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Diffusion imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550586/stress-echocardiography-with-smartphone-real-time-remote-reading-for-regional-wall-motion
#1
Maria Chiara Scali, Clarissa Carmona de Azevedo Bellagamba, Quirino Ciampi, Iana Simova, José Luis de Castro E Silva Pretto, Ana Djordjevic-Dikic, Claudio Dodi, Lauro Cortigiani, Angela Zagatina, Paolo Trambaiolo, Marco R Torres, Rodolfo Citro, Paolo Colonna, Marco Paterni, Eugenio Picano
The diffusion of smart-phones offers access to the best remote expertise in stress echo (SE). To evaluate the reliability of SE based on smart-phone filming and reading. A set of 20 SE video-clips were read in random sequence with a multiple choice six-answer test by ten readers from five different countries (Italy, Brazil, Serbia, Bulgaria, Russia) of the "SE2020" study network. The gold standard to assess accuracy was a core-lab expert reader in agreement with angiographic verification (0 = wrong, 1 = right)...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550466/schizophrenia-symptomatic-associations-with-diffusion-tensor-imaging-measured-fractional-anisotropy-of-brain-a-meta-analysis
#2
Xu Yang, Ding Cao, Xiumei Liang, Jiannong Zhao
PURPOSE: Several studies have examined the relationships between diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-measured fractional anisotropy (FA) and the symptoms of schizophrenia, but results vary across the studies. The aim of this study was to carry out a meta-analysis of correlation coefficients reported by relevant studies to evaluate the correlative relationships between FA of various parts of the brain and schizophrenia symptomatic assessments. METHODS: Literature was searched in several electronic databases, and study selection was based on précised eligibility criteria...
May 26, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550357/apparent-diffusion-coefficient-in-differentiation-of-pediatric-posterior-fossa-tumors
#3
Soubhi Zitouni, Gonca Koc, Selim Doganay, Sibel Saracoglu, Kazim Z Gumus, Saliha Ciraci, Abdulhakim Coskun, Ekrem Unal, Huseyin Per, Ali Kurtsoy, Olgun Kontas
PURPOSE: To investigate the contribution of preoperative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the differential diagnosis of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. METHODS: Forty-two pediatric patients (mean age 7.76 ± 4.58 years) with intra-axial tumors in the infra-tentorial region underwent magnetic resonance imaging. ADC measurement was performed using regions of interest, obtained from the solid component of the mass lesions. ADC ratios were calculated by dividing the ADC values from the mass lesions by the ADC values from normal cerebellar parenchyma...
May 26, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550356/orbital-malignant-lesions-in-adults-multiparametric-mr-imaging
#4
Bo Sun, Liyuan Song
PURPOSE: To assess the benefit of combining diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging in the preoperative evaluation of orbital lymphoma and other malignancies in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was institutional review board-approved and informed consent was waived. Pretreatment MR imaging was performed in 52 patients with malignant orbital lesions. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and DCE MR parameters were evaluated in 30 patients with orbital lymphoma and 22 patients with other orbital malignancies...
May 26, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550313/quantification-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-heterogeneity-with-multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
Stefanie J Hectors, Mathilde Wagner, Octavia Bane, Cecilia Besa, Sara Lewis, Romain Remark, Nelson Chen, M Isabel Fiel, Hongfa Zhu, Sacha Gnjatic, Miriam Merad, Yujin Hoshida, Bachir Taouli
Tumour heterogeneity poses a significant challenge for treatment stratification. The goals of this study were to quantify heterogeneity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), and to report preliminary data correlating quantitative MRI parameters with advanced histopathology and gene expression in a patient subset. Thirty-two HCC patients with 39 HCC lesions underwent mpMRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD), tissue-oxygenation-level-dependent (TOLD) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550100/an-alternative-surgical-approach-reduces-variability-following-filament-induction-of-experimental-stroke-in-mice
#6
M Trotman-Lucas, M E Kelly, J Janus, R Fern, C L Gibson
Animal models are critical for understanding the pathology of stroke and investigating potential treatments. However, in vivo stroke models are associated, particularly in mice, with high variability in lesion volume. We investigated whether a surgical refinement where reperfusion is not reliant on the Circle of Willis reduced outcome variability. Mice underwent 60 minutes of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion avoiding ligation of the external carotid artery. During reperfusion the common carotid artery was either ligated (standard approach), or it was repaired to allow re-establishment of blood flow through the common carotid artery...
May 26, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549449/fatal-familial-insomnia-with-abnormal-signals-on-routine-mri-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Tingting Lu, Yuhang Pan, Lisheng Peng, Feng Qin, Xiaobo Sun, Zhengqi Lu, Wei Qiu
BACKGROUND: Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by the PRNP D178N/129 M mutation. Routine brain CT and MRI usually reveal non-specific features. We report a patient with FFI presenting with diffuse abnormal signals on MRI, later confirmed as combined with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 58-year-old female, whose main clinical manifestations were insomnia, movement disorders, autonomic hyperactivity and mental deterioration...
May 26, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549292/globally-supported-radial-basis-function-based-collocation-method-for-evolution-of-level-set-in-mass-segmentation-using-mammograms
#8
Kanchan Lata Kashyap, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Pritee Khanna
Computer-aided detection systems play an important role for the detection of breast abnormalities using mammograms. Global segmentation of mass in mammograms is a complex process due to low contrast mammogram images, irregular shape of mass, speculated margins, and the presence of intensity variations of pixels. This work presents a new approach for mass detection in mammograms, which is based on the variational level set function. Mesh-free based radial basis function (RBF) collocation approach is employed for the evolution of level set function for segmentation of breast as well as suspicious mass region...
May 15, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549077/clinical-criteria-for-subtyping-parkinson-s-disease-biomarkers-and-longitudinal-progression
#9
Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Yashar Zeighami, Alain Dagher, Ronald B Postuma
Parkinson's disease varies widely in clinical manifestations, course of progression and biomarker profiles from person to person. Identification of distinct Parkinson's disease subtypes is of great priority to illuminate underlying pathophysiology, predict progression and develop more efficient personalized care approaches. There is currently no clear way to define and divide subtypes in Parkinson's disease. Using data from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative, we aimed to identify distinct subgroups via cluster analysis of a comprehensive dataset at baseline (i...
May 25, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548860/direct-imaging-of-kinetic-pathways-of-atomic-diffusion-in-monolayer-molybdenum-disulfide
#10
Jinhua Hong, Yuhao Pan, Zhixin Hu, Danhui Lv, Chuanhong Jin, Wei Ji, Jun Yuan, Ze Zhang
Direct observation of atomic migration both on and below surfaces is a long-standing but important challenge in materials science as diffusion is one of the most elementary processes essential to many vital material behaviors. Probing the kinetic pathways, including metastable or even transition states involved down to atomic scale, holds the key to the underlying physical mechanisms. Here, we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to demon-strate direct atomic-scale imaging and quasi-real-time tracking of diffusion of Mo adatoms and vacancies in monolayer MoS2, an important 2D transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) system...
May 26, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548465/assessment-of-infantile-hemangiomas-using-a-handheld-wireless-diffuse-optical-spectroscopic-device
#11
Christopher J Fong, Maria C Garzon, Jennifer W Hoi, Hyun K Kim, Christine T Lauren, Kimberly Morel, Lauren Geller, Nina Antonov, Nicole Weitz, June Wu, Andreas H Hielscher
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are vascular tumors with the potential for significant morbidity. There is a lack of validated objective tools to assess IH severity and response to treatment. Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS), a noninvasive, nonionizing imaging modality, can measure total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in tissue to assess IH vascularity and response to treatment. Our objective was to evaluate the utility of a wireless, handheld DOS system to assess IH characteristics at selected points during their clinical course...
May 26, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547878/mesiotemporal-atrophy-and-hippocampal-diffusivity-distinguish-amnestic-from-non-amnestic-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#12
A A Hosseini, D Meng, R J Simpson, D P Auer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The role of clinical factors, cerebral infarcts and hippocampal damage in vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) subtypes remains unclear. METHODS: Non-demented patients with carotid stenosis and recent transient ischemic attack/stroke had cognitive assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Amnestic VCI was defined as memory impairment; non-amnestic VCI was any other subdomain impairment. Associations of MRI metrics [log-transformed total ischemic lesion load (log TILL), mesiotemporal atrophy (MTA) score, hippocampal mean diffusivity (hipMD)] with cognitive performance were assessed...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547872/cerebral-white-matter-lesion-burden-is-associated-with-the-degree-of-aortic-valve-calcification-and-predicts-peri-procedural-cerebrovascular-events-in-patients-undergoing-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-tavi
#13
Jonas Doerner, Patrick A Kupczyk, Marius Wilsing, Julian A Luetkens, Klaus Storm, Rolf Fimmers, Tilman Hickethier, Lars Eichhorn, Claas P Naehle, Hans H Schild, Nikos Werner, Georg Nickenig, Alexander Ghanem
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of aortic valve calcification and brain morphology on acute peri-procedural cerebrovascular events (CVEs) in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). BACKGROUND: Aortic valve calcification and stenosis can be assessed with echocardiography. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicts and quantifies morphological signs of hypoperfusion and vascular embolism, which is of special interest in patients with severe aortic stenosis...
May 26, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547117/non-hypervascular-hypointense-nodules-at-gadoxetic-acid-mri-hepatocellular-carcinoma-risk-assessment-with-emphasis-on-the-role-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging
#14
Chiara Briani, Marco Di Pietropaolo, Massimo Marignani, Francesco Carbonetti, Paola Begini, Vincenzo David, Elsa Iannicelli
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: In cirrhotic patients, the characterization of hypovascular nodules, hypointense on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic acid disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance images (Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI), is essential to look for the proper approach strategy. Our objective was to evaluate the imaging features and risk assessment of hypovascular nodules, hypointense on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, focusing on the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective study includes 35 patients with 50 hypovascular hypointense nodules...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547002/oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-inhibits-pediatric-brain-tumor-migration-and-invasion
#15
Julia V Cockle, Anke Brüning-Richardson, Karen J Scott, Jill Thompson, Timothy Kottke, Ewan Morrison, Azam Ismail, Angel M Carcaboso, Ailsa Rose, Peter Selby, Joe Conner, Susan Picton, Susan Short, Richard Vile, Alan Melcher, Elizabeth Ilett
Pediatric high-grade glioma (pHGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) are invasive tumors with poor survival. Oncolytic virotherapy, initially devised as a direct cytotoxic treatment, is now also known to act via immune-mediated mechanisms. Here we investigate a previously unreported mechanism of action: the inhibition of migration and invasion in pediatric brain tumors. We evaluated the effect of oncolytic herpes simplex virus 1716 (HSV1716) on the migration and invasion of pHGG and DIPG both in vitro using 2D (scratch assay, live cell imaging) and 3D (spheroid invasion in collagen) assays and in vivo using an orthotopic xenograft model of DIPG invasion...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546311/evidence-for-functional-networks-within-the-human-brain-s-white-matter
#16
Michael Peer, Mor Nitzan, Atira S Bick, Netta Levin, Shahar Arzy
Investigation of the functional macro-scale organization of the human cortex is fundamental in modern neuroscience. While numerous studies have identified networks of interacting functional modules in the grey-matter, limited research was directed to the functional organization of the white-matter. Recent studies have demonstrated that the white-matter exhibits blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations similar to those of the grey-matter. Here we used these signal fluctuations to investigate whether the white-matter is organized as functional networks by applying a clustering analysis on resting-state functional MRI (RSfMRI) data from white-matter voxels, in 176 subjects (of both sexes)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546035/hybrid-metal-scaffold-jacket-versus-full-metal-jackets-in-left-anterior-descending-coronary-artery-diffuse-disease-differences-in-radiation-exposure-and-fluoroscopic-procedural-times
#17
Gianluca Rigatelli, Marco Zuin, Jacopo Frigato, Fabio Dell'Avvocata, Federico Ronco, Alberto Mazza, Laura Oliva, Dario Adami, Emiliano Bedendo, Panin Stefano
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Bioabsorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) are made from a radiolucent material. Their multiple implantations on a single long diffused segment requires a specific technique with imaging magnification, which could cause an increase in dose delivered during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedure. We aimed to identify differences in radiation dose, fluoroscopy and procedural times in Hybrid DES+ multiple BVS (Absorb, Abbott Inc., USA) implantation (hybrid metal/scaffold jacket) versus multiple III generation Drug-eluting stents (DES) (full-metal jacket) in patients with long and diffuse coronary artery disease of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery...
May 18, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545685/diagnostic-value-of-combined-diffusion-weighted-imaging-with-dynamic-contrast-enhancement-mri-in-differentiating-malignant-from-benign-bone-lesions
#18
J Cao, L Xiao, B He, G Zhang, J Dong, Y Wu, H Xie, G Wang, X Lin
AIM: To determine the diagnostic value of combined diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in differentiating malignant from benign bone lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DWI and DCE-MRI were performed in 36 patients (14 were benign and 22 were malignant). The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and signal enhanced extent (SEE), slope value, and time-signal intensity curve (TIC) type were recorded by two observers...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545408/importance-of-correctly-interpreting-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-diagnose-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-associated-with-hellp-syndrome-a-case-report
#19
Syuichi Tetsuka, Hiroaki Nonaka
BACKGROUND: Severe haemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome in pregnancy are possible underlying trigger factors for posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows diffuse signal abnormalities involving the subcortical white matter in the parieto-occipital lobes. Although the diagnosis of RPES was clearly established by the distinctive reversibility of clinical and radiological abnormalities, it is difficult to distinguish from differential diagnosis...
May 25, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544025/phase-imaging-of-axonal-integrity-of-cranial-corticospinal-tract-in-experimental-spinal-cord-injury-at-9-4t
#20
Genxia He, Junchao Qian
It was known that Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to neuronal cell death, axonal damage and demyelination, and often results in severe functional loss. Noninvasive imaging of axonal integrity may hold great importance in clinic. This study evaluated the role of phase imaging in detection of axonal integrity of cranial corticospinal tract after spinal cord injury. Quantitative MR phase imaging and diffusion tensor imaging were performed on a group of rats prior to and after spinal cord injury at 9.4 T in this study...
May 23, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
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