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respiratory physiology ventilation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225741/what-is-the-proper-ventilation-strategy-during-laparoscopic-surgery
#1
REVIEW
Youn Yi Jo, Hyun-Jeong Kwak
The main stream of intraabdominal surgery has changed from laparotomy to laparoscopy, but anesthetic care for laparoscopic surgery is challenging for clinicians, because pneumoperitoneum might aggravate respiratory mechanics and arterial oxygenation. The authors reviewed the literature regarding ventilation strategies that reduce deleterious pulmonary physiologic changes during pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery under general anesthesia and make appropriate recommendations.
December 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222500/long-term-outcomes-in-survivors-of-epidemic-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-infection
#2
Jiajia Chen, Jie Wu, Shaorui Hao, Meifang Yang, Xiaoqing Lu, Xiaoxiao Chen, Lanjuan Li
Patients who survive influenza A (H7N9) virus infection are at risk of physical and psychological complications of lung injury and multi-organ dysfunction. However, there were no prospectively individualized assessments of physiological, functional and quality-of-life measures after hospital discharge. The current study aims to assess the main determinants of functional disability of these patients during the follow-up. Fifty-six influenza A (H7N9) survivors were investigated during the 2-year after discharge from the hospital...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221274/predictors-of-high-flow-nasal-cannula-failure-in-immunocompromised-patients-with-acute-respiratory-failure-due-to-non-hiv-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#3
Won-Young Kim, Heungsup Sung, Sang-Bum Hong, Chae-Man Lim, Younsuck Koh, Jin Won Huh
Background: To evaluate the predictors of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) failure in pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Methods: Fifty-two non-HIV-related PCP subjects were divided into a HFNC success group (44%) and a HFNC failure group (who required mechanical ventilation (MV) despite HFNC application) (56%). The clinical characteristics and physiologic effects were retrospectively reviewed and compared between the groups...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218379/a-prospective-international-observational-prevalence-study-on-prone-positioning-of-ards-patients-the-apronet-ards-prone-position-network-study
#4
C Guérin, P Beuret, J M Constantin, G Bellani, P Garcia-Olivares, O Roca, J H Meertens, P Azevedo Maia, T Becher, J Peterson, A Larsson, M Gurjar, Z Hajjej, F Kovari, A H Assiri, E Mainas, M S Hasan, D R Morocho-Tutillo, L Baboi, J M Chrétien, G François, L Ayzac, L Chen, L Brochard, A Mercat
INTRODUCTION: While prone positioning (PP) has been shown to improve patient survival in moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients, the rate of application of PP in clinical practice still appears low. AIM: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of use of PP in ARDS patients (primary endpoint), the physiological effects of PP, and the reasons for not using it (secondary endpoints). METHODS: The APRONET study was a prospective international 1-day prevalence study performed four times in April, July, and October 2016 and January 2017...
December 7, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215365/physiologic-evaluation-of-ventilation-perfusion-mismatch-and-respiratory-mechanics-at-different-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-in-patients-undergoing-protective-one-lung-ventilation
#5
Savino Spadaro, Salvatore Grasso, Dan Stieper Karbing, Alberto Fogagnolo, Marco Contoli, Giacomo Bollini, Riccardo Ragazzi, Gilda Cinnella, Marco Verri, Narciso Giorgio Cavallesco, Stephen Edward Rees, Carlo Alberto Volta
BACKGROUND: Arterial oxygenation is often impaired during one-lung ventilation, due to both pulmonary shunt and atelectasis. The use of low tidal volume (VT) (5 ml/kg predicted body weight) in the context of a lung-protective approach exacerbates atelectasis. This study sought to determine the combined physiologic effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and low VT during one-lung ventilation. METHODS: Data from 41 patients studied during general anesthesia for thoracic surgery were collected and analyzed...
December 6, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209423/the-physiological-effects-of-slow-breathing-in-the-healthy-human
#6
Marc A Russo, Danielle M Santarelli, Dean O'Rourke
Slow breathing practices have been adopted in the modern world across the globe due to their claimed health benefits. This has piqued the interest of researchers and clinicians who have initiated investigations into the physiological (and psychological) effects of slow breathing techniques and attempted to uncover the underlying mechanisms. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview of normal respiratory physiology and the documented physiological effects of slow breathing techniques according to research in healthy humans...
December 2017: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206492/intravenous-controlled-release-hydrogen-sulfide-protects-against-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#7
Lifeng Wang, Hao Yu, Yana Zhang, Caiyu Dong, Bo Liu
BACKGROUND: Despite its critical utility in providing life support to patients with impaired respiratory functions, prolonged mechanical ventilation has been found to cause a series of pathological changes in the lung that are collectively referred to as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (DATS-MSN), which is capable of releasing H2S in a slow and controlled manner, on VILI. METHODS: A murine VILI model was generated...
December 5, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196736/continuous-positive-airway-pressure-delivery-during-less-invasive-surfactant-administration-a-physiologic-study
#8
Gilles Jourdain, Marie De Tersant, Valentina Dell'Orto, Giorgio Conti, Daniele De Luca
OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the pressure delivery during less invasive surfactant administration, as we hypothesize that it might be reduced. STUDY DESIGN: Physiologic in vitro study in a ventilation lab, using different pressure generators, levels, and leaks in a model of neonatal airways/lung mimicking mechanical characteristics of respiratory distress syndrome. Pressure was measured at the lung and verified in vivo measuring pharyngeal pressure in 19 neonates under same conditions...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191982/case-studies-in-physiology-exercise-induced-diaphragm-fatigue-in-a-paralympic-champion-rower-with-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Nicholas B Tiller, Thomas R Aggar, Christopher R West, Lee M Romer
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this case report was to determine whether maximal upper-body exercise was sufficient to induce diaphragm fatigue in a Paralympic champion adaptive rower with low-lesion spinal cord injury (SCI). CASE PRESENTATION: An elite arms-only oarsman (age 28 y, stature 1.89 m, mass 90.4 kg) with motor-complete SCI (T12) performed a 1000 m time-trial on an adapted rowing ergometer. Exercise measurements comprised pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange, diaphragm EMG-derived indices of neural respiratory drive and intrathoracic pressure-derived indices of respiratory mechanics...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174976/deposition-pattern-of-aerosolized-legionella-using-an-ex-vivo-human-porcine-respiratory-model
#10
Sophie Perinel, Valérie Forest, Mathilde Landraud, Jérémie Pourchez, Françoise Girardot, Serge Riffard, Magalie Stauffert, Jean-Michel Vergnon, Séverine Allegra
Legionella are bacteria responsible for severe lung pathologies. However how they enter and are deposited within the respiratory tract remains poorly documented. Data using animal testing led to the establishment of mathematical models allowing the estimation of aerosol dispersion risks. But direct extrapolation to humans is questionable and experimental models more physiologically representative of the inhalation route are welcome. The aim of this study was to develop a model as close as possible to the human anatomy and physiology allowing determining the deposition pattern of aerosolized Legionella while limiting in vivo experiments...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174419/co-infection-with-influenza-associated-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-requiring-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#11
Sacha Rozencwajg, Nicolas Bréchot, Matthieu Schmidt, Guillaume Hékimian, Guillaume Lebreton, Sébastien Besset, Guillaume Franchineau, Ania Nieszkowska, Pascal Leprince, Alain Combes, Charles-Edouard Luyt
Co-infection frequency and impact among influenza-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are not known. This retrospective, observational analysis concerned data prospectively collected from patients admitted to our medical intensive care unit (ICU) who received ECMO support for influenza-associated ARDS between 2009 and 2016. Co-infection was defined as occurring within 48 hours following ICU admission. Among the 77 ARDS patients requiring ECMO support, 39 (51%) developed co-infections, with Staphylococcus aureus (18 (46%) of the co-infected) being the most prevalent pathogen...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173609/effects-of-patent-foramen-ovale-closure-on-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-pcosa-study
#12
Stephen P Hoole, Jules Hernández-Sánchez, William R Davies, Duncan C McNab, Patrick A Calvert, Bushra S Rana, Leonard M Shapiro, Michael G Davies
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown a higher prevalence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Right to left shunting through a PFO may be encouraged by the respiratory physiology of OSAS, contributing to the disease pathophysiology. We assessed whether PFO closure would improve respiratory polygraphy parameters compared with baseline measurements in patients with OSAS. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with newly diagnosed OSAS and a moderate-large PFO (prevalence, 18% of 143 patients screened) were referred for PFO closure...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173205/effect-of-maternal-dyslipidaemia-on-the-cardiorespiratory-physiology-and-biochemical-parameters-in-male-rat-offspring
#13
Keyth Sulamitta L Guimarães, Emmanuel Veríssimo de Araújo, Jailane Souza Aquino, Danilo Assis Gadelha, Camille Moura Balarini, João Henrique Costa-Silva, Marciane Magnani, Hubert Vidal, Valdir Andrade Braga, José Luiz de Brito Alves
The present study evaluated the effects of maternal dyslipidaemia on blood pressure (BP), cardiorespiratory physiology and biochemical parameters in male offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed either a control (CTL) or a dyslipidaemic (DLP) diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, both CTL and DLP offspring received standard diet. On the 30th and 90th day of life, blood samples were collected for metabolic analyses. Direct measurements of BP, respiratory frequency (RF), tidal volume (VT) and ventilation (VE) under baseline condition, as well as during hypercapnia (7 % CO2) and hypoxia (KCN, 0·04 %), were recorded from awake 90-d-old male offspring...
November 27, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171164/exercise-performance-haemodynamics-and-respiratory-pattern-do-not-identify-heart-failure-patients-who-end-exercise-with-dyspnoea-from-those-with-fatigue
#14
Marco Morosin, Stefania Farina, Carlo Vignati, Emanuele Spadafora, Susanna Sciomer, Elisabetta Salvioni, Gianfranco Sinagra, Piergiuseppe Agostoni
AIMS: The two main symptoms referred by chronic heart failure (HF) patients as the causes of exercise termination during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) are muscular fatigue and dyspnoea. So far, a physiological explanation why some HF patients end exercise because of dyspnoea and others because of fatigue is not available. We assessed whether patients referring dyspnoea or muscular fatigue may be distinguished by different ventilator or haemodynamic behaviours during exercise...
November 24, 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159682/physiological-and-biomechanical-responses-of-highly-trained-distance-runners-to-lower-body-positive-pressure-treadmill-running
#15
Kyle R Barnes, Jessica N Janecke
BACKGROUND: As a way to train at faster running speeds, add training volume, prevent injury, or rehabilitate after an injury, lower-body positive pressure treadmills (LBPPT) have become increasingly commonplace among athletes. However, there are conflicting evidence and a paucity of data describing the physiological and biomechanical responses to LBPPT running in highly trained or elite caliber runners at the running speeds they habitually train at, which are considerably faster than those of recreational runners...
November 21, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157654/an-innovative-lung-model-for-multiple-breath-washout-testing-in-health-and-disease
#16
Pinelopi Anagnostopoulou, Sarah Vomsattel, Anne-Christiane Kentgens, Marisa Guidi, Severin Binggeli, Lena Kohler, Florian Singer, Philipp Latzin, Dominik Obrist
BACKGROUND: Multiple breath washout (MBW) is a lung function test that identifies the degree of ventilation inhomogeneity (VI) in the lungs. In vitro validation of MBW devices is recommended. So far, plastic lung models for MBW validation ignored variable degrees of VI. Our primary aim was to create a plastic lung model applicable for physiological lung volumes and variable VI. METHODS: A plastic box divided in two chambers was filled with water and ventilated in various lung volumes and respiratory rates...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152912/physiological-and-anatomical-dead-space-in-mechanically-ventilated-newborn-infants
#17
Theodore Dassios, Paul Dixon, Ann Hickey, Sotirios Fouzas, Anne Greenough
OBJECTIVES: To compare the anatomical (VD-Ana ) and alveolar dead space (VD-Alv ) in term and prematurely born infants and identify the clinical determinants of those indices. WORKING HYPOTHESIS: VD-Ana and VD-Alv will be higher in prematurely born compared to term born infants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of data collected at King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. PATIENT SELECTION: Fifty-six infants (11 term, 45 preterm) were studied at a median age of 8 (IQR 2-33) days...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151414/-efficacy-of-noninvasive-ventilation-on-treatment-of-ards-caused-by-severe-pneumonia-after-kidney-transplantation
#18
Xiaoshu Liu, Zhengliang Xie, Hong Teng, Lijuan Chen, Jing Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) on the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by severe pneumonia after kidney transplantation. METHODS: The clinical data of 17 patients who were diagnosed as ARDS caused by severe pneumonia after kidney transplantation and treated with NIV in Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital from January 1st, 2014 to June 1st, 2016 were collected and retrospectively analyzed...
November 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144160/high-flow-nasal-cannula-oxygen-in-adults-an-evidence-based-assessment
#19
Matthew G Drake
High flow nasal cannula oxygenation has distinct advantages over other oxygen devices due to its unique effects on respiratory physiology. In particular, adjustable oxygen delivery and flow-dependent carbon dioxide clearance from the upper airway reduce work of breathing and can better match inspiratory demand during respiratory distress. Historically, few studies had evaluated whether the physiologic effects of these devices translated into clinical benefit. However, recent publications have begun to address this knowledge gap...
November 16, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138031/mortality-and-pulmonary-outcomes-of-extremely-preterm-infants-exposed-to-antenatal-corticosteroids
#20
Colm P Travers, Waldemar A Carlo, Scott A Mcdonald, Abhik Das, Edward F Bell, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Alan H Jobe, Ronald N Goldberg, Carl T D'Angio, Barbara J Stoll, Seetha Shankaran, Abbot R Laptook, Barbara Schmidt, Michele C Walsh, Pablo J Sanchez, M Bethany Ball, Ellen C Hale, Nancy S Newman, Rosemary D Higgins
BACKGROUND: Antenatal corticosteroids are given primarily to induce fetal lung maturation but results from meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials have not shown mortality or pulmonary benefits for extremely preterm infants although these are the infants most at risk of mortality and pulmonary disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine if exposure to antenatal corticosteroids is associated with a lower rate of death and pulmonary morbidities by 36 weeks' postmenstrual age...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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