surface molecules...
May 2016: Cellular Immunology
Maryam Mousavinezhad-Moghaddam, Abbas Ali Amin, Houshang Rafatpanah, Seyed Abdol Rahim Rezaee
The physiologic function of the immune system is defense against infectious microbes and internal tumour cells, Therefore, need to have precise modulatory mechanisms to maintain the body homeostasis. The mammalian cellular CD200 (OX2)/CD200R interaction is one of such modulatory mechanisms in which myeloid and lymphoid cells are regulated. CD200 and CD200R molecules are membrane proteins that their immunomodulatory effects are able to suppress inflammatory responses, particularly in the privilege sites such as CNS and eyes...
January 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Paula García-Teijido, María Luque Cabal, Ignacio Peláez Fernández, Yolanda Fernández Pérez
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly heterogeneous tumor. There is increasing evidence of the role of tumor lymphocytic immune infiltrates in this subtype of breast cancer. Robust levels of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been associated with improved disease-free and overall survival rates in TNBC patients with and without any treatment. Recent efforts have been made to develop a standardized methodology for evaluating TILs. The presence of TILs in the breast tumor microenvironment can also predict responses not only to neoadjuvant but also to adjuvant chemotherapy treatments...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
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