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respiratory physiology child

Maxine Inocencio, Jeannine Childs, Mikaela L Chilstrom, Kristin Berona
BACKGROUND: Delayed recognition of tension pneumothorax can lead to a mortality of 31% to 91%. However, the classic physical examination findings of tracheal deviation and distended neck veins are poorly sensitive in the diagnosis of tension pneumothorax. Point-of-care ultrasound is accurate in identifying the presence of pneumothorax, but sonographic findings of tension pneumothorax are less well described. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 21-year-old man with sudden-onset left-sided chest pain...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Emmanuel Schneck, Christian Koch, Christoph Arens, Rainer Schürg, Thomas Zajonz, Anastasiia Khaleeva, Thomas Kohl, Markus A Weigand, Michael Sander
Due to the responsibility for the mother and the unborn child, fetal surgery represents a challenging task for the anesthesiologist. Maternal changes during pregnancy have to be considered as well as the fetal physiology and the surgeon's needs. Main principles of the anesthesiological management of fetal surgery include the stabilization of the mean arterial pressure in order to preserve a sufficient placental blood flow, sustainment of an adequate oxygenation and ventilation as well as thorough temperature surveillance...
March 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Molly Davis, Kristel Thomassin, Joanie Bilms, Cynthia Suveg, Anne Shaffer, Steven R H Beach
This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers' adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism-the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator-children's baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator-mothers' reports of children's negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (Mage  = 30.68 years, SDage  = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers' (Mage  = 3...
May 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
Michelle Rozenman, Allison Vreeland, Marisela Iglesias, Melissa Mendez, John Piacentini
In the past decade, cognitive biases and physiological arousal have each been proposed as mechanisms through which paediatric anxiety develops and is maintained over time. Preliminary studies have found associations between anxious interpretations of ambiguity, physiological arousal, and avoidance, supporting theories that link cognition, psychophysiology, and behaviour. However, little is known about the relationship between youths' resolutions of ambiguity and physiological arousal during acute stress. Such information may have important clinical implications for use of verbal self-regulation strategies and cognitive restructuring during treatments for paediatric anxiety...
February 16, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Arin M Connell, Glen C Dawson, Sarah Danzo, Hannah N McKillop
Parenting is a complex activity driven, in part, by parental emotional and physiological responses. However, work examining the physiological underpinnings of parenting behavior is still in its infancy, and very few studies have examined such processes beyond early childhood. The current study examines associations between Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) indices of parents' physiological reactivity to positive and negative mood states and observed parental affect during a series of discussion tasks with their adolescent child...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Laila Kristoffersen, Ragnhild Støen, Hilde Rygh, Margunn Sognnæs, Turid Follestad, Hilde S Mohn, Ingrid Nissen, Håkon Bergseng
BACKGROUND: Skin-to-skin care immediately following delivery is a common practice for term infants and has been shown to improve cardiorespiratory stability, facilitate early bonding, and promote breastfeeding. Since 2007, the use of skin-to-skin care has been practiced for preterm infants from 32 weeks of gestation in the delivery room at St. Olav's University Hospital. In the present study we aim to investigate whether skin-to-skin care following delivery is safe, and how it affects early and late outcomes compared to standard care for very preterm infants...
December 12, 2016: Trials
E P Karpova, D V Kharina
The available literature data give evidence that viral infection is the main cause underlying the development of inflammatory nasopharyngeal pathology in the children. According to ICD-10, nether acute nor chronic adenoiditis should be considered as a self-consistent nosological entity. Acute adenoiditis is usually regarded as a form of acute nasopharyngitis (J02) or acute respiratory viral infection (J06.9) whereas chronic adenoiditis is commonly referred to as representing other chronic diseases of the tonsils and adenoids (J 35...
2016: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
Mariana Matera Veras, Nilmara de Oliveira Alves, Lais Fajersztajn, Paulo Saldiva
Various environmental contaminants are known to impair the growth trajectories of major organs, indirectly (gestational exposure) or directly (postnatal exposure). Evidence associates pre-gestational and gestational exposure to air pollutants with adverse birth outcomes (e.g., low birth weight, prematurity) and with a wide range of diseases in childhood and later in life. In this review, we explore the way that pre-gestational and gestational exposure to air pollution affects lung development. We present results in topics underlining epidemiological and toxicological evidence...
October 10, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Zhe Wang, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Martha Ann Bell
OBJECTIVE: Mothers who attribute child misbehaviors to children's intentions, and not to situational causes, show more hostile parenting behaviors. Why are some mothers more likely than others to make more hostile attributions (i.e., high intentional attributions and low situational attributions) when confronted with child challenging behaviors? We examined the relation between mothers' perception of child challenging behaviors and their hostile attributions of child misbehaviors, with an emphasis on how maternal negative affect and resting vagal activity moderated this relation...
2016: Parenting, Science and Practice
David T Mage, Maria Luisa Latorre, Alejandro G Jenik, E Maria Donner
INTRODUCTION: The cause of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is perhaps the oldest of unsolved mysteries of medicine, possibly dating back to Exodus in Biblical times when Egyptian children died in their sleep as if from a plague. It occurs when infants die unexpectedly with no sufficient cause of death found in a forensic autopsy, including death scene investigation and review of medical history. That SIDS is an X-linked recessive death from infectious respiratory disease of a physiologically anemic infant and not a simple anomalous cardiac or neurological condition is an extraordinary claim that requires extraordinary evidence...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Jessica L Borelli, Patricia A Smiley, Hannah F Rasmussen, Anthony Gómez, Lauren C Seaman, Erika L Nurmi
Attachment insecurity is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors, but few studies have examined the effects of gene-environment interactions. In the context of environmental stress, a functional variant in the glucocorticoid receptor co-chaperone FKBP5 gene has been repeatedly shown to increase risk for psychiatric illness, including depression. We expand on prior work by exploring cross-sectional attachment by gene effects on both attachment insecurity and downstream physiological and behavioral measures in a diverse community sample of school-aged children (N=99, 49% girls, Mage=10...
July 30, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Sabri Bromage, Tahmeed Ahmed, Wafaie W Fawzi
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh incurs among the highest prevalence of stunting and micronutrient deficiencies in the world, despite efforts against diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and protein-energy malnutrition which have led to substantial and continuous reductions in child mortality over the past 35 years. Although programs have generally paid more attention to other micronutrients, the local importance of calcium to health has been less recognized. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize available information on calcium deficiency in Bangladesh in order to inform the design of an effective national calcium program...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Haya S Alsubie, Ahmed S BaHammam
During a child's development, several important developmental physiological sleep processes occur, and, occasionally, pathological disorders occur, which results in differences between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in adults and children. There are major differences in sleep and respiratory physiology as well as OSA symptoms and treatment options between children and adults. Many practitioners do not realize these differences, which results in delays in the diagnosis and treatment of OSA in children. The treatment options for OSA in children are markedly different compared with adults, effective in most children...
April 21, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Mary L Woody, Cope Feurer, Effua E Sosoo, Paul D Hastings, Brandon E Gibb
BACKGROUND: Family environment plays an important role in the intergenerational transmission of major depressive disorder (MDD), but less is known about how day-to-day mother-child interactions may be disrupted in families with a history of MDD. Disruptions in mother-child synchrony, the dynamic and convergent exchange of physiological and behavioral cues during interactions, may be one important risk factor. Although maternal MDD is associated with a lack of mother-child synchrony at the behavioral level, no studies have examined the impact of maternal MDD on physiological synchrony...
July 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Simone Di Palma, Alessandro Tonacci, Antonio Narzisi, Claudio Domenici, Giovanni Pioggia, Filippo Muratori, Lucia Billeci
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) represent a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in social domain, where the autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role. Several researchers have studied the ANS in ASD, during specific cognitive or sensory stimuli while few studies have examined response during social interactions. Wearable technologies can be very helpful in monitoring autonomic response in children with ASD in semi-naturalistic setting...
April 5, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Andreas Schibler, Donna Franklin
Respiratory support in paediatric emergency settings ranges from oxygen delivery with subnasal oxygen to invasive mechanical ventilation. Recent data suggest that oxygen can cause reperfusion injuries and should be delivered with caution within well-defined clinical target ranges. Most mild to moderate respiratory distress conditions with an oxygen requirement may benefit from early use of continuous positive airway pressure. High-flow nasal cannula therapy (HFNC) is an emerging alternative way to support the inspiratory effort combined with oxygen delivery and positive expiratory pressures without the need of complicated equipment or good compliance from the child...
February 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Fei Dong, He Yu, Jiaju Ma, Liqun Wu, Tiegang Liu, Guokai Lv, Jianhua Zhen, Xiaofei Li, George Lewith, Xiaohong Gu
BACKGROUND: Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) have a negative impact on both children's health and family wellbeing. Deficiency of ZhengQi used to be an instinct factor driving RRTI in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Our clinical observations suggest that children with gastrointestinal heat retention syndrome (GHRS) may have a greater risk of catching respiratory tract infections (RTIs). GHRS is a new predisposing factor for RRTI and it is dietary related. This study is aimed to explore association between GHRS and RRTI...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Claudia Barone, Nicolina Stefania Carucci, Claudio Romano
Dysphagia is an impairment of swallowing that may involve any structures from the mouth to the stomach. Esophageal dysphagia presents with the sensation of food sticking, pain with swallowing, substernal pressure, or chronic heartburn. There are many causes of esophageal dysphagia, such as motility disorders and mechanical and inflammatory diseases. Infrequently dysphagia arises from extrinsic compression of the esophagus from any vascular anomaly of the aortic arch. The most common embryologic abnormality of the aortic arch is aberrant right subclavian artery, clinically known as arteria lusoria...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Sarah K Abe, Olukunmi O Balogun, Erika Ota, Kenzo Takahashi, Rintaro Mori
BACKGROUND: Globally, more than two billion people are estimated to be deficient in key vitamins and minerals, particularly iodine, iron and zinc. The majority of these people live in low-income settings and are typically deficient in more than one micronutrient. However, micronutrient deficiency among breastfeeding mothers and their infants also remains an issue in high-income settings, specifically among women who avoid meat and/or milk, women who may lack sufficient supplies of vitamin B12 and vitamin D, and/or women who are iron-deficient...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ana S Alexandrino, Rita Santos, Cristina Melo, José M Bastos
BACKGROUND: Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and acute otitis media (AOM) are common in children attending day care centres. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize the risk factors of URTI, LRTI and AOM in children attending day care. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in children aged up to 3 years (n = 152) of six day care centres in Porto. Logistic regression was used on independent variables: mother-related, household-related, child-related and day care-related risk factors as predictors of the dependent variables: URTI, LRTI and AOM...
April 2016: Family Practice
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