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Restriction spectrum imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899773/phenylketonuria-our-experience-in-nine-years-at-a-tertiary-level-referral-institute
#1
Sadanandvalli R Chandra, Rita Christopher, Mane M Daryappa, Rashmi Devaraj
Introduction: Phenyl ketonuria is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism resulting in excessive phenyl alanine levels in blood resulting in a spectrum of neurological defects. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively went through the records of patients diagnosed as Phenyl ketonuria in the last nine years in our team and patients who's data could be accessed were analyzed in detail. Details of laboratory tests, imaging clinical features, course were recorded. Observation: A total of 32 patients were identified in nine years of which data was available only for 15 patients...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898209/evaluation-of-the-social-motivation-hypothesis-of-autism-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Caitlin C Clements, Alisa R Zoltowski, Lisa D Yankowitz, Benjamin E Yerys, Robert T Schultz, John D Herrington
Importance: The social motivation hypothesis posits that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) find social stimuli less rewarding than do people with neurotypical activity. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of reward processing have yielded mixed results. Objectives: To examine whether individuals with ASD process rewarding stimuli differently than typically developing individuals (controls), whether differences are limited to social rewards, and whether contradictory findings in the literature might be due to sample characteristics...
June 13, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859034/load-matters-neural-correlates-of-verbal-working-memory-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Vanessa M Vogan, Kaitlyn E Francis, Benjamin R Morgan, Mary Lou Smith, Margot J Taylor
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by diminished social reciprocity and communication skills and the presence of stereotyped and restricted behaviours. Executive functioning deficits, such as working memory, are associated with core ASD symptoms. Working memory allows for temporary storage and manipulation of information and relies heavily on frontal-parietal networks of the brain. There are few reports on the neural correlates of working memory in youth with ASD...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850806/human-pregenual-anterior-cingulate-cortex-structural-functional-and-connectional-heterogeneity
#4
Nicola Palomero-Gallagher, Felix Hoffstaedter, Hartmut Mohlberg, Simon B Eickhoff, Katrin Amunts, Karl Zilles
The human pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) encompasses 7 distinct cyto- and receptorarchitectonic areas. We lack a detailed understanding of the functions in which they are involved, and stereotaxic maps are not available. We present an integrated structural/functional map of pACC based on probabilistic cytoarchitectonic mapping and meta-analytic connectivity modeling and quantitative functional decoding. Due to the restricted spatial resolution of functional imaging data relative to the microstructural parcellation, areas p24a of the callosal sulcus and p24b on the surface of the cingulate gyrus were merged into a "gyral component" (p24ab) of area p24, and areas pv24c, pd24cv, and pd24cd, located within the cingulate sulcus were merged into a "sulcal component" (p24c) for meta-analytic analysis...
May 30, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774180/survival-prediction-based-on-qualitative-mri-diffusion-signature-in-patients-with-recurrent-high-grade-glioma-treated-with-bevacizumab
#5
Pradeep Goyal, Mary Tenenbaum, Sonali Gupta, Puneet S Kochar, Alok A Bhatt, Manisha Mangla, Yogesh Kumar, Rajiv Mangla
Background: Bevacizumab was approved by the FDA for the treatment of recurrent or progressive glioblastoma (GBM). Imaging responses are typically assessed by gadolinium-enhanced MRI. We sought to determine the significance of qualitative diffusion signature (manifest as variable degree of dark signal) on ADC maps in recurrent gliomas after treatment with bevacizumab. Methods: We performed an institutional review board (IRB) approved retrospective study on patients who underwent MRI of the brain after 8 weeks of receiving bevacizumab for recurrent glioma...
April 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716820/man-with-a-swollen-eye-nonspecific-orbital-inflammation-in-an-adult-in-the-emergency-department
#6
Xiao Chi Zhang, Brittney Statler, Selim Suner, Maureen Lloyd, David Curley, Michael E Migliori
BACKGROUND: Nonspecific orbital inflammation (NSOI) is a rare idiopathic ocular pathology characterized by unilateral, painful orbital swelling without identifiable infectious or systemic disorders, which can be complicated by optic nerve compromise. CASE REPORT: A 50-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with recurring, progressive painless left eye swelling, decreased visual acuity, and binocular diplopia in the absence of trauma, infection, or known malignancy...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700114/disruption-of-protein-kinase-a-localization-induces-acrosomal-exocytosis-in-capacitated-mouse-sperm
#7
Cintia Stival, Carla Ritagliati, Xinran Xu, Maria G Gervasi, Guillermina M Luque, Carolina Baró Graf, José Luis De la Vega-Beltrán, Nicolas Torres, Alberto Darszon, Diego Krapf, Mariano G Buffone, Pablo E Visconti, Dario Krapf
Protein kinase A (PKA) is a broad-spectrum Ser/Thr kinase involved in the regulation of several cellular activities. Thus, its precise activation relies on being localized at specific subcellular places known as discrete PKA signalosomes. A-Kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) form scaffolding assemblies that play a pivotal role in PKA regulation by restricting its activity to specific microdomains. Because one of the first signaling events observed during mammalian sperm capacitation is PKA activation, understanding how PKA activity is restricted in space and time is crucial to decipher the critical steps of sperm capacitation...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644487/therapeutic-use-of-carbohydrate-restricted-diets-in-an-autistic-child-a-case-report-of-clinical-and-18fdg-pet-findings
#8
Iwona Żarnowska, Beata Chrapko, Grażyna Gwizda, Anna Nocuń, Krystyna Mitosek-Szewczyk, Maciej Gasior
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that has been used successfully in the treatment of refractory epilepsies for almost 100 years. There has been accumulating evidence to show that the KD may provide a therapeutic benefit in autism spectrum disorders, albeit by a yet-unknown mechanism. We report a case of a 6-year-old patient with high-functioning autism and subclinical epileptic discharges who responded poorly to several behavioural and psychopharmacological treatments...
April 11, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626339/using-pattern-classification-to-identify-brain-imaging-markers-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Derek Sayre Andrews, Andre Marquand, Christine Ecker, Grainne McAlonan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive and restrictive behaviours. The etiological and phenotypic complexity of ASD has so far hindered the development of clinically useful biomarkers for the condition. Neuroimaging studies have been valuable in establishing a biological basis for ASD. Increasingly, neuroimaging has been combined with 'machine learning'-based pattern classification methods to make individual diagnostic predictions...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602988/mobile-real-time-and-point-of-care-augmented-reality-is-robust-accurate-and-feasible-a-prospective-pilot-study
#10
Hannes Götz Kenngott, Anas Amin Preukschas, Martin Wagner, Felix Nickel, Michael Müller, Nadine Bellemann, Christian Stock, Markus Fangerau, Boris Radeleff, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Hans-Peter Meinzer, Lena Maier-Hein, Beat Peter Müller-Stich
BACKGROUND: Augmented reality (AR) systems are currently being explored by a broad spectrum of industries, mainly for improving point-of-care access to data and images. Especially in surgery and especially for timely decisions in emergency cases, a fast and comprehensive access to images at the patient bedside is mandatory. Currently, imaging data are accessed at a distance from the patient both in time and space, i.e., at a specific workstation. Mobile technology and 3-dimensional (3D) visualization of radiological imaging data promise to overcome these restrictions by making bedside AR feasible...
June 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572747/severe-nasomaxillary-hypoplasia-binder-phenotype-on-prenatal-us-mri-an-important-marker-for-the-prenatal-diagnosis-of-chondrodysplasia-punctata
#11
Anna R Blask, Eva I Rubio, Kimberly A Chapman, Anne K Lawrence, Dorothy I Bulas
BACKGROUND: Chondrodysplasia punctata is a skeletal dysplasia caused by a diverse spectrum of etiologies, with outcomes ranging from antenatal demise to a normal life span. Prenatal detection can be challenging. OBJECTIVE: To review a series of cases of chondrodysplasia punctata associated with nasomaxillary hypoplasia, known as the Binder phenotype, and to highlight prenatal ultrasound and MRI findings, as well as postnatal MRI and radiographic findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed ultrasound, MRI and radiographic imaging findings in postnatally confirmed cases of chondrodysplasia punctata from 2001 to 2017...
March 23, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565709/a-life-put-on-pause-an-exploration-of-the-health-related-quality-of-life-issues-relevant-to-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-cancer
#12
Samantha C Sodergren, Olga Husson, Gudrun E Rohde, Iwona M Tomasewska, Bella Vivat, Noam Yarom, Helen Griffiths, Anne-Sophie Darlington
PURPOSE: In recent years, the assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been recognized as particularly informative to healthcare providers. For adolescents and young adults (AYAs), the impact of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment is likely to be distinct from other age groups given the unique and complex physical and psychosocial challenges of this developmental phase. The objective of this study was to capture the HRQoL issues described by AYAs with cancer using thematic analysis...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559780/secondary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-spectrum-of-morphological-mri-appearances
#13
Hana Malikova, Miroslava Burghardtova, Eva Koubska, Vaclav Mandys, Tomas Kozak, Jiri Weichet
Background: Secondary central nervous system lymphoma (SCNSL) is a rare and aggressive disease, which is defined as secondary central nervous system (CNS) involvement in patients with systemic lymphoma. According to previous reports, SCNSL presents mostly with leptomeningeal spread; however, our experience differs. In the present study, we demonstrate the diversity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns in SCNSL. Patients and methods: Initial morphological MRI findings in 21 patients (10 women and 11 men with mean age 62...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542336/restriction-spectrum-imaging-of-white-matter-and-its-relation-to-neurological-disability-in-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Piotr Sowa, Hanne F Harbo, Nathan S White, Elisabeth G Celius, Hauke Bartsch, Pål Berg-Hansen, Stine M Moen, Atle Bjørnerud, Lars T Westlye, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale, Mona K Beyer
BACKGROUND: Restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) is a recently introduced magnetic resonance imaging diffusion technique. The utility of RSI in multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between RSI-derived parameters and neurological disability in MS. METHODS: Seventy-seven relapsing-remitting MS patients were scanned with RSI on a 3-T scanner. RSI-derived parameters: fast and slow apparent diffusion coefficient (sADC), fractional anisotropy, restricted fractional anisotropy, neurite density (ND), cellularity, extracellular water fraction, and free water fraction, were obtained in white matter lesions (WML) and normal appearing white matter (NAWM)...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497358/diffusion-basis-spectrum-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-detect-hippocampal-inflammation-and-dendritic-injury-in-a-virus-induced-mouse-model-of-epilepsy
#15
Jie Zhan, Tsen-Hsuan Lin, Jane E Libbey, Peng Sun, Zezhong Ye, Chunyu Song, Michael Wallendorf, Honghan Gong, Robert S Fujinami, Sheng-Kwei Song
Hippocampal CA1 inflammation and dendritic loss are common in epilepsy. Quantitative detection of coexisting brain inflammation and injury could be beneficial in monitoring disease progression and assessing therapeutic efficacy. In this work, we used conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, known to detect axonal injury and demyelination) and a novel diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI, known to detect axonal injury, demyelination, and inflammation) to detect hippocampal CA1 lesions resulting from neuronal dendritic injury/loss and concomitant inflammation in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced seizure mice...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484255/brain-resting-state-networks-in-adolescents-with-high-functioning-autism-analysis-of-spatial-connectivity-and-temporal-neurodynamics
#16
Antoine Bernas, Evelien M Barendse, Albert P Aldenkamp, Walter H Backes, Paul A M Hofman, Marc P H Hendriks, Roy P C Kessels, Frans M J Willems, Peter H N de With, Svitlana Zinger, Jacobus F A Jansen
Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is mainly characterized by functional and communication impairments as well as restrictive and repetitive behavior. The leading hypothesis for the neural basis of autism postulates globally abnormal brain connectivity, which can be assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Even in the absence of a task, the brain exhibits a high degree of functional connectivity, known as intrinsic, or resting-state, connectivity. Global default connectivity in individuals with autism versus controls is not well characterized, especially for a high-functioning young population...
February 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460044/mri-features-of-primary-hepatic-lymphoma
#17
Stefano Colagrande, Linda Calistri, Giulia Grazzini, Cosimo Nardi, Simone Busoni, Giovanni Morana, Luigi Grazioli
PURPOSE: Our retrospective study sought to describe the spectrum of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) by analyzing its morphological aspects, signal intensity before and after contrast agent (CA) administration, and diffusion-weighted imaging (DwI) with the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 25 patients with pathologically proven PHL who underwent MRI between January 2011 and December 2016...
February 19, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453244/white-matter-change-with-apathy-and-impulsivity-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-syndromes
#18
Claire J Lansdall, Ian T S Coyle-Gilchrist, P Simon Jones, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Alicia Wilcox, Eileen Wehmann, Katrina M Dick, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
OBJECTIVE: To identify the white matter correlates of apathy and impulsivity in the major syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, using diffusion-weighted imaging and data from the PiPPIN (Pick's Disease and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: Prevalence and Incidence) study. We included behavioral and language variants of frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal syndrome, and progressive supranuclear palsy. METHODS: Seventy patients and 30 controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging at 3-tesla after detailed assessment of apathy and impulsivity...
March 20, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423135/altered-reward-system-reactivity-for-personalized-circumscribed-interests-in-autism
#19
Gregor Kohls, Ligia Antezana, Maya G Mosner, Robert T Schultz, Benjamin E Yerys
Background: Neurobiological research in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has paid little attention on brain mechanisms that cause and maintain restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests (RRBIs). Evidence indicates an imbalance in the brain's reward system responsiveness to social and non-social stimuli may contribute to both social deficits and RRBIs. Thus, this study's central aim was to compare brain responsiveness to individual RRBI (i.e., circumscribed interests), with social rewards (i...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418004/spectral-resolution-and-high-flux-capability-tradeoffs-in-cdte-detectors-for-clinical-ct
#20
Scott S Hsieh, Paurakh L Rajbhandary, Norbert J Pelc
PURPOSE: Photon-counting detectors using CdTe or CZT substrates are promising candidates for future CT systems but suffer from a number of nonidealities, including charge sharing and pulse pileup. By increasing the pixel size of the detector, the system can improve charge sharing characteristics at the expense of increasing pileup. The purpose of this work is to describe these considerations in the optimization of the detector pixel pitch. METHODS: The transport of x rays through the CdTe substrate was simulated in a Monte Carlo fashion using GEANT4...
April 2018: Medical Physics
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