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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460044/mri-features-of-primary-hepatic-lymphoma
#1
Stefano Colagrande, Linda Calistri, Giulia Grazzini, Cosimo Nardi, Simone Busoni, Giovanni Morana, Luigi Grazioli
PURPOSE: Our retrospective study sought to describe the spectrum of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) by analyzing its morphological aspects, signal intensity before and after contrast agent (CA) administration, and diffusion-weighted imaging (DwI) with the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 25 patients with pathologically proven PHL who underwent MRI between January 2011 and December 2016...
February 19, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453244/white-matter-change-with-apathy-and-impulsivity-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-syndromes
#2
Claire J Lansdall, Ian T S Coyle-Gilchrist, P Simon Jones, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Alicia Wilcox, Eileen Wehmann, Katrina M Dick, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
OBJECTIVE: To identify the white matter correlates of apathy and impulsivity in the major syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, using diffusion-weighted imaging and data from the PiPPIN (Pick's Disease and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: Prevalence and Incidence) study. We included behavioral and language variants of frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal syndrome, and progressive supranuclear palsy. METHODS: Seventy patients and 30 controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging at 3-tesla after detailed assessment of apathy and impulsivity...
February 16, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423135/altered-reward-system-reactivity-for-personalized-circumscribed-interests-in-autism
#3
Gregor Kohls, Ligia Antezana, Maya G Mosner, Robert T Schultz, Benjamin E Yerys
Background: Neurobiological research in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has paid little attention on brain mechanisms that cause and maintain restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests (RRBIs). Evidence indicates an imbalance in the brain's reward system responsiveness to social and non-social stimuli may contribute to both social deficits and RRBIs. Thus, this study's central aim was to compare brain responsiveness to individual RRBI (i.e., circumscribed interests), with social rewards (i...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418004/spectral-resolution-and-high-flux-capability-tradeoffs-in-cdte-detectors-for-clinical-ct
#4
Scott S Hsieh, Paurakh L Rajbhandary, Norbert J Pelc
PURPOSE: Photon counting detectors using CdTe or CZT substrates are promising candidates for future CT systems but suffer from a number of non-idealities, including charge sharing and pulse pileup. By increasing the pixel size of the detector, the system can improve charge sharing characteristics at the expense of increasing pileup. The purpose of this work is to describe these considerations in the optimization of the detector pixel pitch. METHODS: The transport of x-rays through the CdTe substrate was simulated in a Monte Carlo fashion using GEANT4...
February 8, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382987/vascular-anomalies-of-the-head-and-neck-region
#5
REVIEW
S C Nair
Vascular anomalies of the head and neck region are a complex group of lesions that challenge the head and neck physicians. From the very understanding of the difference between its two distinct forms, hemangiomas and vascular malformations to its management remain confusing. The review of this anomaly attempts at comprehensively understanding the disease. Vascular anomalies are easily diagnosed by their clinical presentation, but choice of imaging and management for this spectrum of lesions is varied. The author attempts to categorize the required imaging for the lesion with suggestions on the management of both hemangiomas and vascular malformations...
March 2018: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361395/hereditary-myopathy-with-early-respiratory-failure-hmerf-still-rare-but-common-enough
#6
REVIEW
Giorgio Tasca, Bjarne Udd
Phenotypic and genetic/allelic heterogeneity is a feature of many neuromuscular disorders, titinopathies being one of them. Hereditary Myopathy with Early Respiratory Failure (HMERF) has been considered an extremely rare disease with definite clinicopathologic hallmarks, and geographically restricted to the Northern European population with one single titin gene defect identified in previous years. The recent availability of massive parallel sequencing techniques, allowing the screening of all coding regions of the genome in undiagnosed patients, together with a growing awareness of the main muscle MRI features of the disease, has led to the discovery of a number of HMERF families and new titin mutations in the last five years...
December 12, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356829/clinical-biomarker-and-molecular-delineations-and-genotype-phenotype-correlations-of-ataxia-with-oculomotor-apraxia-type-1
#7
Mathilde Renaud, Maria-Céu Moreira, Bondo Ben Monga, Diana Rodriguez, Rabab Debs, Perrine Charles, Malika Chaouch, Farida Ferrat, Chloé Laurencin, Laurent Vercueil, Martial Mallaret, Abderrahim M'Zahem, Lamia Ali Pacha, Meriem Tazir, Caroline Tilikete, Elisabeth Ollagnon, François Ochsner, Thierry Kuntzer, Hans H Jung, Jean-Marie Beis, Jean-Claude Netter, Atbin Djamshidian, Mattew Bower, Armand Bottani, Richard Walsh, Sinead Murphy, Thomas Reiley, Éric Bieth, Filip Roelens, Bwee Tien Poll-The, Charles Marques Lourenço, Laura Bannach Jardim, Rachel Straussberg, Pierre Landrieu, Emmanuel Roze, Stéphane Thobois, Jean Pouget, Claire Guissart, Cyril Goizet, Alexandra Dürr, Christine Tranchant, Michel Koenig, Mathieu Anheim
Importance: Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1) is an autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia due to mutations in the aprataxin gene (APTX) that is characterized by early-onset cerebellar ataxia, oculomotor apraxia, axonal motor neuropathy, and eventual decrease of albumin serum levels. Objectives: To improve the clinical, biomarker, and molecular delineation of AOA1 and provide genotype-phenotype correlations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective analysis included the clinical, biological (especially regarding biomarkers of the disease), electrophysiologic, imaging, and molecular data of all patients consecutively diagnosed with AOA1 in a single genetics laboratory from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2014...
January 22, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302798/cone-beam-ct-of-the-musculoskeletal-system-clinical-applications
#8
REVIEW
Magdalena Posadzy, Julie Desimpel, Filip Vanhoenacker
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this pictorial review is to illustrate the use of CBCT in a broad spectrum of musculoskeletal disorders and to compare its diagnostic merit with other imaging modalities, such as conventional radiography (CR), Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. BACKGROUND: Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has been widely used for dental imaging for over two decades. DISCUSSION: Current CBCT equipment allows use for imaging of various musculoskeletal applications...
January 4, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296066/multimodality-imaging-assessment-of-a-caseous-calcification-of-the-mitral-valve-annulus
#9
Imen Hamdi, Chadia Chourabi, Younes Arous, Mehdi Ghommidh, Khalil Houissa, Abdeddayem Haggui, Nadhem Hajlaoui, Dhaker Lahidheb, Nejmeddine Ben Abdallah, Wafa Fehri, Habib Haouala
Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus (CCMA) is a rare echocardiographic finding. It is commonly misdiagnosed as an abscess, tumor or infective vegetation on the mitral valve. Since it is a benign process, differentiating it from malignant intra-cardiac mass is primordial to avoid unnecessary surgery. Various imaging modalities can be complimentary for definitive diagnosis. We present a case of CCMA in a 71-year-old female patient. Her medical history revealed hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia and coronary artery disease...
January 2018: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274502/subtyping-cognitive-profiles-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-a-random-forest-algorithm
#10
E Feczko, N Balba, O Miranda-Dominguez, M Cordova, S L Karalunas, L Irwin, D V Demeter, A P Hill, B H Langhorst, J Grieser Painter, J Van Santen, E J Fombonne, J L Nigg, D A Fair
DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) comprises a set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social communication and interaction and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests, and may both affect and be affected by multiple cognitive mechanisms. This study attempts to identify and characterize cognitive subtypes within the ASD population using a random forest (RF) machine learning classification model. We trained our model on measures from seven tasks that reflect multiple levels of information processing...
December 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231773/molecular-imaging-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Brian Jaeho Hwang, Mona Adel Mohamed, James Robert Brašić
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition with onset in early childhood characterized by marked deficits in interpersonal interactions and communication and by a restricted and repetitive range of interests and activities. This review points out key recent findings utilizing molecular imaging including magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and nuclear neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). MRS indicates an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in high-functioning autism...
December 12, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224969/aberrant-development-of-the-asymmetry-between-hemispheric-brain-white-matter-networks-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Long Wei, Suyu Zhong, Shengdong Nie, Gaolang Gong
Atypical brain asymmetry/lateralization has long been hypothesized for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and this model has been repeatedly supported by various neuroimaging studies. Recently, hemispheric network topologies have been found to be asymmetric, thereby providing a new avenue for investigating brain asymmetries under various conditions. To date, however, how network topological asymmetries are altered in ASD remains largely unexplored. To clarify this, the present study included ASD individuals from the newly released Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange II database (58 right-handed male ASD individuals aged 5 to 26 years and 70 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) individuals)...
December 7, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187481/pre-surgical-multiparametric-assessment-of-breast-lesions-using-3-tesla-magnetic-resonance
#13
Hynek Mirka, Radek Tupy, Andrea Narsanska, Ondrej Hes, Jiri Ferda
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate experience with multiparametric breast imaging on 3-Tesla magnetic resonance (3T-MRI) scanner using a dedicated 18-channel coil compared to histological findings in women after surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 100 women with 105 Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 4 to 6 lesions by mammography who were examined using 3T-MRI and subsequently underwent surgery. MRI included non-contrast T1, T2 and T2 short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences, diffusion-weighted imaging with apparent diffusion coeficient maps, postcontrast dynamic study and single-voxel MRI spectroscopy...
December 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167504/tunable-plasmonic-substrates-with-ultrahigh-q-factor-resonances
#14
Hamid T Chorsi, Youngkyu Lee, Andrea Alù, John X J Zhang
Precisely tailored plasmonic substrates can provide a platform for a variety of enhanced plasmonic applications in sensing and imaging. Despite the significant advances made in plasmonics, most plasmonic devices suffer critically from intrinsic absorption losses at optical frequencies, fatally restricting their efficiency. Here, we describe and engineer plasmonic substrates based on metal-insulator-metal (MIM) plasmon resonances with ultra-sharp optical transmission responses. Due to their sharp transmission spectrum, the proposed substrates can be utilized for high quality (Q)-factor multi-functional plasmonic applications...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130567/treatment-strategies-in-coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-a-systematic-review-of-interventional-studies
#15
Hannah E Suhrs, Marie M Michelsen, Eva Prescott
Coronary microvascular dysfunction has been associated with a wide spectrum of diseases and conditions, and it has proven to be a strong prognostic marker of morbidity and mortality. Despite increased attention guideline-based treatment recommendations are lacking. We performed a systematic review of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to improve coronary perfusion, assessed by intracoronary Doppler, transthoracic Doppler echocardiography, positron emission tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, transthoracic contrast perfusion echocardiography and dilution techniques...
November 11, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126704/decreased-neurite-density-within-frontostriatal-networks-is-associated-with-executive-dysfunction-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#16
Anny Reyes, Vedang S Uttarwar, Yu-Hsuan A Chang, Akshara R Balachandra, Chris J Pung, Donald J Hagler, Briana M Paul, Carrie R McDonald
OBJECTIVE: Executive dysfunction is observed in a sizable number of patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The frontostriatal network has been proposed to play a significant role in executive functioning, however, because of the complex architecture of these tracts, it is difficult to generate measures of fiber tract microstructure using standard diffusion tensor imaging. To examine the association between frontostriatal network compromise and executive dysfunction in TLE, we applied an advanced, multishell diffusion model, restriction spectrum imaging (RSI), that isolates measures of intraaxonal diffusion and may provide better estimates of fiber tract compromise in TLE...
November 8, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109825/manipulations-of-wavefront-propagation-useful-methods-and-applications-for-interferometric-measurements-and-scanning
#17
Avi Karsenty, Eitan Novoselski, Ariel Yifrach, Emmanuel Lanzmann, Yoel Arieli
Phase measurements obtained by high-coherence interferometry are restricted by the 2π ambiguity, to height differences smaller than λ/2. A further restriction in most interferometric systems is for focusing the system on the measured object. We present two methods that overcome these restrictions. In the first method, different segments of a measured wavefront are digitally propagated and focused locally after measurement. The divergent distances, by which the diverse segments of the wavefront are propagated in order to achieve a focused image, provide enough information so as to resolve the 2π ambiguity...
2017: Scanning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080396/neurobiological-support-to-the-diagnosis-of-adhd-in-stimulant-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-pattern-recognition-analyses-of-mri-data
#18
T M Chaim-Avancini, J Doshi, M V Zanetti, G Erus, M A Silva, F L S Duran, M Cavallet, M H Serpa, S C Caetano, M R Louza, C Davatzikos, G F Busatto
OBJECTIVE: In adulthood, the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been subject of recent controversy. We searched for a neuroanatomical signature associated with ADHD spectrum symptoms in adults by applying, for the first time, machine learning-based pattern classification methods to structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data obtained from stimulant-naïve adults with childhood-onset ADHD and healthy controls (HC). METHOD: Sixty-seven ADHD patients and 66 HC underwent high-resolution T1-weighted and DTI acquisitions...
October 28, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053874/tau-pathology-and-neurodegeneration-contribute-to-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Alexandre Bejanin, Daniel R Schonhaut, Renaud La Joie, Joel H Kramer, Suzanne L Baker, Natasha Sosa, Nagehan Ayakta, Averill Cantwell, Mustafa Janabi, Mariella Lauriola, James P O'Neil, Maria L Gorno-Tempini, Zachary A Miller, Howard J Rosen, Bruce L Miller, William J Jagust, Gil D Rabinovici
Neuropathological and in vivo studies have revealed a tight relationship between tau pathology and cognitive impairment across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum. However, tau pathology is also intimately associated with neurodegeneration and amyloid pathology. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether grey matter atrophy and amyloid pathology contribute to the relationship between tau pathology, as measured with 18F-AV-1451-PET imaging, and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. We included 40 amyloid-positive patients meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (n = 5) or probable Alzheimer's disease dementia (n = 35)...
December 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044691/the-role-of-magnetization-transfer-in-the-observed-contrast-in-t1-weighted-imaging-under-clinical-setups
#20
U Eliav, G Navon
In T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging of brain and spinal cord in the clinical setting, the white matter (WM) appears with greater intensity than the gray matter (GM). This contrast has been assigned to differences in T1 values. In these experiments the RF pulses are too long to excite both the water and the species with restricted motion of the protons (SRMP). In in vitro studies using short RF pulses, the contrast is reversed, with greater intensity for the GM. These results raise the question of whether magnetization transfer (MT) plays a role in the contrast observed in the T1 weighting experiments...
October 18, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
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