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Thromboelastography ECMO

Jeffrey B Riley, Gregory J Schears, Gregory A Nuttall, William C Oliver, Mark H Ereth, Joseph A Dearani
Excessive bleeding and allogeneic transfusion during adult post-cardiotomy venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are potentially harmful and expensive. Balancing the inhibition of clotting and distinguishing surgical from non-surgical bleeding in post-operative period is difficult. The sensitivity of coagulation tests including Thromboelastography(®) (TEG) to predict chest tube drainage in the early hours of ECMO was examined with the use of receiver-operating characteristics (ROC). The results are useful to incorporate in clinical evidence-based algorithms to guide management decisions...
June 2016: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Filippo Sanfilippo, Sven Asmussen, Dirk M Maybauer, Cristina Santonocito, John F Fraser, Gabor Erdoes, Marc O Maybauer
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) offers therapeutic options in refractory respiratory and/or cardiac failure. Systemic anticoagulation with heparin is routinely administered. However, in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia or heparin resistance, the direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin is a valid option and has been increasingly used for ECMO anticoagulation. We aimed at evaluating its safety and its optimal dosing for ECMO. METHODS: Systematic web-based literature search of PubMed and EMBASE performed via National Health Service Library Evidence and manually, updated until January 30, 2016...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Marco Ranucci, Ekaterina Baryshnikova, Mauro Cotza, Giovanni Carboni, Giuseppe Isgrò, Concetta Carlucci, Andrea Ballotta
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the association of the coagulation point-of-care (POC) tests activated clotting time (ACT) and thromboelastography-derived parameters reaction time (R-time) and maximum amplitude (MA) with the standard coagulation tests during postcardiotomy extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), finding adequate values predictive for the target range of the standard coagulation tests. METHODS: Thirty-one patients undergoing postcardiotomy ECMO with heparin anticoagulation were analyzed...
August 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Mauro Panigada, Andrea Artoni, Serena M Passamonti, Alberto Maino, Cristina Mietto, Camilla L'Acqua, Massimo Cressoni, Massimo Boscolo, Armando Tripodi, Paolo Bucciarelli, Luciano Gattinoni, Ida Martinelli
BACKGROUND: We investigated the coagulation system in patients during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) initiated for respiratory failure and the influence of the ECMO circuit on coagulation tests; we compared different coagulation tests for monitoring unfractionated heparin (UH) therapy; we investigated whether or not coagulation parameters were predictive of bleeding during ECMO. METHODS: Pilot study on twelve consecutive adult patients admitted at our general ICU for acute respiratory failure and placed on ECMO from November 2011 to October 2012...
February 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Graeme MacLaren, Paul Monagle
A heparin-like effect was recently described in infants, children, and adults receiving bivalirudin while supported on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation following cardiopulmonary bypass. This is most likely due to endogenous release of glycosaminoglycans from vascular endothelium and mast cells and is associated with longer duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and an increased incidence of sepsis. Further investigation into this effect should include patients without recent cardiopulmonary bypass, exclude the presence of covalent antithrombin-heparin complexes, and employ a variety of different heparinases for thromboelastography...
2014: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Michael S Northrop, Robert F Sidonio, Sharon E Phillips, Andrew H Smith, Hardison C Daphne, John B Pietsch, Brian C Bridges
OBJECTIVES: To determine if a comprehensive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation anticoagulation monitoring protocol results in fewer hemorrhagic complications, reduced blood product usage, and increased circuit life. DESIGN: In September 2011, we augmented our standard extracorporeal membrane oxygenation laboratory protocol to include anti-factor Xa assays, thromboelastography, and antithrombin measurements. We performed a retrospective chart review to determine outcomes for patients placed on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation prior to and after the initiation of our anticoagulation laboratory protocol...
January 2015: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Marco Ranucci, Ekaterina Baryshnikova, Giuseppe Isgrò, Concetta Carlucci, Mauro Cotza, Giovanni Carboni, Andrea Ballotta
INTRODUCTION: Unfractionated heparin (UFH) is the anticoagulant of choice for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), but bivalirudin can be used as an alternative. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the existence of a heparin-like effect (HLE) during heparin-free ECMO. METHODS: This is a retrospective study on patients treated with ECMO and receiving bivalirudin as the sole anticoagulant. Thromboelastography (TEG) tests with and without heparinase were recorded during the ECMO duration...
2014: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Venkat Shankarraman, Ergin Kocyildirim, Salim E Olia, Marina V Kameneva, Ryan J Dzadony, Timothy M Maul, Marc A Simon, Hunter C Champion, William R Wagner, Christian A Bermudez
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is rarely used in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) as a bridge to lung transplantation. In this study, we assess the blood biocompatibility of the integrated CentriMag-Novalung ECMO system (venoarterial) in an acute model of PH. Severe PH (≥2/3 systemic) was induced in eight sheep through progressive ligation of the main pulmonary artery. System performance, platelet activation, thromboelastography (TEG) parameters, fibrinogen, plasma-free hemoglobin, and total plasma protein were measured at initiation, 3, and 6 hr of support in the ECMO (N = 4) and sham (N = 4) groups...
July 2014: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Elizabeth A Gilman, Christopher D Koch, Paula J Santrach, Gregory J Schears, Brad S Karon
OBJECTIVES: To compare thromboelastography (TEG) tracings obtained from fresh and citrated whole-blood samples in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or after cardiopulmonary bypass and in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Samples of fresh and citrated whole blood were analyzed for 25 patients and 4 healthy volunteers. Thromboelastography analysis was performed in both plain and heparinase cups. RESULTS: In 5 of 6 patients on ECMO, use of citrated samples resulted in apparent partial or complete heparin reversal...
August 2013: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Melania M Bembea, Gail Annich, Peter Rycus, Gary Oldenburg, Ivor Berkowitz, Peter Pronovost
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine current practices of anticoagulation in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. DESIGN: Internet-based cross-sectional survey distributed between November 2010 and May 2011. SETTING: Extracorporeal Life Support Organization-registered extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers internationally. PARTICIPANTS: : Extracorporeal membrane oxy genation medical directors and coordinators...
February 2013: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Marco Ranucci, Andrea Ballotta, Hassan Kandil, Giuseppe Isgrò, Concetta Carlucci, Ekaterina Baryshnikova, Valeria Pistuddi
INTRODUCTION: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) after cardiac operations (postcardiotomy) is commonly used for the treatment of acute heart failure refractory to drug treatment. Bleeding and thromboembolic events are the most common complications of postcardiotomy ECMO. The present study is a retrospective comparison of the conventional heparin-based anticoagulation protocol with a bivalirudin-based, heparin-free protocol. Endpoints of this study are blood loss, allogeneic blood product use, and costs during the ECMO procedure...
2011: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Anthony G Shackelford, Ashley B Hodge, Kenneth D Chavin, Prabhakar K Baliga
Orthotopic liver transplantations (OLT) have been associated with significant blood loss and hemodilution, necessitating significant homologous blood component replacement. Increasing administration of homologous blood products has been found to be inversely related to patient and graft survival. Various methods to reduce the amount of blood products patients receive during OLT, such as antifibrinolytic therapy, thromboelastography-guided transfusion, phlebotomy, reduced central venous pressures intraoperatively, and the use of the veno-venous bypass (VVB) circuit, have been explored...
June 2011: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Ozlem Bilen, Laura Loftis, Jun Teruya
We aim to present the case of a 5-week-old girl with severe respiratory failure placed on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) that was then switched to veno-arterial ECMO. She required up to 60 units/kg/hr of heparin to keep her heparin level within the target range at .3-.7 units/mL. During the ECMO course, substantial thrombus formation was observed within the venous site of the ECMO cannula, which led to two circuit changes on ECMO day 9 and day 20. On ECMO day 15, she was noticed to have purpuric lesions on her chest and her right hand with no obvious arterial or venous clot detected by Doppler ultrasound...
June 2011: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Serdar Gunaydin, Tamer Sari, Kevin McCusker, Uwe Schonrock, Yaman Zorlutuna
OBJECTIVE: We examined intraoperative microembolic signals (GME), inflammatory response, hemolysis, perioperative regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2)), myocardial protection and desorbed protein amount on oxygenator fibers in high-risk patients undergoing coronary revascularization (CABG) with minimized and conventional cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). METHODS: Over a ten-month period, 40 Euroscore 6+ patients undergoing CABG were prospectively randomized to one of the two perfusion protocols (N=20): Group 1: minimized extracorporeal circuits (Mini-CPB) (ROCsafe MPC, Terumo, Ann Arbor, MI, USA) and Group 2: conventional extracorporeal circuits (CECC) (Capiox SX18, Terumo, USA)...
May 2009: Perfusion
Alice Chen, Jun Teruya
Thromboelastography (TEG) as a method of assessing global hemostatic and fibrinolytic function has existed for more than 60 years. Improvements in TEG technology have led to increased reliability and thus increased usage. The TEG has been used primarily in the settings of liver transplant and cardiac surgery, with proven utility for monitoring hemostatic and fibrinolytic derangements. In recent years, indications for TEG testing have expanded to include managing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy, assessing bleeding of unclear etiology, and assessing hypercoagulable states...
June 2009: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
Christian Etz, Henryk Welp, Markus Rothenburger, Tonny D T Tjan, Frauke Wenzelburger, Christoph Schmidt, Hans H Scheld, Christof Schmid
Improvements in pump technology and the scarcity of donor organs have led to an increased use of mechanical assist devices, but the problem of thromboembolism has still not been solved. We report on our initial experience with sequentially analyzing platelet function in patients provided with the Incor left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and the Excor LVAD system. Thirteen patients 5 to 61 years old with acute or end-stage heart failure were included in a pilot study. Five of the 10 Incor patients underwent LVAD placement under emergency conditions, and 5 were electively scheduled for surgery...
2004: Heart Surgery Forum
Guy Young, Karyn E Yonekawa, Peggy Nakagawa, Diane J Nugent
We investigated the anticoagulant effects of argatroban, a direct thrombin inhibitor, versus heparin in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuits. Three sham circuits were prepared according to our hospital's standard practice and run for six hours simultaneously. Two circuits were anticoagulated with argatroban (one with heparin in the wet prime and one without). One circuit had heparin in the initial prime and was then anticoagulated with heparin. We measured thrombin generation (prothrombin fragment 1+2, D-dimer and thrombin-antithrombin complexes), activated clotting times (ACTs) and partial thromboplastin times (aPTTs), and monitored thrombus formation using thromboelastography...
2004: Perfusion
M Horácek, K Cvachovec
In cardiac surgical patients we investigated the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with a hollow fiber membrane oxygenator on blood clotting measured by thromboelastography (TEG). We found only a minimal change in the strength of blood clot described either by the TEG parameter MA (maximum amplitude) or by the shear modulus G calculated from MA. After CPB there was also a significant tendency towards hypercoagulation as defined by shortened parameters R, K and increased a-angle. After comparison with published data obtained in cardiac surgical patients using a bubble oxygenator we conclude that currently used extracorporeal technology exerts a less negative influence on blood clotting than had been conceived previously...
2002: Physiological Research
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