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Restriction spectrum imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424656/empirical-comparison-of-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-and-diffusion-basis-spectrum-imaging-using-the-same-acquisition-in-healthy-young-adults
#1
Sijia Wang, Daniel J Peterson, Yong Wang, Qing Wang, Thomas J Grabowski, Wenbin Li, Tara M Madhyastha
As diffusion tensor imaging gains widespread use, many researchers have been motivated to go beyond the tensor model and fit more complex diffusion models, to gain a more complete description of white matter microstructure and associated pathology. Two such models are diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI). It is not clear which DKI parameters are most closely related to DBSI parameters, so in the interest of enabling comparisons between DKI and DBSI studies, we conducted an empirical survey of the interrelation of these models in 12 healthy volunteers using the same diffusion acquisition...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367116/microglial-intracellular-ca-2-signaling-in-synaptic-development-and-its-alterations-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Yoshito Mizoguchi, Akira Monji
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social interaction, difficulties with language and repetitive/restricted behaviors. Microglia are resident innate immune cells which release many factors including proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) when they are activated in response to immunological stimuli. Recent in vivo imaging has shown that microglia sculpt and refine the synaptic circuitry by removing excess and unwanted synapses and be involved in the development of neural circuits or synaptic plasticity thereby maintaining the brain homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332155/cerebellopontine-angle-tumors-in-young-children-displaying-cranial-nerve-deficits-and-restricted-diffusion-on-diffusion-weighted-imaging-a-new-clinical-triad-for-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumors
#3
Joel S Katz, Pier Paolo Peruzzi, Christopher R Pierson, Jonathan L Finlay, Jeffrey R Leonard
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare, highly malignant neoplasms that carry a poor prognosis. Even with prompt diagnosis, gross total resection and early initiation of intensive adjuvant therapy, the majority of patients will succumb within 9-12 months of diagnosis. The CPA location in children harbors lesions along a wide spectrum varying from benign to highly malignant. Imaging features of lesions within the CPA that aid the diagnostic process will help to initiate early treatment in higher-grade lesions...
March 22, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316772/neural-circuitry-at-age-6%C3%A2-months-associated-with-later-repetitive-behavior-and-sensory-responsiveness-in-autism
#4
Jason J Wolff, Meghan R Swanson, Jed T Elison, Guido Gerig, John R Pruett, Martin A Styner, Clement Vachet, Kelly N Botteron, Stephen R Dager, Annette M Estes, Heather C Hazlett, Robert T Schultz, Mark D Shen, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Joseph Piven
BACKGROUND: Restricted and repetitive behaviors are defining features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Under revised diagnostic criteria for ASD, this behavioral domain now includes atypical responses to sensory stimuli. To date, little is known about the neural circuitry underlying these features of ASD early in life. METHODS: Longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging data were collected from 217 infants at high familial risk for ASD. Forty-four of these infants were diagnosed with ASD at age 2...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279985/restriction-spectrum-imaging-improves-risk-stratification-in-patients-with-glioblastoma
#5
A P Krishnan, R Karunamuni, K M Leyden, T M Seibert, R L Delfanti, J M Kuperman, H Bartsch, P Elbe, A Srikant, A M Dale, S Kesari, D E Piccioni, J A Hattangadi-Gluth, N Farid, C R McDonald, N S White
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: ADC as a marker of tumor cellularity has been promising for evaluating the response to therapy in patients with glioblastoma but does not successfully stratify patients according to outcomes, especially in the upfront setting. Here we investigate whether restriction spectrum imaging, an advanced diffusion imaging model, performed after an operation but before radiation therapy, could improve risk stratification in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma relative to ADC...
March 9, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218643/diffusion-assessment-of-cortical-changes-induced-by-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Peng Sun, Rory K J Murphy, Paul Gamble, Ajit George, Sheng-Kwei Song, Wilson Z Ray
Promising treatments are being developed to promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Magnetic resonance imaging, specifically Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) has been shown to non-invasively measure both axonal and myelin integrity following traumatic brain and SCI. A novel data-driven model-selection algorithm known as Diffusion Basis Spectrum Imaging (DBSI) has been proposed to more accurately delineate white matter injury. The objective of this study was to investigate whether DTI/DBSI changes that extend to level of the cerebral peduncle and internal capsule following a SCI could be correlated with clinical function...
February 17, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144091/clinicopathological-profile-of-gastrointestinal-lymphomas-in-kashmir
#7
Mehnaaz Sultan Khuroo, Summyia Farooq Khwaja, Ajaz Rather, Zhahid Hassan, Ruby Reshi, Naira Sultan Khuroo
BACKGROUND: The histological categorization of lymphoma has been a source of controversy for many years for both clinicians and pathologists. Clinicopathologic information of gastrointestinal lymphomas in Indian subcontinent is lacking. We studied histopathological spectrum of Primary Gastrointestinal Lymphomas (PGIL) and attempted to classify the G.I. lymphomas based on the recent WHO classification in to major histological types and immunological categories. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was done to evaluate the clinicopathological pattern of 100 cases with a histopathological diagnosis of primary gastrointestinal lymphoma at a tertiary care hospital...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113441/mapping-generative-models-onto-a-network-of-digital-spiking-neurons
#8
Bruno U Pedroni, Srinjoy Das, John V Arthur, Paul A Merolla, Bryan L Jackson, Dharmendra S Modha, Kenneth Kreutz-Delgado, Gert Cauwenberghs
Stochastic neural networks such as Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) have been successfully used in applications ranging from speech recognition to image classification, and are particularly interesting because of their potential for generative tasks. Inference and learning in these algorithms use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure called Gibbs sampling, where a logistic function forms the kernel of this sampler. On the other side of the spectrum, neuromorphic systems have shown great promise for low-power and parallelized cognitive computing, but lack well-suited applications and automation procedures...
May 18, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009104/deep-gray-matter-atrophy-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-and-multiple-sclerosis
#9
J-W Hyun, G Park, K Kwak, H-J Jo, A Joung, J-H Kim, S H Lee, S Kim, J-M Lee, S-H Kim, H J Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated changes in deep gray matter (DGM) volume and its relationship to cognition and clinical factors in a large cohort of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and compared them with results from multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Brain magnetic resonance imaging (3 Tesla) and clinical data from 91 patients with NMOSD, 52 patients with MS and 44 healthy controls (HCs) were prospectively evaluated. Differences in DGM volumes were compared among groups...
February 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939712/a-review-of-methods-for-analysing-insect-structures-the-role-of-morphology-in-the-age-of-phylogenomics
#10
REVIEW
Benjamin Wipfler, Hans Pohl, Margarita I Yavorskaya, Rolf G Beutel
Techniques currently used in insect morphology are outlined briefly. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microphotography are used mainly for documenting external features, the former providing more information on tiny surface structures and the latter on coloration, transparency and degree of sclerotization. A broad spectrum of methods is now available for anatomical studies: histological serial sections, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM), serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM), dual beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), and μ-computed tomography (micro-CT)...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929085/multi-dimensional-super-resolution-imaging-enables-surface-hydrophobicity-mapping
#11
Marie N Bongiovanni, Julien Godet, Mathew H Horrocks, Laura Tosatto, Alexander R Carr, David C Wirthensohn, Rohan T Ranasinghe, Ji-Eun Lee, Aleks Ponjavic, Joelle V Fritz, Christopher M Dobson, David Klenerman, Steven F Lee
Super-resolution microscopy allows biological systems to be studied at the nanoscale, but has been restricted to providing only positional information. Here, we show that it is possible to perform multi-dimensional super-resolution imaging to determine both the position and the environmental properties of single-molecule fluorescent emitters. The method presented here exploits the solvatochromic and fluorogenic properties of nile red to extract both the emission spectrum and the position of each dye molecule simultaneously enabling mapping of the hydrophobicity of biological structures...
December 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853988/antenatal-manifestations-of-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-prenatal-imaging-findings
#12
Laurent Guibaud, Sophie Collardeau-Frachon, Audrey Lacalm, Mona Massoud, Massimiliano Rossi, Marie Pierre Cordier, Christine Vianey-Saban
Prenatal manifestations of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are related to severe disorders involving metabolic pathways active in the fetal period and not compensated by maternal or placental metabolism. Some prenatal imaging findings can be suggestive of such conditions-especially in cases of consanguinity and/or recurrence of symptoms-after exclusion of the most frequent nonmetabolic etiologies. Most of these prenatal imaging findings are nonspecific. They include mainly ascites and hydrops fetalis, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), central nervous system (CNS) anomalies, echogenic kidneys, epiphyseal stippling, craniosynostosis, and a wide spectrum of dysostoses...
January 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735051/restriction-spectrum-imaging-reveals-decreased-neurite-density-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#13
Richard Q Loi, Kelly M Leyden, Akshara Balachandra, Vedang Uttarwar, Donald J Hagler, Brianna M Paul, Anders M Dale, Nathan S White, Carrie R McDonald
OBJECTIVE: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become a popular tool for delineating the location and extent of white matter injury in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, DTI yields nonspecific measures that are confounded by changes occurring within both the intracellular and extracellular environments. This study investigated whether an advanced diffusion method, restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) could provide a more robust measure of white matter injury in TLE relative to DTI due to RSI's ability to separate intraaxonal diffusion (i...
November 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727243/alterations-in-the-functional-neural-circuitry-supporting-flexible-choice-behavior-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#14
A-M D'Cruz, M W Mosconi, M E Ragozzino, E H Cook, J A Sweeney
Restricted and repetitive behaviors, and a pronounced preference for behavioral and environmental consistency, are distinctive characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Alterations in frontostriatal circuitry that supports flexible behavior might underlie this behavioral impairment. In an functional magnetic resonance imaging study of 17 individuals with ASD, and 23 age-, gender- and IQ-matched typically developing control participants, reversal learning tasks were used to assess behavioral flexibility as participants switched from one learned response choice to a different response choice when task contingencies changed...
October 11, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696176/neural-basis-of-visual-attentional-orienting-in-childhood-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Eric R Murphy, Megan Norr, John F Strang, Lauren Kenworthy, William D Gaillard, Chandan J Vaidya
We examined spontaneous attention orienting to visual salience in stimuli without social significance using a modified Dot-Probe task during functional magnetic resonance imaging in high-functioning preadolescent children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and age- and IQ-matched control children. While the magnitude of attentional bias (faster response to probes in the location of solid color patch) to visually salient stimuli was similar in the groups, activation differences in frontal and temporoparietal regions suggested hyper-sensitivity to visual salience or to sameness in ASD children...
January 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636746/retrolaminar-migration-of-intraocular-silicone-oil
#16
Rance A Boren, Carson D Cloy, Ankur S Gupta, Vinay N Dewan, R Nick Hogan
BACKGROUND: Migration of intravitreal silicone to the retrolaminar optic nerve was detected pathologically in 1983, symptomatic migration to the subarachnoid space of the optic nerve was reported in 1994, and asymptomatic intraventricular silicone was first seen radiographically in 1999. Since then, little advance has been made in understanding this phenomenon despite numerous case reports. Although some authors have restricted their attention to cases of intraventricular silicone, we believe that these represent part of a clinical spectrum and that all cases with retrolaminar silicone should be considered...
December 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633809/quantitative-evaluation-of-medial-temporal-lobe-morphology-in-children-with-febrile-status-epilepticus-results-of-the-febstat-study
#17
A C McClelland, W A Gomes, S Shinnar, D C Hesdorffer, E Bagiella, D V Lewis, J A Bello, S Chan, J MacFall, M Chen, J M Pellock, D R Nordli, L M Frank, S L Moshé, R C Shinnar, S Sun
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of febrile status epilepticus is poorly understood, but prior studies have suggested an association with temporal lobe abnormalities, including hippocampal malrotation. We used a quantitative morphometric method to assess the association between temporal lobe morphology and febrile status epilepticus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brain MR imaging was performed in children presenting with febrile status epilepticus and control subjects as part of the Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood study...
December 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618707/autoimmune-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-astrocytopathy-a-novel-meningoencephalomyelitis
#18
Boyan Fang, Andrew McKeon, Shannon R Hinson, Thomas J Kryzer, Sean J Pittock, Allen J Aksamit, Vanda A Lennon
Importance: A novel astrocytic autoantibody has been identified as a biomarker of a relapsing autoimmune meningoencephalomyelitis that is immunotherapy responsive. Seropositivity distinguishes autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) meningoencephalomyelitis from disorders commonly considered in the differential diagnosis. Objective: To describe a novel IgG autoantibody found in serum or cerebrospinal fluid that is specific for a cytosolic intermediate filament protein of astrocytes...
November 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552717/white-matter-structure-in-the-uncinate-fasciculus-implications-for-socio-affective-deficits-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Andrea C Samson, Robert F Dougherty, Ihno A Lee, Jennifer M Phillips, James J Gross, Antonio Y Hardan
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have social and communication deficits and difficulties regulating emotions. The brain bases of these socio-affective deficits are not yet clear, but one candidate is structural connectivity in the left uncinate fasciculus, which connects limbic temporal and frontal areas thought to be involved in socio-affective processing. In this study, we assessed white matter structure in the left and right uncinate fasciculus in 18 high-functioning individuals with ASD and 18 group-matched typically developing (TD) controls using Diffusion Tensor Imaging...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527500/restriction-spectrum-imaging-an-evolving-imaging-biomarker-in-prostate-mri
#20
REVIEW
Ryan L Brunsing, Natalie M Schenker-Ahmed, Nathan S White, J Kellogg Parsons, Christopher Kane, Joshua Kuperman, Hauke Bartsch, Andrew Karim Kader, Rebecca Rakow-Penner, Tyler M Seibert, Daniel Margolis, Steven S Raman, Carrie R McDonald, Nikdokht Farid, Santosh Kesari, Donna Hansel, Ahmed Shabaik, Anders M Dale, David S Karow
Restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) is a novel diffusion-weighted MRI technique that uses the mathematically distinct behavior of water diffusion in separable microscopic tissue compartments to highlight key aspects of the tissue microarchitecture with high conspicuity. RSI can be acquired in less than 5 min on modern scanners using a surface coil. Multiple field gradients and high b-values in combination with postprocessing techniques allow the simultaneous resolution of length-scale and geometric information, as well as compartmental and nuclear volume fraction filtering...
February 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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