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Restriction spectrum imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853988/antenatal-manifestations-of-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-prenatal-imaging-findings
#1
Laurent Guibaud, Sophie Collardeau-Frachon, Audrey Lacalm, Mona Massoud, Massimiliano Rossi, Marie Pierre Cordier, Christine Vianey-Saban
Prenatal manifestations of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are related to severe disorders involving metabolic pathways active in the fetal period and not compensated by maternal or placental metabolism. Some prenatal imaging findings can be suggestive of such conditions-especially in cases of consanguinity and/or recurrence of symptoms-after exclusion of the most frequent nonmetabolic etiologies. Most of these prenatal imaging findings are nonspecific. They include mainly ascites and hydrops fetalis, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), central nervous system (CNS) anomalies, echogenic kidneys, epiphyseal stippling, craniosynostosis, and a wide spectrum of dysostoses...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735051/restriction-spectrum-imaging-reveals-decreased-neurite-density-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Richard Q Loi, Kelly M Leyden, Akshara Balachandra, Vedang Uttarwar, Donald J Hagler, Brianna M Paul, Anders M Dale, Nathan S White, Carrie R McDonald
OBJECTIVE: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become a popular tool for delineating the location and extent of white matter injury in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, DTI yields nonspecific measures that are confounded by changes occurring within both the intracellular and extracellular environments. This study investigated whether an advanced diffusion method, restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) could provide a more robust measure of white matter injury in TLE relative to DTI due to RSI's ability to separate intraaxonal diffusion (i...
November 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727243/alterations-in-the-functional-neural-circuitry-supporting-flexible-choice-behavior-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
A-M D'Cruz, M W Mosconi, M E Ragozzino, E H Cook, J A Sweeney
Restricted and repetitive behaviors, and a pronounced preference for behavioral and environmental consistency, are distinctive characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Alterations in frontostriatal circuitry that supports flexible behavior might underlie this behavioral impairment. In an functional magnetic resonance imaging study of 17 individuals with ASD, and 23 age-, gender- and IQ-matched typically developing control participants, reversal learning tasks were used to assess behavioral flexibility as participants switched from one learned response choice to a different response choice when task contingencies changed...
October 11, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696176/neural-basis-of-visual-attentional-orienting-in-childhood-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
Eric R Murphy, Megan Norr, John F Strang, Lauren Kenworthy, William D Gaillard, Chandan J Vaidya
We examined spontaneous attention orienting to visual salience in stimuli without social significance using a modified Dot-Probe task during functional magnetic resonance imaging in high-functioning preadolescent children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and age- and IQ-matched control children. While the magnitude of attentional bias (faster response to probes in the location of solid color patch) to visually salient stimuli was similar in the groups, activation differences in frontal and temporoparietal regions suggested hyper-sensitivity to visual salience or to sameness in ASD children...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636746/retrolaminar-migration-of-intraocular-silicone-oil
#5
Rance A Boren, Carson D Cloy, Ankur S Gupta, Vinay N Dewan, R Nick Hogan
BACKGROUND: Migration of intravitreal silicone to the retrolaminar optic nerve was detected pathologically in 1983, symptomatic migration to the subarachnoid space of the optic nerve was reported in 1994, and asymptomatic intraventricular silicone was first seen radiographically in 1999. Since then, little advance has been made in understanding this phenomenon despite numerous case reports. Although some authors have restricted their attention to cases of intraventricular silicone, we believe that these represent part of a clinical spectrum and that all cases with retrolaminar silicone should be considered...
December 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633809/quantitative-evaluation-of-medial-temporal-lobe-morphology-in-children-with-febrile-status-epilepticus-results-of-the-febstat-study
#6
A C McClelland, W A Gomes, S Shinnar, D C Hesdorffer, E Bagiella, D V Lewis, J A Bello, S Chan, J MacFall, M Chen, J M Pellock, D R Nordli, L M Frank, S L Moshé, R C Shinnar, S Sun
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of febrile status epilepticus is poorly understood, but prior studies have suggested an association with temporal lobe abnormalities, including hippocampal malrotation. We used a quantitative morphometric method to assess the association between temporal lobe morphology and febrile status epilepticus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brain MR imaging was performed in children presenting with febrile status epilepticus and control subjects as part of the Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood study...
September 15, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618707/autoimmune-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-astrocytopathy-a-novel-meningoencephalomyelitis
#7
Boyan Fang, Andrew McKeon, Shannon R Hinson, Thomas J Kryzer, Sean J Pittock, Allen J Aksamit, Vanda A Lennon
Importance: A novel astrocytic autoantibody has been identified as a biomarker of a relapsing autoimmune meningoencephalomyelitis that is immunotherapy responsive. Seropositivity distinguishes autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) meningoencephalomyelitis from disorders commonly considered in the differential diagnosis. Objective: To describe a novel IgG autoantibody found in serum or cerebrospinal fluid that is specific for a cytosolic intermediate filament protein of astrocytes...
September 12, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552717/white-matter-structure-in-the-uncinate-fasciculus-implications-for-socio-affective-deficits-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Andrea C Samson, Robert F Dougherty, Ihno A Lee, Jennifer M Phillips, James J Gross, Antonio Y Hardan
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have social and communication deficits and difficulties regulating emotions. The brain bases of these socio-affective deficits are not yet clear, but one candidate is structural connectivity in the left uncinate fasciculus, which connects limbic temporal and frontal areas thought to be involved in socio-affective processing. In this study, we assessed white matter structure in the left and right uncinate fasciculus in 18 high-functioning individuals with ASD and 18 group-matched typically developing (TD) controls using Diffusion Tensor Imaging...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527500/restriction-spectrum-imaging-an-evolving-imaging-biomarker-in-prostate-mri
#9
Ryan L Brunsing, Natalie M Schenker-Ahmed, Nathan S White, J Kellogg Parsons, Christopher Kane, Joshua Kuperman, Hauke Bartsch, Andrew Karim Kader, Rebecca Rakow-Penner, Tyler M Seibert, Daniel Margolis, Steven S Raman, Carrie R McDonald, Nikdokht Farid, Santosh Kesari, Donna Hansel, Ahmed Shabaik, Anders M Dale, David S Karow
Restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) is a novel diffusion-weighted MRI technique that uses the mathematically distinct behavior of water diffusion in separable microscopic tissue compartments to highlight key aspects of the tissue microarchitecture with high conspicuity. RSI can be acquired in less than 5 min on modern scanners using a surface coil. Multiple field gradients and high b-values in combination with postprocessing techniques allow the simultaneous resolution of length-scale and geometric information, as well as compartmental and nuclear volume fraction filtering...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503020/clinical-and-molecular-characteristics-in-100-chinese-pediatric-patients-with-m-3243a-g-mutation-in-mitochondrial-dna
#10
Chang-Yu Xia, Yu Liu, Hui Liu, Yan-Chun Zhang, Yi-Nan Ma, Yu Qi
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial diseases are a group of energy metabolic disorders with multisystem involvements. Variable clinical features present a major challenge in pediatric diagnoses. We summarized the clinical spectrum of m.3243A>G mutation in Chinese pediatric patients, to define the common clinical manifestations and study the correlation between heteroplasmic degree of the mutation and clinical severity of the disease. METHODS: Clinical data of one-hundred pediatric patients with symptomatic mitochondrial disease harboring m...
August 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474587/development-of-a-new-antibacterial-biomaterial-by-tetracycline-immobilization-on-calcium-alginate-beads
#11
Emine Erdogan Ozseker, Alper Akkaya
In recent years, increasing risk of infection, caused by resistant microorganism to antibiotics, has become the limelight discovery of new and natural antibacterial materials. Heavy metals, such as silver, copper, mercury and titanium, have antibacterial activity. Products, which improved these metals, do not have stable antibacterial property. Therefore, use of these products is restricted. The aim of this study was to immobilize tetracycline to alginate and improve an antibacterial biomaterial. For this purpose, calcium-alginate beads were formed by dropping to calcium-chloride solution and tetracycline was immobilized to beads using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide at optimum conditions...
October 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464280/-state-of-the-art-intensive-care-therapy-of-septic-patients
#12
Sebastian Reith, Jan Rudolf Ortlepp
After recognition of the diagnosis sepsis early resuscitation of the patient is mandatory. Patients should have a mean arterial pressure (MAP) ≥65 mmHg. Patients with hypotension should receive initial fluid challenge with approximately 30 mL/kg of balanced electrolyte solutions. However, iatrogenic volume overload should be avoided. If MAP remains < 65mmHg despite adequate volume norepinephrine is the first choice catecholamine. Oxygen should be delivered when oxygen saturation is below 90% to avoid hypoxemia...
July 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448342/fast-variance-prediction-for-iteratively-reconstructed-ct-images-with-locally-quadratic-regularization
#13
Stephen Schmitt, Mitchell Goodsitt, Jeffrey Fessler
Predicting noise properties of iteratively reconstructed CT images is useful for analyzing reconstruction methods; for example, local noise power spectrum (NPS) predictions may be used to quantify the detectability of an image feature, to design regularization methods, or to determine dynamic tube current adjustment during a CT scan. This paper presents a method for fast prediction of reconstructed image variance and local NPS for statistical reconstruction methods using quadratic or locally quadratic regularization...
July 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409026/thin-film-multilayer-filters-for-solar-euv-telescopes
#14
N I Chkhalo, M N Drozdov, E B Kluenkov, S V Kuzin, A Ya Lopatin, V I Luchin, N N Salashchenko, N N Tsybin, S Yu Zuev
Al, with a passband in the wavelength range of 17-60 nm, and Zr, with a passband in the wavelength range of 6.5-17 nm, thin films on a support grid or support membrane are frequently used as UV, visible, and near-IR blocking filters in solar observatories. Although they possess acceptable optical performance, these filters also have some shortcomings such as low mechanical strength and low resistance to oxidation. These shortcomings hinder meeting the requirements for filters of future telescopes. We propose multilayer thin film filters on the basis of Al, Zr, and other materials with improved characteristics...
June 10, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344337/late-positive-potential-erp-responses-to-social-and-nonsocial-stimuli-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Stephen D Benning, Megan Kovac, Alana Campbell, Stephanie Miller, Eleanor K Hanna, Cara R Damiano, Antoinette Sabatino-DiCriscio, Lauren Turner-Brown, Noah J Sasson, Rachel V Aaron, Jessica Kinard, Gabriel S Dichter
We examined the late positive potential (LPP) event related potential in response to social and nonsocial stimuli from youths 9 to 19 years old with (n = 35) and without (n = 34) ASD. Social stimuli were faces with positive expressions and nonsocial stimuli were related to common restricted interests in ASD (e.g., electronics, vehicles, etc.). The ASD group demonstrated relatively smaller LPP amplitude to social stimuli and relatively larger LPP amplitude to nonsocial stimuli. There were no group differences in subjective ratings of images, and there were no significant correlations between LPP amplitude and ASD symptom severity within the ASD group...
September 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27268762/acute-infantile-encephalopathy-as-presentation-of-succinic-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase-deficiency
#16
William A Zeiger, Lisa R Sun, Thangamadhan Bosemani, Phillip L Pearl, Carl E Stafstrom
BACKGROUND: Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is a rare neurological disorder resulting from impaired gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism. The syndrome typically presents as a static encephalopathy with developmental delays, hypotonia, and seizures. METHODS: A six-month-old previously healthy girl developed acute choreoathetosis and severe hypotonia in the setting of influenza A infection. In our database of 112 patients with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, one additional patient was identified who presented with an acute illness (encephalopathy associated with bronchiolitis at age five months)...
May 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27250977/resting-state-functional-connectivity-changes-between-dentate-nucleus-and-cortical-social-brain-regions-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
Giusy Olivito, Silvia Clausi, Fiorenzo Laghi, Anna Maria Tedesco, Roberto Baiocco, Chiara Mastropasqua, Marco Molinari, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali, Maria Leggio
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are known to be characterized by restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests and by impairments in social communication and interactions mainly including "theory of mind" (ToM) processes. The cerebellum has emerged as one of the brain regions affected by ASDs. As the cerebellum is known to influence cerebral cortex activity via cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) circuits, it has been proposed that cerebello-cortical "disconnection" could in part underlie autistic symptoms...
June 1, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27250935/voxel-level-radiologic-pathologic-validation-of-restriction-spectrum-imaging-cellularity-index-with-gleason-grade-in-prostate-cancer
#18
Ghiam Yamin, Natalie M Schenker-Ahmed, Ahmed Shabaik, Dennis Adams, Hauke Bartsch, Joshua Kuperman, Nathan S White, Rebecca A Rakow-Penner, Kevin McCammack, J Kellogg Parsons, Christopher J Kane, Anders M Dale, David S Karow
PURPOSE: Restriction spectrum imaging (RSI-MRI), an advanced diffusion imaging technique, can potentially circumvent current limitations in tumor conspicuity, in vivo characterization, and location demonstrated by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) techniques in prostate cancer detection. Prior reports show that the quantitative signal derived from RSI-MRI, the cellularity index, is associated with aggressive prostate cancer as measured by Gleason grade (GG). We evaluated the reliability of RSI-MRI to predict variance with GG at the voxel-level within clinically demarcated prostate cancer regions...
June 1, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27228409/the-spectrum-of-structural-and-functional-imaging-abnormalities-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#19
Boris C Bernhardt, Andrea Bernasconi, Min Liu, Seok-Jun Hong, Benoit Caldairou, Maged Goubran, Marie C Guiot, Jeff Hall, Neda Bernasconi
OBJECTIVE: Although most temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients show marked hippocampal sclerosis (HS) upon pathological examination, 40% present with no significant cell loss but gliotic changes only. To evaluate effects of hippocampal pathology on brain structure and functional networks, we aimed at dissociating multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in patients with HS (TLE-HS) and those with gliosis only (TLE-G). METHODS: In 20 TLE-HS, 19 TLE-G, and 25 healthy controls, we carried out a novel MRI-based hippocampal subfield surface analysis that integrated volume, T2 signal intensity, and diffusion markers with seed-based hippocampal functional connectivity...
July 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222228/regulation-of-two-motor-patterns-enables-the-gradual-adjustment-of-locomotion-strategy-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
Ingrid Hums, Julia Riedl, Fanny Mende, Saul Kato, Harris S Kaplan, Richard Latham, Michael Sonntag, Lisa Traunmüller, Manuel Zimmer
In animal locomotion a tradeoff exists between stereotypy and flexibility: fast long-distance travelling (LDT) requires coherent regular motions, while local sampling and area-restricted search (ARS) rely on flexible movements. We report here on a posture control system in C. elegans that coordinates these needs. Using quantitative posture analysis we explain worm locomotion as a composite of two modes: regular undulations versus flexible turning. Graded reciprocal regulation of both modes allows animals to flexibly adapt their locomotion strategy under sensory stimulation along a spectrum ranging from LDT to ARS...
May 25, 2016: ELife
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