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Restriction spectrum imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144091/clinicopathological-profile-of-gastrointestinal-lymphomas-in-kashmir
#1
Mehnaaz Sultan Khuroo, Summyia Farooq Khwaja, Ajaz Rather, Zhahid Hassan, Ruby Reshi, Naira Sultan Khuroo
BACKGROUND: The histological categorization of lymphoma has been a source of controversy for many years for both clinicians and pathologists. Clinicopathologic information of gastrointestinal lymphomas in Indian subcontinent is lacking. We studied histopathological spectrum of Primary Gastrointestinal Lymphomas (PGIL) and attempted to classify the G.I. lymphomas based on the recent WHO classification in to major histological types and immunological categories. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was done to evaluate the clinicopathological pattern of 100 cases with a histopathological diagnosis of primary gastrointestinal lymphoma at a tertiary care hospital...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113441/mapping-generative-models-onto-a-network-of-digital-spiking-neurons
#2
Bruno U Pedroni, Srinjoy Das, John V Arthur, Paul A Merolla, Bryan L Jackson, Dharmendra S Modha, Kenneth Kreutz-Delgado, Gert Cauwenberghs
Stochastic neural networks such as Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) have been successfully used in applications ranging from speech recognition to image classification, and are particularly interesting because of their potential for generative tasks. Inference and learning in these algorithms use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure called Gibbs sampling, where a logistic function forms the kernel of this sampler. On the other side of the spectrum, neuromorphic systems have shown great promise for low-power and parallelized cognitive computing, but lack well-suited applications and automation procedures...
May 18, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009104/deep-gray-matter-atrophy-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-and-multiple-sclerosis
#3
J-W Hyun, G Park, K Kwak, H-J Jo, A Joung, J-H Kim, S H Lee, S Kim, J-M Lee, S-H Kim, H J Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated changes in deep gray matter (DGM) volume and its relationship to cognition and clinical factors in a large cohort of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and compared them with results from multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Brain magnetic resonance imaging (3 Tesla) and clinical data from 91 patients with NMOSD, 52 patients with MS and 44 healthy controls (HCs) were prospectively evaluated. Differences in DGM volumes were compared among groups...
February 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939712/a-review-of-methods-for-analysing-insect-structures-the-role-of-morphology-in-the-age-of-phylogenomics
#4
REVIEW
Benjamin Wipfler, Hans Pohl, Margarita I Yavorskaya, Rolf G Beutel
Techniques currently used in insect morphology are outlined briefly. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microphotography are used mainly for documenting external features, the former providing more information on tiny surface structures and the latter on coloration, transparency and degree of sclerotization. A broad spectrum of methods is now available for anatomical studies: histological serial sections, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM), serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM), dual beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), and μ-computed tomography (micro-CT)...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929085/multi-dimensional-super-resolution-imaging-enables-surface-hydrophobicity-mapping
#5
Marie N Bongiovanni, Julien Godet, Mathew H Horrocks, Laura Tosatto, Alexander R Carr, David C Wirthensohn, Rohan T Ranasinghe, Ji-Eun Lee, Aleks Ponjavic, Joelle V Fritz, Christopher M Dobson, David Klenerman, Steven F Lee
Super-resolution microscopy allows biological systems to be studied at the nanoscale, but has been restricted to providing only positional information. Here, we show that it is possible to perform multi-dimensional super-resolution imaging to determine both the position and the environmental properties of single-molecule fluorescent emitters. The method presented here exploits the solvatochromic and fluorogenic properties of nile red to extract both the emission spectrum and the position of each dye molecule simultaneously enabling mapping of the hydrophobicity of biological structures...
December 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853988/antenatal-manifestations-of-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-prenatal-imaging-findings
#6
Laurent Guibaud, Sophie Collardeau-Frachon, Audrey Lacalm, Mona Massoud, Massimiliano Rossi, Marie Pierre Cordier, Christine Vianey-Saban
Prenatal manifestations of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are related to severe disorders involving metabolic pathways active in the fetal period and not compensated by maternal or placental metabolism. Some prenatal imaging findings can be suggestive of such conditions-especially in cases of consanguinity and/or recurrence of symptoms-after exclusion of the most frequent nonmetabolic etiologies. Most of these prenatal imaging findings are nonspecific. They include mainly ascites and hydrops fetalis, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), central nervous system (CNS) anomalies, echogenic kidneys, epiphyseal stippling, craniosynostosis, and a wide spectrum of dysostoses...
January 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735051/restriction-spectrum-imaging-reveals-decreased-neurite-density-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Richard Q Loi, Kelly M Leyden, Akshara Balachandra, Vedang Uttarwar, Donald J Hagler, Brianna M Paul, Anders M Dale, Nathan S White, Carrie R McDonald
OBJECTIVE: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become a popular tool for delineating the location and extent of white matter injury in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, DTI yields nonspecific measures that are confounded by changes occurring within both the intracellular and extracellular environments. This study investigated whether an advanced diffusion method, restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) could provide a more robust measure of white matter injury in TLE relative to DTI due to RSI's ability to separate intraaxonal diffusion (i...
November 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727243/alterations-in-the-functional-neural-circuitry-supporting-flexible-choice-behavior-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#8
A-M D'Cruz, M W Mosconi, M E Ragozzino, E H Cook, J A Sweeney
Restricted and repetitive behaviors, and a pronounced preference for behavioral and environmental consistency, are distinctive characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Alterations in frontostriatal circuitry that supports flexible behavior might underlie this behavioral impairment. In an functional magnetic resonance imaging study of 17 individuals with ASD, and 23 age-, gender- and IQ-matched typically developing control participants, reversal learning tasks were used to assess behavioral flexibility as participants switched from one learned response choice to a different response choice when task contingencies changed...
October 11, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696176/neural-basis-of-visual-attentional-orienting-in-childhood-autism-spectrum-disorders
#9
Eric R Murphy, Megan Norr, John F Strang, Lauren Kenworthy, William D Gaillard, Chandan J Vaidya
We examined spontaneous attention orienting to visual salience in stimuli without social significance using a modified Dot-Probe task during functional magnetic resonance imaging in high-functioning preadolescent children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and age- and IQ-matched control children. While the magnitude of attentional bias (faster response to probes in the location of solid color patch) to visually salient stimuli was similar in the groups, activation differences in frontal and temporoparietal regions suggested hyper-sensitivity to visual salience or to sameness in ASD children...
January 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636746/retrolaminar-migration-of-intraocular-silicone-oil
#10
Rance A Boren, Carson D Cloy, Ankur S Gupta, Vinay N Dewan, R Nick Hogan
BACKGROUND: Migration of intravitreal silicone to the retrolaminar optic nerve was detected pathologically in 1983, symptomatic migration to the subarachnoid space of the optic nerve was reported in 1994, and asymptomatic intraventricular silicone was first seen radiographically in 1999. Since then, little advance has been made in understanding this phenomenon despite numerous case reports. Although some authors have restricted their attention to cases of intraventricular silicone, we believe that these represent part of a clinical spectrum and that all cases with retrolaminar silicone should be considered...
December 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633809/quantitative-evaluation-of-medial-temporal-lobe-morphology-in-children-with-febrile-status-epilepticus-results-of-the-febstat-study
#11
A C McClelland, W A Gomes, S Shinnar, D C Hesdorffer, E Bagiella, D V Lewis, J A Bello, S Chan, J MacFall, M Chen, J M Pellock, D R Nordli, L M Frank, S L Moshé, R C Shinnar, S Sun
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of febrile status epilepticus is poorly understood, but prior studies have suggested an association with temporal lobe abnormalities, including hippocampal malrotation. We used a quantitative morphometric method to assess the association between temporal lobe morphology and febrile status epilepticus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brain MR imaging was performed in children presenting with febrile status epilepticus and control subjects as part of the Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood study...
December 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618707/autoimmune-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-astrocytopathy-a-novel-meningoencephalomyelitis
#12
Boyan Fang, Andrew McKeon, Shannon R Hinson, Thomas J Kryzer, Sean J Pittock, Allen J Aksamit, Vanda A Lennon
Importance: A novel astrocytic autoantibody has been identified as a biomarker of a relapsing autoimmune meningoencephalomyelitis that is immunotherapy responsive. Seropositivity distinguishes autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) meningoencephalomyelitis from disorders commonly considered in the differential diagnosis. Objective: To describe a novel IgG autoantibody found in serum or cerebrospinal fluid that is specific for a cytosolic intermediate filament protein of astrocytes...
September 12, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552717/white-matter-structure-in-the-uncinate-fasciculus-implications-for-socio-affective-deficits-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Andrea C Samson, Robert F Dougherty, Ihno A Lee, Jennifer M Phillips, James J Gross, Antonio Y Hardan
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have social and communication deficits and difficulties regulating emotions. The brain bases of these socio-affective deficits are not yet clear, but one candidate is structural connectivity in the left uncinate fasciculus, which connects limbic temporal and frontal areas thought to be involved in socio-affective processing. In this study, we assessed white matter structure in the left and right uncinate fasciculus in 18 high-functioning individuals with ASD and 18 group-matched typically developing (TD) controls using Diffusion Tensor Imaging...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527500/restriction-spectrum-imaging-an-evolving-imaging-biomarker-in-prostate-mri
#14
REVIEW
Ryan L Brunsing, Natalie M Schenker-Ahmed, Nathan S White, J Kellogg Parsons, Christopher Kane, Joshua Kuperman, Hauke Bartsch, Andrew Karim Kader, Rebecca Rakow-Penner, Tyler M Seibert, Daniel Margolis, Steven S Raman, Carrie R McDonald, Nikdokht Farid, Santosh Kesari, Donna Hansel, Ahmed Shabaik, Anders M Dale, David S Karow
: Restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) is a novel diffusion-weighted MRI technique that uses the mathematically distinct behavior of water diffusion in separable microscopic tissue compartments to highlight key aspects of the tissue microarchitecture with high conspicuity. RSI can be acquired in less than 5 min on modern scanners using a surface coil. Multiple field gradients and high b-values in combination with postprocessing techniques allow the simultaneous resolution of length-scale and geometric information, as well as compartmental and nuclear volume fraction filtering...
February 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503020/clinical-and-molecular-characteristics-in-100-chinese-pediatric-patients-with-m-3243a-g-mutation-in-mitochondrial-dna
#15
Chang-Yu Xia, Yu Liu, Hui Liu, Yan-Chun Zhang, Yi-Nan Ma, Yu Qi
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial diseases are a group of energy metabolic disorders with multisystem involvements. Variable clinical features present a major challenge in pediatric diagnoses. We summarized the clinical spectrum of m.3243A>G mutation in Chinese pediatric patients, to define the common clinical manifestations and study the correlation between heteroplasmic degree of the mutation and clinical severity of the disease. METHODS: Clinical data of one-hundred pediatric patients with symptomatic mitochondrial disease harboring m...
August 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474587/development-of-a-new-antibacterial-biomaterial-by-tetracycline-immobilization-on-calcium-alginate-beads
#16
Emine Erdogan Ozseker, Alper Akkaya
In recent years, increasing risk of infection, caused by resistant microorganism to antibiotics, has become the limelight discovery of new and natural antibacterial materials. Heavy metals, such as silver, copper, mercury and titanium, have antibacterial activity. Products, which improved these metals, do not have stable antibacterial property. Therefore, use of these products is restricted. The aim of this study was to immobilize tetracycline to alginate and improve an antibacterial biomaterial. For this purpose, calcium-alginate beads were formed by dropping to calcium-chloride solution and tetracycline was immobilized to beads using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide at optimum conditions...
October 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464280/-state-of-the-art-intensive-care-therapy-of-septic-patients
#17
Sebastian Reith, Jan Rudolf Ortlepp
After recognition of the diagnosis sepsis early resuscitation of the patient is mandatory. Patients should have a mean arterial pressure (MAP) ≥65 mmHg. Patients with hypotension should receive initial fluid challenge with approximately 30 mL/kg of balanced electrolyte solutions. However, iatrogenic volume overload should be avoided. If MAP remains < 65mmHg despite adequate volume norepinephrine is the first choice catecholamine. Oxygen should be delivered when oxygen saturation is below 90% to avoid hypoxemia...
July 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448342/fast-variance-prediction-for-iteratively-reconstructed-ct-images-with-locally-quadratic-regularization
#18
Stephen M Schmitt, Mitchell M Goodsitt, Jeffrey A Fessler
Predicting noise properties of iteratively reconstructed CT images is useful for analyzing reconstruction methods; for example, local noise power spectrum (NPS) predictions may be used to quantify the detectability of an image feature, to design regularization methods, or to determine dynamic tube current adjustment during a CT scan. This paper presents a method for fast prediction of reconstructed image variance and local NPS for statistical reconstruction methods using quadratic or locally quadratic regularization...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409026/thin-film-multilayer-filters-for-solar-euv-telescopes
#19
N I Chkhalo, M N Drozdov, E B Kluenkov, S V Kuzin, A Ya Lopatin, V I Luchin, N N Salashchenko, N N Tsybin, S Yu Zuev
Al, with a passband in the wavelength range of 17-60 nm, and Zr, with a passband in the wavelength range of 6.5-17 nm, thin films on a support grid or support membrane are frequently used as UV, visible, and near-IR blocking filters in solar observatories. Although they possess acceptable optical performance, these filters also have some shortcomings such as low mechanical strength and low resistance to oxidation. These shortcomings hinder meeting the requirements for filters of future telescopes. We propose multilayer thin film filters on the basis of Al, Zr, and other materials with improved characteristics...
June 10, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344337/late-positive-potential-erp-responses-to-social-and-nonsocial-stimuli-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Stephen D Benning, Megan Kovac, Alana Campbell, Stephanie Miller, Eleanor K Hanna, Cara R Damiano, Antoinette Sabatino-DiCriscio, Lauren Turner-Brown, Noah J Sasson, Rachel V Aaron, Jessica Kinard, Gabriel S Dichter
We examined the late positive potential (LPP) event related potential in response to social and nonsocial stimuli from youths 9 to 19 years old with (n = 35) and without (n = 34) ASD. Social stimuli were faces with positive expressions and nonsocial stimuli were related to common restricted interests in ASD (e.g., electronics, vehicles, etc.). The ASD group demonstrated relatively smaller LPP amplitude to social stimuli and relatively larger LPP amplitude to nonsocial stimuli. There were no group differences in subjective ratings of images, and there were no significant correlations between LPP amplitude and ASD symptom severity within the ASD group...
September 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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