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social medicine

Nicholas Ekow Thomford, Kevin Dzobo, Emile Chimusa, Kerstin Andrae-Marobela, Shadreck Chirikure, Ambroise Wonkam, Collet Dandara
While drugs remain the cornerstone of medicine, herbal medicine is an important comedication worldwide. Thus, precision medicine ought to face this clinical reality and develop "companion diagnostics" for drugs as well as herbal medicines. Yet, many are in denial with respect to the extent of use of traditional/herbal medicines, overlooking that a considerable number of contemporary therapeutic drugs trace their discovery from herbal medicines. This expert review underscores that absent such appropriate attention on both classical drug therapy and herbal medicines, precision medicine biomarkers will likely not stand the full test of clinical practice while patients continue to use both drugs and herbal medicines and, yet the biomarker research and applications focus only (or mostly) on drug therapy...
June 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Will D Schupmann
Schools have long been critical partners for public health authorities in achieving widespread vaccination. In the mid-20th century, however, public schools also served as sites of large-scale experiments on novel vaccines. Through examining the experimental diphtheria, polio, and measles vaccine trials, I explored the implications of using schools in this manner, as well as the continuities and discontinuities among the three cases. Common to all of them was that the use of schools brought decision-making into the public sphere, subjecting parents to social pressures and the influences of school officials and community members...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Ling-Xin Li, Ming-Ming Zhang, Yin Zhang, Jing He
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for children with cerebral palsy. Data Sources: We conducted electronic searches of PUBMED (1950/2017), EMBASE (1974/2017), ScienceDirect (1986/2017), Academic Source Premier (1887/2017), the Cochrane Library (Issue 4, April 2017), Science Citation Index Expanded (1900/2017), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1915/2017), China Biological Medicine (1990/2017-04), WanFang (1980/2017), VIP (1989/2017), and Chinese Science Citation Database (1989/2017)...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Louise Wood, Michael Smith, Christopher B Miller, Ronan E O'Carroll
Background: Vaccinations are important preventative health behaviors. The recently developed Vaccination Attitudes Examination (VAX) Scale aims to measure the reasons behind refusal/hesitancy regarding vaccinations. Purpose: The aim of this replication study is to conduct an independent test of the newly developed VAX Scale in the UK. We tested (a) internal consistency (Cronbach's α); (b) convergent validity by assessing its relationships with beliefs about medication, medical mistrust, and perceived sensitivity to medicines; and (c) construct validity by testing how well the VAX Scale discriminated between vaccinators and nonvaccinators...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Ana M Palmar-Santos, Azucena Pedraz-Marcos, Juan Zarco-Colón, Milagros Ramasco-Gutiérrez, Eva García-Perea, Monserrat Pulido-Fuentes
BACKGROUND: The technological advances of medicine, and specifically the techniques of organ transplants, have allowed crossing the border of life and death. This is especially relevant in the case of heart transplant, since its symbolism requires a redefinition not only of these traditional concepts, but also of the body or of one's own identity. AIMS: To explore the experiences of patients after receiving a heart from a donor. METHODS: A phenomenological qualitative approach, through Merleau Ponty and Levinas perspectives, was conducted to capture the subjective experiences of heart transplant patients...
June 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Nadia Arif, Majed Al-Jefri, Isabella Harb Bizzi, Gianni Boitano Perano, Michel Goldman, Inam Haq, Kee Leng Chua, Manuela Mengozzi, Marie Neunez, Helen Smith, Pietro Ghezzi
The 1998 Lancet paper by Wakefield et al., despite subsequent retraction and evidence indicating no causal link between vaccinations and autism, triggered significant parental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze the online information available on this topic. Using localized versions of Google, we searched "autism vaccine" in English, French, Italian, Portuguese, Mandarin, and Arabic and analyzed 200 websites for each search engine result page (SERP). A common feature was the newsworthiness of the topic, with news outlets representing 25-50% of the SERP, followed by unaffiliated websites (blogs, social media) that represented 27-41% and included most of the vaccine-negative websites...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mary Halter, Carly Wheeler, Ferruccio Pelone, Heather Gage, Simon de Lusignan, Jim Parle, Robert Grant, Jonathan Gabe, Laura Nice, Vari M Drennan
OBJECTIVE: To appraise and synthesise research on the impact of physician assistants/associates (PA) in secondary care, specifically acute internal medicine, care of the elderly, emergency medicine, trauma and orthopaedics, and mental health. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: Electronic databases (Medline, Embase, ASSIA, CINAHL, SCOPUS, PsycINFO, Social Policy and Practice, EconLit and Cochrane), reference lists and related articles. INCLUDED ARTICLES: Peer-reviewed articles of any study design, published in English, 1995-2017...
June 19, 2018: BMJ Open
Jing Liu, Jin-Jin Lu, Kun Zhou, Jie Wan, Yan Li, Xiao-Yun Cui, Qun Gao, Yan-Chao Huang, Si-Nai Li, Qiao-Zhi Dong, Qian Lin
INTRODUCTION: Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is defined as the clinical diagnosis of heart failure (HF) and ejection fraction (EF) ≤40%, which is a severe public healthcare issue and brings a heavy social and economic burden for patients with HFrEF. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has a long history in treating HF. Questions concerning the efficacy and acceptability of CHM-related interventions in adult patients with HFrEF led us to use the method of systematic review and network meta-analysis to integrate direct and indirect evidence to create hierarchies for all CHM...
June 19, 2018: BMJ Open
Kevin F Erickson, Samaya Qureshi, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer
Rapid growth in electronic communications and digitalization, combined with advances in data management, analysis, and storage, have led to an era of "Big Data." The Social Security Amendments of 1972 turned end-stage renal disease (ESRD) care into a single-payer system for most patients requiring dialysis in the United States. As a result, there are few areas of medicine that have been as influenced by Big Data as dialysis care, for which Medicare's large administrative data sets have had a central role in the evaluation and development of public policy for several decades...
June 16, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Marco Rossi, Guido Schüpfer, Jacqueline Mauch
Increasing Complexity in Performance Delivery - Management Approach for Tertiary Care Centers Abstract. General social trends such as individualization and female shift increase the complexity for management in both technical and system management in addition to the inherent development in the hospital industry such as subspecialization, ageing societies and multimorbidity. Reduction of complexity is therefore absolutely necessary in order to be able to manage in a patient-friendly way as a maximum care provider...
June 2018: Praxis
Anna Ruggieri, Elisabetta Straface, Eugenio Sorrentino
OBJECTIVES: Gender medicine is a multi-faceted field of investigation integrating various aspects of psycho-social and biological sciences but it mainly deals with the impact of the gender on human physiology, pathophysiology, and clinical features of diseases. In Italy, the Decree Law 81/2008 recently introduced the gender issue in the risk assessment at the workplaces. METHODS: This review briefly describes our current knowledge on gender medicine and on the Italian legislation in risk management...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Giovannella Baggio
OBJECTIVES: From1995 (Beijing Conference) the World Health Organization strongly did call the attention on the need of great attention to women health and on the lack of studies on the differences in medicine between men and women. From the women health attention we arrived to gender medicine that is a transversal dimension of medicine which describes the differences within the same disease of symptoms, clinical evolution, drug therapy as well as prevention between men and women. METHODS: From some real life examples in this article we wish to make it clear that gender medicine is not a separated medical specialty but a dimension which pass through all specialties...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Anand Krishnan, Priyamadhaba Behera, Baridalyne Nongkynrih
Background.: Family studies are an integral part of teaching of community medicine to all undergraduate medical and nursing students. It enhances the understanding of students about social determinants and multifactorial causation of disease. However, there is no standard approach towards it and it is seen as a clinical presentation with some elements of family included. We describe a systematic and comprehensive approach to a family study. Methods.: Based on the existing literature and personal experience, we identified 11 domains under the acronym Family ASSESSMENT-Structure, Socioeconomic, Sickness, Nutritional, Educational, Environmental, Affordability, System (health), Mental, Family influence, Threats...
September 2017: National Medical Journal of India
Xue-Wei Pan, Xiao-Guang Zhang, Xia-Chan Chen, Qi Lu, Ying-Si Hu, Li-Ya Han, Jian-le Zheng, Jie Jin, Guo-Qing Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and spectrum of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) application and its related-factors in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients in China. METHODS: A structured questionnaire regarding the use of CAMs was administered to PD patients by face-to-face interview. Demographic and social variables, clinical characteristics and treatments, and the related factors of PD were also surveyed. RESULTS: Ninety out of 113 patients (79...
June 18, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Natchaya Kunanitthaworn, Tinakon Wongpakaran, Nahathai Wongpakaran, Salilthip Paiboonsithiwong, Natchaphon Songtrijuck, Pimolpun Kuntawong, Danny Wedding
BACKGROUND: This study identified and investigated the relationship between demographics, mental health problems, positive personality traits and perceived social support and motivation in medical education (MME) among first year medical students. METHODS: One hundred-thirty eight first year medical students completed the Academic Motivation Scale, Outcome Inventory, Strength Based Inventory, and Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support. Path analysis was conducted to identify relationships between the variables of interest and each type of motivation, including intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and amotivation...
June 18, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Kenneth Royal, Mari-Wells Hedgpeth, Keven Flammer
BACKGROUND: Shyness is defined as "the tendency to feel awkward, worried or tense during social encounters, especially with unfamiliar people." While shyness is not necessarily a social disorder, extreme cases of shyness may classify as a social phobia and require medical treatment. Extant research has noted shyness may be correlated with social problems that could be detrimental to one's health, career, and social relationships. This exploratory study examined the prevalence, source, and nature of shyness among incoming Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) program students at one veterinary medical school...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Kimberly C Lomonaco-Haycraft, Jennifer Hyer, Britney Tibbits, Jennifer Grote, Kelly Stainback-Tracy, Claire Ulrickson, Alison Lieberman, Lies van Bekkum, M Camille Hoffman
IntroductionPerinatal mood and anxiety disorders (PMADs) are the most common complication of pregnancy and have been found to have long-term implications for both mother and child. In vulnerable patient populations such as those served at Denver Health, a federally qualified health center the prevalence of PMADs is nearly double the nationally reported rate of 15-20%. Nearly 17% of women will be diagnosed with major depression at some point in their lives and those numbers are twice as high in women who live in poverty...
June 18, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Vincenzo Crupi, Jonathan D Nelson, Björn Meder, Gustavo Cevolani, Katya Tentori
Searching for information is critical in many situations. In medicine, for instance, careful choice of a diagnostic test can help narrow down the range of plausible diseases that the patient might have. In a probabilistic framework, test selection is often modeled by assuming that people's goal is to reduce uncertainty about possible states of the world. In cognitive science, psychology, and medical decision making, Shannon entropy is the most prominent and most widely used model to formalize probabilistic uncertainty and the reduction thereof...
June 17, 2018: Cognitive Science
Eulogia Kairiyama, Maria Esther Martínez Pardo, Eddy Sánchez Noda, Isabel Otero
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) played an important role in the establishment of new tissue banks and the improvement of already existing ones in Latin America. The Agency strongly supported, through regional, interregional and national technical cooperation projects, providing equipment, expert missions and training for the production and application of human tissues for transplantation. From 1999 to 2005 five regional courses were given in Buenos Aires under the modality of 1-year distance learning training courses and 1-week face to face courses...
June 18, 2018: Cell and Tissue Banking
James F Stark
Regeneration is a concept that has fascinated humans for centuries. Whether we have been trying to bring things back to life, extract additional resources from the world, or remodel our living spaces-domestic and urban-it is often presented as an unproblematic force for good. But what exactly does it mean to regenerate a body, mind or space? This paper, which introduces a collection of contributions on the theme of human regeneration, explores the limits and possibilities of regeneration as a conceptual tool for understanding the biological realm...
June 12, 2018: Palgrave Communications
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