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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545417/community-level-characteristics-and-environmental-factors-of-child-respiratory-illnesses-in-southern-arizona
#1
Nathan Lothrop, Khaleel Hussaini, Dean Billheimer, Paloma Beamer
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory illnesses (LRIs) and asthma are common diseases in children <5 years of age. Few studies have investigated the relationships between multiple, home-based social and environmental risk factors and asthma and LRIs in children. Of those that have, none have focused exclusively on children <5 years of age, who are more physiologically vulnerable and spend more time at home compared to older children. Further, no studies have done so at the community level...
May 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500423/physiological-self-regulation-buffers-the-relationship-between-impulsivity-and-externalizing-behaviors-among-nonclinical-adolescents
#2
Michelle A Kuhn, Joshua J Ahles, Jaclyn T Aldrich, Madeline D Wielgus, Amy H Mezulis
Trait impulsivity is a risk factor for rule breaking and aggressive (externalizing) behaviors among nonclinical youth. Buffers of trait-based risk are of practical interest to preventing externalizing behaviors. One such buffer may be the capacity and efforts of a child to self-regulate their physiology. Youth who possess baseline physiological self-regulatory capacities are more likely to maintain adaptive engagement with their environment and may be less prone to impulsively rule break or be aggressive. Similarly, youth who are able to use self-regulatory skills to calm their physiology in times of stress may be less likely to externalize distress...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479668/sex-differences-in-the-contribution-of-respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-and-trauma-to-children-s-psychopathology
#3
Sarah A O Gray, Katherine Theall, Rebecca Lipschutz, Stacy Drury
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a marker of parasympathetic activity, has been shown to moderate the relation between adversity and child behavioral outcomes; however, this work has been conducted in primarily Caucasian samples and limited in focus to family-level adversity. The current analysis extends the previous literature to examine the co-contribution of exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), baseline RSA, and RSA withdrawal to internalizing and externalizing behavior in a sample of primarily African American youth (n = 92) recruited using neighborhood mapping techniques from communities high in epidemiological indicators of adversity...
March 2017: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458616/assessing-biobehavioural-self-regulation-and-coregulation-in-early-childhood-the-parent-child-challenge-task
#4
Erika Lunkenheimer, Christine J Kemp, Rachel G Lucas-Thompson, Pamela M Cole, Erin C Albrecht
Researchers have argued for more dynamic and contextually relevant measures of regulatory processes in interpersonal interactions. In response, we introduce and examine the effectiveness of a new task, the Parent-Child Challenge Task, designed to assess the self-regulation and coregulation of affect, goal-directed behavior, and physiology in parents and their preschoolers in response to an experimental perturbation. Concurrent and predictive validity was examined via relations with children's externalizing behaviors...
January 2017: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342574/ultrasound-findings-in-tension-pneumothorax-a-case-report
#5
Maxine Inocencio, Jeannine Childs, Mikaela L Chilstrom, Kristin Berona
BACKGROUND: Delayed recognition of tension pneumothorax can lead to a mortality of 31% to 91%. However, the classic physical examination findings of tracheal deviation and distended neck veins are poorly sensitive in the diagnosis of tension pneumothorax. Point-of-care ultrasound is accurate in identifying the presence of pneumothorax, but sonographic findings of tension pneumothorax are less well described. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 21-year-old man with sudden-onset left-sided chest pain...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301888/geburtshilfe-an%C3%A3-sthesie-bei-fetaler-chirurgie
#6
Emmanuel Schneck, Christian Koch, Christoph Arens, Rainer Schürg, Thomas Zajonz, Anastasiia Khaleeva, Thomas Kohl, Markus A Weigand, Michael Sander
Due to the responsibility for the mother and the unborn child, fetal surgery represents a challenging task for the anesthesiologist. Maternal changes during pregnancy have to be considered as well as the fetal physiology and the surgeon's needs. Main principles of the anesthesiological management of fetal surgery include the stabilization of the mean arterial pressure in order to preserve a sufficient placental blood flow, sustainment of an adequate oxygenation and ventilation as well as thorough temperature surveillance...
March 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295263/preschoolers-genetic-physiological-and-behavioral-sensitivity-factors-moderate-links-between-parenting-stress-and-child-internalizing-externalizing-and-sleep-problems
#7
Molly Davis, Kristel Thomassin, Joanie Bilms, Cynthia Suveg, Anne Shaffer, Steven R H Beach
This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers' adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism-the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator-children's baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator-mothers' reports of children's negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (Mage  = 30.68 years, SDage  = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers' (Mage  = 3...
May 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278737/the-tell-tale-heart-physiological-reactivity-during-resolution-of-ambiguity-in-youth-anxiety
#8
Michelle Rozenman, Allison Vreeland, Marisela Iglesias, Melissa Mendez, John Piacentini
In the past decade, cognitive biases and physiological arousal have each been proposed as mechanisms through which paediatric anxiety develops and is maintained over time. Preliminary studies have found associations between anxious interpretations of ambiguity, physiological arousal, and avoidance, supporting theories that link cognition, psychophysiology, and behaviour. However, little is known about the relationship between youths' resolutions of ambiguity and physiological arousal during acute stress. Such information may have important clinical implications for use of verbal self-regulation strategies and cognitive restructuring during treatments for paediatric anxiety...
February 16, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991809/the-psychophysiology-of-parenting-individual-differences-in-autonomic-reactivity-to-positive-and-negative-mood-inductions-and-observed-parental-affect-during-dyadic-interactions-with-children
#9
Arin M Connell, Glen C Dawson, Sarah Danzo, Hannah N McKillop
Parenting is a complex activity driven, in part, by parental emotional and physiological responses. However, work examining the physiological underpinnings of parenting behavior is still in its infancy, and very few studies have examined such processes beyond early childhood. The current study examines associations between Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) indices of parents' physiological reactivity to positive and negative mood states and observed parental affect during a series of discussion tasks with their adolescent child...
February 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955652/early-skin-to-skin-contact-or-incubator-for-very-preterm-infants-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Laila Kristoffersen, Ragnhild Støen, Hilde Rygh, Margunn Sognnæs, Turid Follestad, Hilde S Mohn, Ingrid Nissen, Håkon Bergseng
BACKGROUND: Skin-to-skin care immediately following delivery is a common practice for term infants and has been shown to improve cardiorespiratory stability, facilitate early bonding, and promote breastfeeding. Since 2007, the use of skin-to-skin care has been practiced for preterm infants from 32 weeks of gestation in the delivery room at St. Olav's University Hospital. In the present study we aim to investigate whether skin-to-skin care following delivery is safe, and how it affects early and late outcomes compared to standard care for very preterm infants...
December 12, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876743/-the-possibilities-for-the-rational-pharmacotherapy-of-adenoiditis-in-the-children
#11
E P Karpova, D V Kharina
The available literature data give evidence that viral infection is the main cause underlying the development of inflammatory nasopharyngeal pathology in the children. According to ICD-10, nether acute nor chronic adenoiditis should be considered as a self-consistent nosological entity. Acute adenoiditis is usually regarded as a form of acute nasopharyngitis (J02) or acute respiratory viral infection (J06.9) whereas chronic adenoiditis is commonly referred to as representing other chronic diseases of the tonsils and adenoids (J 35...
2016: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726025/before-the-first-breath-prenatal-exposures-to-air-pollution-and-lung-development
#12
REVIEW
Mariana Matera Veras, Nilmara de Oliveira Alves, Lais Fajersztajn, Paulo Saldiva
Various environmental contaminants are known to impair the growth trajectories of major organs, indirectly (gestational exposure) or directly (postnatal exposure). Evidence associates pre-gestational and gestational exposure to air pollutants with adverse birth outcomes (e.g., low birth weight, prematurity) and with a wide range of diseases in childhood and later in life. In this review, we explore the way that pre-gestational and gestational exposure to air pollution affects lung development. We present results in topics underlining epidemiological and toxicological evidence...
March 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667969/the-role-of-negative-affect-and-physiological-regulation-in-maternal-attribution
#13
Zhe Wang, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Martha Ann Bell
OBJECTIVE: Mothers who attribute child misbehaviors to children's intentions, and not to situational causes, show more hostile parenting behaviors. Why are some mothers more likely than others to make more hostile attributions (i.e., high intentional attributions and low situational attributions) when confronted with child challenging behaviors? We examined the relation between mothers' perception of child challenging behaviors and their hostile attributions of child misbehaviors, with an emphasis on how maternal negative affect and resting vagal activity moderated this relation...
2016: Parenting, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602017/an-acute-respiratory-infection-of-a-physiologically-anemic-infant-is-a-more-likely-cause-of-sids-than-neurological-prematurity
#14
David T Mage, Maria Luisa Latorre, Alejandro G Jenik, E Maria Donner
INTRODUCTION: The cause of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is perhaps the oldest of unsolved mysteries of medicine, possibly dating back to Exodus in Biblical times when Egyptian children died in their sleep as if from a plague. It occurs when infants die unexpectedly with no sufficient cause of death found in a forensic autopsy, including death scene investigation and review of medical history. That SIDS is an X-linked recessive death from infectious respiratory disease of a physiologically anemic infant and not a simple anomalous cardiac or neurological condition is an extraordinary claim that requires extraordinary evidence...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485401/interactive-effects-of-attachment-and-fkbp5-genotype-on-school-aged-children-s-emotion-regulation-and-depressive-symptoms
#15
Jessica L Borelli, Patricia A Smiley, Hannah F Rasmussen, Anthony Gómez, Lauren C Seaman, Erika L Nurmi
Attachment insecurity is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors, but few studies have examined the effects of gene-environment interactions. In the context of environmental stress, a functional variant in the glucocorticoid receptor co-chaperone FKBP5 gene has been repeatedly shown to increase risk for psychiatric illness, including depression. We expand on prior work by exploring cross-sectional attachment by gene effects on both attachment insecurity and downstream physiological and behavioral measures in a diverse community sample of school-aged children (N=99, 49% girls, Mage=10...
July 30, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307152/calcium-deficiency-in-bangladesh-burden-and-proposed-solutions-for-the-first-1000-days
#16
Sabri Bromage, Tahmeed Ahmed, Wafaie W Fawzi
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh incurs among the highest prevalence of stunting and micronutrient deficiencies in the world, despite efforts against diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and protein-energy malnutrition which have led to substantial and continuous reductions in child mortality over the past 35 years. Although programs have generally paid more attention to other micronutrients, the local importance of calcium to health has been less recognized. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize available information on calcium deficiency in Bangladesh in order to inform the design of an effective national calcium program...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262609/obstructive-sleep-apnoea-children-are-not-little-adults
#17
REVIEW
Haya S Alsubie, Ahmed S BaHammam
During a child's development, several important developmental physiological sleep processes occur, and, occasionally, pathological disorders occur, which results in differences between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in adults and children. There are major differences in sleep and respiratory physiology as well as OSA symptoms and treatment options between children and adults. Many practitioners do not realize these differences, which results in delays in the diagnosis and treatment of OSA in children. The treatment options for OSA in children are markedly different compared with adults, effective in most children...
January 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090774/synchrony-of-physiological-activity-during-mother-child-interaction-moderation-by-maternal-history-of-major-depressive-disorder
#18
Mary L Woody, Cope Feurer, Effua E Sosoo, Paul D Hastings, Brandon E Gibb
BACKGROUND: Family environment plays an important role in the intergenerational transmission of major depressive disorder (MDD), but less is known about how day-to-day mother-child interactions may be disrupted in families with a history of MDD. Disruptions in mother-child synchrony, the dynamic and convergent exchange of physiological and behavioral cues during interactions, may be one important risk factor. Although maternal MDD is associated with a lack of mother-child synchrony at the behavioral level, no studies have examined the impact of maternal MDD on physiological synchrony...
July 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27080078/monitoring-of-autonomic-response-to-sociocognitive-tasks-during-treatment-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-by-wearable-technologies-a-feasibility-study
#19
Simone Di Palma, Alessandro Tonacci, Antonio Narzisi, Claudio Domenici, Giovanni Pioggia, Filippo Muratori, Lucia Billeci
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) represent a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in social domain, where the autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role. Several researchers have studied the ANS in ASD, during specific cognitive or sensory stimuli while few studies have examined response during social interactions. Wearable technologies can be very helpful in monitoring autonomic response in children with ASD in semi-naturalistic setting...
April 5, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27062623/respiratory-support-for-children-in-the-emergency-department
#20
REVIEW
Andreas Schibler, Donna Franklin
Respiratory support in paediatric emergency settings ranges from oxygen delivery with subnasal oxygen to invasive mechanical ventilation. Recent data suggest that oxygen can cause reperfusion injuries and should be delivered with caution within well-defined clinical target ranges. Most mild to moderate respiratory distress conditions with an oxygen requirement may benefit from early use of continuous positive airway pressure. High-flow nasal cannula therapy (HFNC) is an emerging alternative way to support the inspiratory effort combined with oxygen delivery and positive expiratory pressures without the need of complicated equipment or good compliance from the child...
February 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
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