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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337578/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-in-lead-optimization-i-evaluation-and-adaptation-of-gastroplus-to-predict-bioavailability-of-medchem-series
#1
Pankaj R Daga, Michael B Bolger, Ian S Haworth, Robert Daniel Clark, Eric J Martin
When medicinal chemists need to improve bioavailability (%F) within a chemical series during lead optimization, they synthesize new series members with systematically modified properties mainly by following experience and general rules of thumb. More quantitative models that predict %F of proposed compounds from chemical structure alone have proven elusive. Global empirical %F quantitative structure-property (QSPR) models perform poorly and projects have too little data to train local %F QSPR models. Mechanistic oral absorption and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models simulate the dissolution, absorption, systemic distribution, and clearance of a drug in preclinical species and humans...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337562/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-in-lead-optimization-ii-rational-bioavailability-design-by-global-sensitivity-analysis-to-identify-properties-affecting-bioavailability
#2
Pankaj R Daga, Michael B Bolger, Ian Haworth, Robert Daniel Clark, Eric J Martin
When medicinal chemists need to improve oral bioavailability (%F) during lead optimization, they systematically modify compound properties mainly based on their own experience and general rules of thumb. However, at least a dozen properties can influence %F, and the difficulty of multi-parameter optimization for such complex non-linear processes grows combinatorially with the number of variables. Furthermore, strategies can be in conflict. For example, adding a polar or charged group will generally increase solubility but decrease permeability...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337485/a-novel-thermochromic-liquid-crystal-fabric-design-for-the-early-detection-of-high-risk-foot-complications
#3
Jonathan D. LeSar, Nilin M. Rao, Nicholas M. Williams, Jeffrey P. Pantano, Melissa L. Ricci, Lawrence S. Osher, Vincent J. Hetherington, Jill S. Kawalec
Background: We developed a prototype of a novel thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC)–coated fabric with an extended temperature range and enhanced sensitivity. By incorporating color and pattern recognition into the fabric, rapid determination of the underlying pedal temperature is facilitated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the TLC fabric as a potential diagnostic aid for identifying complications in the high-risk foot. Methods: The hands of 100 individuals were used to compare the mean maximum temperatures indicated by the fabric versus standard thermal camera images...
November 2017: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335931/-indications-for-joint-replacement-knee-arthroplasty
#4
S F Fucentese, C Janig
Current demographic trends with an increasing number of older patients, have led to a rising number of patients with higher demands on performance. Osteoarthritis in younger patients caused by abnormal forms or accidents also pose new challenges for medical professionals in the orthopedic field. As a rule of thumb, all conservative therapeutic possibilities should be exhausted before starting a surgical intervention. The main aims of surgery are to reduce pain, increase mobility and quality of life. In order to qualify for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients must fulfil major and minor criteria; however, after TKA approximately one fifth of patients are not satisfied with the result...
January 15, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334274/an-overview-of-robotic-mechanical-devices-for-post-stroke-thumb-rehabilitation
#5
Marian Suarez-Escobar, Elizabeth Rendon-Velez
PURPOSE: This article aims to clarify the current state-of-the-art of robotic/mechanical devices for post-stroke thumb rehabilitation as well as the anatomical characteristics and motions of the thumb that are crucial for the development of any device that aims to support its motion. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify robotic/mechanical devices for post-stroke thumb rehabilitation. Specific electronic databases and well-defined search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria were used for such purpose...
January 15, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332754/conservative-management-of-thumb-carpometacarpal-osteoarthritis-an-italian-survey-of-current-clinical-practice
#6
Jorge Hugo Villafañe, Kristin Valdes, Virginia O'Brien, Monica Seves, Raquel Cantero-Téllez, Pedro Berjano
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to elucidate expert opinion on the conservative treatment of thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: A 21-item survey to determine the practice patterns of Italian hand therapists who treat arthritis of the CMC joint was developed and distributed through a professional online survey service to assure confidentiality and anonymity. RESULTS: Of the respondents, 80.8% were physical therapists; the remaining 19...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331208/wrist-a-wrist-image-segmentation-toolkit-for-carpal-bone-delineation-from-mri
#7
Brent Foster, Anand A Joshi, Marissa Borgese, Yasser Abdelhafez, Robert D Boutin, Abhijit J Chaudhari
Segmentation of the carpal bones from 3D imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is commonly performed for in vivo analysis of wrist morphology, kinematics, and biomechanics. This crucial task is typically carried out manually and is labor intensive, time consuming, subject to high inter- and intra-observer variability, and may result in topologically incorrect surfaces. We present a method, WRist Image Segmentation Toolkit (WRIST), for 3D semi-automated, rapid segmentation of the carpal bones of the wrist from MRI...
December 28, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326958/performance-and-return-to-sport-after-thumb-ulnar-collateral-ligament-repair-in-major-league-baseball-players
#8
Robert A Jack, Kyle R Sochacki, Bryce Gagliano, David M Lintner, Joshua D Harris, Patrick C McCulloch
Background: Acute ruptures of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the thumb are common injuries in sports. Surgical repair has yielded excellent results and high return-to-sport (RTS) rates in elite athletes. Purpose: To determine (1) the RTS rate in Major League Baseball (MLB) players following thumb UCL repair, (2) postoperative career length and games played per season, (3) pre- and postoperative performance, (4) postoperative performance compared with matched control players, and (5) whether dominant and nondominant hand injuries respond differently...
January 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324829/electrode-placement-on-the-forearm-for-selective-stimulation-of-finger-extension-flexion
#9
Xueliang Bao, Yuxuan Zhou, Yunlong Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Xiaoying Lü, Zhigong Wang
It is still challenging to achieve a complex grasp or fine finger control by using surface functional electrical stimulation (FES), which usually requires a precise electrode configuration under laboratory or clinical settings. The goals of this study are as follows: 1) to study the possibility of selectively activating individual fingers; 2) to investigate whether the current activation threshold and selective range of individual fingers are affected by two factors: changes in the electrode position and forearm rotation (pronation, neutral and supination); and 3) to explore a theoretical model for guidance of the electrode placement used for selective activation of individual fingers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322891/eaton-and-littler-ligament-reconstruction-for-the-painful-first-carpometacarpal-joint-patient-satisfaction
#10
M Schoenaers, I Degreef, L De Smet
The ligamentous reconstruction according to Eaton and Littler (7) was designed to restore the stability of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb. We evaluated the patients' satisfaction after an Eaton and Littler-procedure as well as possible risk factors in the development of thumb basal joint instability. A retrospective chart review and clinical assessment or telephone survey are executed in 33 patients, with a mean follow-up of 7 years. Only 45% of the patients were satisfied. Within the group of clinical assessed patients, there were significant differences in thumb function comparing operated with not operated side...
March 2017: Acta Orthopaedica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320962/replantation-and-revascularization-of-amputated-upper-limb-appendages-outcome-and-predicting-the-factors-influencing-the-success-rates-of-these-procedures-in-a-tertiary-hospital-an-8-year-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#11
Tunku Kamarul, Azura Mansor, Noorzurani Robson, Salim Hh Albusaidi, Abdulrazzaq M Suhaeb, Ely Z Samsudin
PURPOSE: Worldwide advances in microsurgery have made salvaging of amputated hand via replantation and revascularization common procedures. The present study examines the outcome of these procedures in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. METHODS: Patients with hand amputation who underwent replantation or revascularization from 2005 to 2012 were identified and reviewed for patient characteristics, amputation characteristics and survival rates. Successfully treated patients were interviewed to assess the functional outcome using Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (Quick-DASH) questionnaire and Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (MHQ)...
January 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317053/fear-of-movement-modulates-the-feedforward-motor-control-of-the-affected-limb-in-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-crps-a-single-case-study
#12
Michihiro Osumi, Masahiko Sumitani, Yuko Otake, Shu Morioka
Pain-related fear can exacerbate physical disability and pathological pain in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients. We conducted a kinematic analysis of grasping movements with a pediatric patient suffering from CRPS in an upper limb to investigate how pain-related fear affects motor control. Using a three-dimensional measurement system, we recorded the patient's movement while grasping three vertical bars of different diameters (thin, middle, thick) with the affected and intact hands. We analyzed the maximum grasp distance between the thumb and the index finger (MGD), the peak velocity of the grasp movement (PV), and the time required for the finger opening phase (TOP) and closing phase (TCP)...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314775/the-relationship-between-digit-independence-and-digital-sesamoids-in-humans-and-a-proposal-of-a-new-digital-sesamoid-evolutionary-hypothesis
#13
Kaissar Yammine
Digital sesamoids are found in the metapodial-phalangeal joints of most mammals and quadrupedal tetrapods, yet their functional significance is still unclear. During primate evolution, a slight decline in their frequency has been associated with brachiation in gibbons, followed by a quasi-complete absence in orangutans then a slight resurgence occurred in gorillas and chimpanzees. Simultaneously, forearm muscles showed a progressive division in hominoid evolution towards a more "individualistic" musculature yielding more mobility and independence to some fingers...
January 3, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313380/an-on-top-plasty-reconstruction-for-complicated-radial-polydactyly
#14
Brian P Kelley, Carrie Kubiak, Kevin C Chung
BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of radial polydactyly can vary greatly. Careful planning and appreciation of the anatomic subtleties provides alternative surgical options to improve patient outcomes. METHODS: We present a case of a well-formed accessory web space thumb and a hypoplastic primary thumb. RESULTS: Rather than excising the accessory digit, we performed a spare-part, on-top-plasty reconstruction to replace the diminutive distal phalanx of the primary thumb...
January 1, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304044/directing-visual-attention-during-action-observation-modulates-corticospinal-excitability
#15
David J Wright, Greg Wood, Zoe C Franklin, Ben Marshall, Martin Riach, Paul S Holmes
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) research has shown that corticospinal excitability is facilitated during the observation of human movement. However, the relationship between corticospinal excitability and participants' visual attention during action observation is rarely considered. Nineteen participants took part in four conditions: (i) a static hand condition, involving observation of a right hand holding a ball between the thumb and index finger; (ii) a free observation condition, involving observation of the ball being pinched between thumb and index finger; and (iii and iv) finger-focused and ball-focused conditions, involving observation of the same ball pinch action with instructions to focus visual attention on either the index finger or the ball...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301796/bilateral-motor-cortex-control-for-left-thumb-movement-an-incidental-finding-through-functional-mri-fmri
#16
Aida Rashid, Subapriya Suppiah, Fan Kee Hoo, Ruziana Masiran
We report a case of a healthy, right-hand dominant young male who was a volunteer for a pilot run of a functional MRI (fMRI) study. The fMRI was performed with a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner using a finger tapping task-based activity. The subjects were instructed to perform flexion of the right thumb and left thumb consecutively (activation task) and neuronal activation in bilateral primary motor cortex (PMC) were observed during each task. One particular subject demonstrated bilateral PMC activation during the left-thumb movement task, instead of the expected activation of the contralateral PMC alone...
January 4, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287994/exploring-the-existence-of-better-hands-for-manipulation-than-the-human-hand-based-on-hand-proportions
#17
Di Hu, Cai-Hua Xiong, Ming-Jin Liu
Human exhibits the most dexterous manual manipulation among the anthropoids. The sophisticated dexterity of human hand has been linked to its distinctive morphology compared to the nonhuman anthropoids. The human hand is derived from the ancestral hands after longtime evolution. However, there are more possible morphologies that the hands could take during the evolutionary process. It remains unknown whether better hands for manipulation than the human hand exist among these possible hands. To answer the question, the relationship between the manipulative capability and hand morphology need to be investigated in the region of more possible hands...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287769/guidelines-for-the-conduct-of-pharmacological-clinical-trials-in-hand-osteoarthritis-consensus-of-a-working-group-of-the-european-society-on-clinical-and-economic-aspects-of-osteoporosis-osteoarthritis-and-musculoskeletal-diseases-esceo
#18
REVIEW
Jean-Yves L Reginster, Nigel K Arden, Ida K Haugen, Francois Rannou, Etienne Cavalier, Olivier Bruyère, Jaime Branco, Roland Chapurlat, Sabine Collaud Basset, Nasser M Al-Daghri, Elaine M Dennison, Gabriel Herrero-Beaumont, Andrea Laslop, Burkhard F Leeb, Stefania Maggi, Ouafa Mkinsi, Anton S Povzun, Daniel Prieto-Alhambra, Thierry Thomas, Daniel Uebelhart, Nicola Veronese, Cyrus Cooper
OBJECTIVES: To gather expert opinion on the conduct of clinical trials that will facilitate regulatory review and approval of appropriate efficacious pharmacological treatments for hand osteoarthritis (OA), an area of high unmet clinical need. METHODS: The European Society on Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal diseases (ESCEO) organized a working group under the auspices of the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) and the World Health Organization (WHO)...
December 7, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286408/diffuse-reflectance-spectroscopy-getting-the-capillary-refill-test-under-one-s-thumb
#19
Joakim Henricson, Rani Toll John, Chris D Anderson, Daniel Björk Wilhelms
The capillary refill test was introduced in 1947 to help estimate circulatory status in critically ill patients. Guidelines commonly state that refill should occur within 2 s after releasing 5 s of firm pressure (e.g., by the physician's finger) in the normal healthy supine patient. A slower refill time indicates poor skin perfusion, which can be caused by conditions including sepsis, blood loss, hypoperfusion, and hypothermia. Since its introduction, the clinical usefulness of the test has been debated. Advocates point out its feasibility and simplicity and claim that it can indicate changes in vascular status earlier than changes in vital signs such as heart rate...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285773/functional-architecture-of-the-somatosensory-homunculus-detected-by-electrostimulation
#20
Franck-Emmanuel Roux, Imène Djidjeli, Jean-Baptiste Durand
In this prospective electrostimulation study, based on 50 operated patients with no sensory deficit and no brain lesion in the postcentral gyrus, we acquired coordinates in the standard MNI space of the functional areas of the somatosensory homunculus. The 3D brain volume of each patient was normalized to that space to obtain the MNI coordinates of the stimulation site locations. For 647 sites stimulated on Brodmann Area 1 (and 1025 in gyri nearby), 258 positive points for somatosensory response (40%) were found in the postcentral gyrus...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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