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Restriction spectrum imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644487/therapeutic-use-of-carbohydrate-restricted-diets-in-an-autistic-child-a-case-report-of-clinical-and-18fdg-pet-findings
#1
Iwona Żarnowska, Beata Chrapko, Grażyna Gwizda, Anna Nocuń, Krystyna Mitosek-Szewczyk, Maciej Gasior
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that has been used successfully in the treatment of refractory epilepsies for almost 100 years. There has been accumulating evidence to show that the KD may provide a therapeutic benefit in autism spectrum disorders, albeit by a yet-unknown mechanism. We report a case of a 6-year-old patient with high-functioning autism and subclinical epileptic discharges who responded poorly to several behavioural and psychopharmacological treatments...
April 11, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626339/using-pattern-classification-to-identify-brain-imaging-markers-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Derek Sayre Andrews, Andre Marquand, Christine Ecker, Grainne McAlonan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive and restrictive behaviours. The etiological and phenotypic complexity of ASD has so far hindered the development of clinically useful biomarkers for the condition. Neuroimaging studies have been valuable in establishing a biological basis for ASD. Increasingly, neuroimaging has been combined with 'machine learning'-based pattern classification methods to make individual diagnostic predictions...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602988/mobile-real-time-and-point-of-care-augmented-reality-is-robust-accurate-and-feasible-a-prospective-pilot-study
#3
Hannes Götz Kenngott, Anas Amin Preukschas, Martin Wagner, Felix Nickel, Michael Müller, Nadine Bellemann, Christian Stock, Markus Fangerau, Boris Radeleff, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Hans-Peter Meinzer, Lena Maier-Hein, Beat Peter Müller-Stich
BACKGROUND: Augmented reality (AR) systems are currently being explored by a broad spectrum of industries, mainly for improving point-of-care access to data and images. Especially in surgery and especially for timely decisions in emergency cases, a fast and comprehensive access to images at the patient bedside is mandatory. Currently, imaging data are accessed at a distance from the patient both in time and space, i.e., at a specific workstation. Mobile technology and 3-dimensional (3D) visualization of radiological imaging data promise to overcome these restrictions by making bedside AR feasible...
March 30, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572747/severe-nasomaxillary-hypoplasia-binder-phenotype-on-prenatal-us-mri-an-important-marker-for-the-prenatal-diagnosis-of-chondrodysplasia-punctata
#4
Anna R Blask, Eva I Rubio, Kimberly A Chapman, Anne K Lawrence, Dorothy I Bulas
BACKGROUND: Chondrodysplasia punctata is a skeletal dysplasia caused by a diverse spectrum of etiologies, with outcomes ranging from antenatal demise to a normal life span. Prenatal detection can be challenging. OBJECTIVE: To review a series of cases of chondrodysplasia punctata associated with nasomaxillary hypoplasia, known as the Binder phenotype, and to highlight prenatal ultrasound and MRI findings, as well as postnatal MRI and radiographic findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed ultrasound, MRI and radiographic imaging findings in postnatally confirmed cases of chondrodysplasia punctata from 2001 to 2017...
March 23, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565709/a-life-put-on-pause-an-exploration-of-the-health-related-quality-of-life-issues-relevant-to-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-cancer
#5
Samantha C Sodergren, Olga Husson, Gudrun E Rohde, Iwona M Tomasewska, Bella Vivat, Noam Yarom, Helen Griffiths, Anne-Sophie Darlington
PURPOSE: In recent years, the assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been recognized as particularly informative to healthcare providers. For adolescents and young adults (AYAs), the impact of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment is likely to be distinct from other age groups given the unique and complex physical and psychosocial challenges of this developmental phase. The objective of this study was to capture the HRQoL issues described by AYAs with cancer using thematic analysis...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559780/secondary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-spectrum-of-morphological-mri-appearances
#6
Hana Malikova, Miroslava Burghardtova, Eva Koubska, Vaclav Mandys, Tomas Kozak, Jiri Weichet
Background: Secondary central nervous system lymphoma (SCNSL) is a rare and aggressive disease, which is defined as secondary central nervous system (CNS) involvement in patients with systemic lymphoma. According to previous reports, SCNSL presents mostly with leptomeningeal spread; however, our experience differs. In the present study, we demonstrate the diversity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns in SCNSL. Patients and methods: Initial morphological MRI findings in 21 patients (10 women and 11 men with mean age 62...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542336/restriction-spectrum-imaging-of-white-matter-and-its-relation-to-neurological-disability-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Piotr Sowa, Hanne F Harbo, Nathan S White, Elisabeth G Celius, Hauke Bartsch, Pål Berg-Hansen, Stine M Moen, Atle Bjørnerud, Lars T Westlye, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale, Mona K Beyer
BACKGROUND: Restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) is a recently introduced magnetic resonance imaging diffusion technique. The utility of RSI in multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between RSI-derived parameters and neurological disability in MS. METHODS: Seventy-seven relapsing-remitting MS patients were scanned with RSI on a 3-T scanner. RSI-derived parameters: fast and slow apparent diffusion coefficient (sADC), fractional anisotropy, restricted fractional anisotropy, neurite density (ND), cellularity, extracellular water fraction, and free water fraction, were obtained in white matter lesions (WML) and normal appearing white matter (NAWM)...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497358/diffusion-basis-spectrum-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-detect-hippocampal-inflammation-and-dendritic-injury-in-a-virus-induced-mouse-model-of-epilepsy
#8
Jie Zhan, Tsen-Hsuan Lin, Jane E Libbey, Peng Sun, Zezhong Ye, Chunyu Song, Michael Wallendorf, Honghan Gong, Robert S Fujinami, Sheng-Kwei Song
Hippocampal CA1 inflammation and dendritic loss are common in epilepsy. Quantitative detection of coexisting brain inflammation and injury could be beneficial in monitoring disease progression and assessing therapeutic efficacy. In this work, we used conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, known to detect axonal injury and demyelination) and a novel diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI, known to detect axonal injury, demyelination, and inflammation) to detect hippocampal CA1 lesions resulting from neuronal dendritic injury/loss and concomitant inflammation in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced seizure mice...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484255/brain-resting-state-networks-in-adolescents-with-high-functioning-autism-analysis-of-spatial-connectivity-and-temporal-neurodynamics
#9
Antoine Bernas, Evelien M Barendse, Albert P Aldenkamp, Walter H Backes, Paul A M Hofman, Marc P H Hendriks, Roy P C Kessels, Frans M J Willems, Peter H N de With, Svitlana Zinger, Jacobus F A Jansen
Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is mainly characterized by functional and communication impairments as well as restrictive and repetitive behavior. The leading hypothesis for the neural basis of autism postulates globally abnormal brain connectivity, which can be assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Even in the absence of a task, the brain exhibits a high degree of functional connectivity, known as intrinsic, or resting-state, connectivity. Global default connectivity in individuals with autism versus controls is not well characterized, especially for a high-functioning young population...
February 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460044/mri-features-of-primary-hepatic-lymphoma
#10
Stefano Colagrande, Linda Calistri, Giulia Grazzini, Cosimo Nardi, Simone Busoni, Giovanni Morana, Luigi Grazioli
PURPOSE: Our retrospective study sought to describe the spectrum of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) by analyzing its morphological aspects, signal intensity before and after contrast agent (CA) administration, and diffusion-weighted imaging (DwI) with the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 25 patients with pathologically proven PHL who underwent MRI between January 2011 and December 2016...
February 19, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453244/white-matter-change-with-apathy-and-impulsivity-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-syndromes
#11
Claire J Lansdall, Ian T S Coyle-Gilchrist, P Simon Jones, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Alicia Wilcox, Eileen Wehmann, Katrina M Dick, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
OBJECTIVE: To identify the white matter correlates of apathy and impulsivity in the major syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, using diffusion-weighted imaging and data from the PiPPIN (Pick's Disease and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: Prevalence and Incidence) study. We included behavioral and language variants of frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal syndrome, and progressive supranuclear palsy. METHODS: Seventy patients and 30 controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging at 3-tesla after detailed assessment of apathy and impulsivity...
February 16, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423135/altered-reward-system-reactivity-for-personalized-circumscribed-interests-in-autism
#12
Gregor Kohls, Ligia Antezana, Maya G Mosner, Robert T Schultz, Benjamin E Yerys
Background: Neurobiological research in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has paid little attention on brain mechanisms that cause and maintain restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests (RRBIs). Evidence indicates an imbalance in the brain's reward system responsiveness to social and non-social stimuli may contribute to both social deficits and RRBIs. Thus, this study's central aim was to compare brain responsiveness to individual RRBI (i.e., circumscribed interests), with social rewards (i...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418004/spectral-resolution-and-high-flux-capability-tradeoffs-in-cdte-detectors-for-clinical-ct
#13
Scott S Hsieh, Paurakh L Rajbhandary, Norbert J Pelc
PURPOSE: Photon counting detectors using CdTe or CZT substrates are promising candidates for future CT systems but suffer from a number of non-idealities, including charge sharing and pulse pileup. By increasing the pixel size of the detector, the system can improve charge sharing characteristics at the expense of increasing pileup. The purpose of this work is to describe these considerations in the optimization of the detector pixel pitch. METHODS: The transport of x-rays through the CdTe substrate was simulated in a Monte Carlo fashion using GEANT4...
February 8, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382987/vascular-anomalies-of-the-head-and-neck-region
#14
REVIEW
S C Nair
Vascular anomalies of the head and neck region are a complex group of lesions that challenge the head and neck physicians. From the very understanding of the difference between its two distinct forms, hemangiomas and vascular malformations to its management remain confusing. The review of this anomaly attempts at comprehensively understanding the disease. Vascular anomalies are easily diagnosed by their clinical presentation, but choice of imaging and management for this spectrum of lesions is varied. The author attempts to categorize the required imaging for the lesion with suggestions on the management of both hemangiomas and vascular malformations...
March 2018: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361395/hereditary-myopathy-with-early-respiratory-failure-hmerf-still-rare-but-common-enough
#15
REVIEW
Giorgio Tasca, Bjarne Udd
Phenotypic and genetic/allelic heterogeneity is a feature of many neuromuscular disorders, titinopathies being one of them. Hereditary Myopathy with Early Respiratory Failure (HMERF) has been considered an extremely rare disease with definite clinicopathologic hallmarks, and geographically restricted to the Northern European population with one single titin gene defect identified in previous years. The recent availability of massive parallel sequencing techniques, allowing the screening of all coding regions of the genome in undiagnosed patients, together with a growing awareness of the main muscle MRI features of the disease, has led to the discovery of a number of HMERF families and new titin mutations in the last five years...
December 12, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356829/clinical-biomarker-and-molecular-delineations-and-genotype-phenotype-correlations-of-ataxia-with-oculomotor-apraxia-type-1
#16
Mathilde Renaud, Maria-Céu Moreira, Bondo Ben Monga, Diana Rodriguez, Rabab Debs, Perrine Charles, Malika Chaouch, Farida Ferrat, Chloé Laurencin, Laurent Vercueil, Martial Mallaret, Abderrahim M'Zahem, Lamia Ali Pacha, Meriem Tazir, Caroline Tilikete, Elisabeth Ollagnon, François Ochsner, Thierry Kuntzer, Hans H Jung, Jean-Marie Beis, Jean-Claude Netter, Atbin Djamshidian, Mattew Bower, Armand Bottani, Richard Walsh, Sinead Murphy, Thomas Reiley, Éric Bieth, Filip Roelens, Bwee Tien Poll-The, Charles Marques Lourenço, Laura Bannach Jardim, Rachel Straussberg, Pierre Landrieu, Emmanuel Roze, Stéphane Thobois, Jean Pouget, Claire Guissart, Cyril Goizet, Alexandra Dürr, Christine Tranchant, Michel Koenig, Mathieu Anheim
Importance: Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1) is an autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia due to mutations in the aprataxin gene (APTX) that is characterized by early-onset cerebellar ataxia, oculomotor apraxia, axonal motor neuropathy, and eventual decrease of albumin serum levels. Objectives: To improve the clinical, biomarker, and molecular delineation of AOA1 and provide genotype-phenotype correlations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective analysis included the clinical, biological (especially regarding biomarkers of the disease), electrophysiologic, imaging, and molecular data of all patients consecutively diagnosed with AOA1 in a single genetics laboratory from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2014...
January 22, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302798/cone-beam-ct-of-the-musculoskeletal-system-clinical-applications
#17
REVIEW
Magdalena Posadzy, Julie Desimpel, Filip Vanhoenacker
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this pictorial review is to illustrate the use of CBCT in a broad spectrum of musculoskeletal disorders and to compare its diagnostic merit with other imaging modalities, such as conventional radiography (CR), Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. BACKGROUND: Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has been widely used for dental imaging for over two decades. DISCUSSION: Current CBCT equipment allows use for imaging of various musculoskeletal applications...
February 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296066/multimodality-imaging-assessment-of-a-caseous-calcification-of-the-mitral-valve-annulus
#18
Imen Hamdi, Chadia Chourabi, Younes Arous, Mehdi Ghommidh, Khalil Houissa, Abdeddayem Haggui, Nadhem Hajlaoui, Dhaker Lahidheb, Nejmeddine Ben Abdallah, Wafa Fehri, Habib Haouala
Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus (CCMA) is a rare echocardiographic finding. It is commonly misdiagnosed as an abscess, tumor or infective vegetation on the mitral valve. Since it is a benign process, differentiating it from malignant intra-cardiac mass is primordial to avoid unnecessary surgery. Various imaging modalities can be complimentary for definitive diagnosis. We present a case of CCMA in a 71-year-old female patient. Her medical history revealed hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia and coronary artery disease...
January 2018: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274502/subtyping-cognitive-profiles-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-a-functional-random-forest-algorithm
#19
E Feczko, N M Balba, O Miranda-Dominguez, M Cordova, S L Karalunas, L Irwin, D V Demeter, A P Hill, B H Langhorst, J Grieser Painter, J Van Santen, E J Fombonne, J T Nigg, D A Fair
DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) comprises a set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social communication and interaction and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests, and may both affect and be affected by multiple cognitive mechanisms. This study attempts to identify and characterize cognitive subtypes within the ASD population using our Functional Random Forest (FRF) machine learning classification model. This model trained a traditional random forest model on measures from seven tasks that reflect multiple levels of information processing...
December 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231773/molecular-imaging-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Brian Jaeho Hwang, Mona Adel Mohamed, James Robert Brašić
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition with onset in early childhood characterized by marked deficits in interpersonal interactions and communication and by a restricted and repetitive range of interests and activities. This review points out key recent findings utilizing molecular imaging including magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and nuclear neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). MRS indicates an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in high-functioning autism...
December 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
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