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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780397/why-does-not-the-leaf-weight-area-allometry-of-bamboos-follow-the-3-2-power-law
#1
Shuyan Lin, Lijuan Shao, Cang Hui, Yu Song, Gadi V P Reddy, Johan Gielis, Fang Li, Yulong Ding, Qiang Wei, Peijian Shi
The principle of similarity (Thompson, 1917) states that the weight of an organism follows the 3/2-power law of its surface area and is proportional to its volume on the condition that the density is constant. However, the allometric relationship between leaf weight and leaf area has been reported to greatly deviate from the 3/2-power law, with the irregularity of leaf density largely ignored for explaining this deviation. Here, we choose 11 bamboo species to explore the allometric relationships among leaf area ( A ), density (ρ), length ( L ), thickness ( T ), and weight ( W )...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705490/a-mathematical-model-for-pressure-based-organs-behaving-as-biological-pressure-vessels
#2
Aaron R Casha, Liberato Camilleri, Marilyn Gauci, Ruben Gatt, David Sladden, Stanley Chetcuti, Joseph N Grima
We introduce a mathematical model that describes the allometry of physical characteristics of hollow organs behaving as pressure vessels based on the physics of ideal pressure vessels. The model was validated by studying parameters such as body and organ mass, systolic and diastolic pressures, internal and external dimensions, pressurization energy and organ energy output measurements of pressure-based organs in a wide range of mammals and birds. Seven rules were derived that govern amongst others, lack of size efficiency on scaling to larger organ sizes, matching organ size in the same species, equal relative efficiency in pressurization energy across species and direct size matching between organ mass and mass of contents...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687246/nitrogen-acquisition-net-production-and-allometry-of-alnus-fruticosa-at-a-young-moraine-in-koryto-glacier-valley-kamchatka-russian-far-east
#3
Koichi Takahashi, Kosuke Homma, Jiri Dorezal, Kotaro Yamagata, Valentina P Vetrova, Toshihiko Hara
Alders (Alnus spp.) often dominate at nutrient-poor sites by symbiotic relations with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria. However, little is known about quantitative relationships between root nodule as a nitrogen acquisition organ and leaf as a carbon acquisition organ. To examine carbon allocation, nitrogen acquisition and net production in nutrient-poor conditions, we examined allocation patterns among organs of shrub Alnus fruticosa at a young 80-year-old moraine in Kamchatka. Slopes of double-log allometric equations were significantly smaller than 1...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588401/allometry-and-ecology-of-the-bilaterian-gut-microbiome
#4
Scott Sherrill-Mix, Kevin McCormick, Abigail Lauder, Aubrey Bailey, Laurie Zimmerman, Yingying Li, Jean-Bosco N Django, Paco Bertolani, Christelle Colin, John A Hart, Terese B Hart, Alexander V Georgiev, Crickette M Sanz, David B Morgan, Rebeca Atencia, Debby Cox, Martin N Muller, Volker Sommer, Alexander K Piel, Fiona A Stewart, Sheri Speede, Joe Roman, Gary Wu, Josh Taylor, Rudolf Bohm, Heather M Rose, John Carlson, Deus Mjungu, Paul Schmidt, Celeste Gaughan, Joyslin I Bushman, Ella Schmidt, Kyle Bittinger, Ronald G Collman, Beatrice H Hahn, Frederic D Bushman
Classical ecology provides principles for construction and function of biological communities, but to what extent these apply to the animal-associated microbiota is just beginning to be assessed. Here, we investigated the influence of several well-known ecological principles on animal-associated microbiota by characterizing gut microbial specimens from bilaterally symmetrical animals ( Bilateria ) ranging from flies to whales. A rigorously vetted sample set containing 265 specimens from 64 species was assembled...
March 27, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538466/allometry-of-individual-reproduction-and-defense-in-eusocial-colonies-a-comparative-approach-to-trade-offs-in-social-sponge-dwelling-synalpheus-shrimps
#5
Sarah L Bornbusch, Jonathan S Lefcheck, J Emmett Duffy
Eusociality, one of the most complex forms of social organization, is thought to have evolved in several animal clades in response to competition for resources and reproductive opportunities. Several species of snapping shrimp in the genus Synalpheus, the only marine organisms known to exhibit eusociality, form colonies characterized by high reproductive skew, and aggressive territoriality coupled with cooperative defense. In eusocial Synalpheus colonies, individual reproduction is limited to female 'queens', whose fecundity dictates colony growth...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501500/assessment-of-oxytetracycline-baths-as-therapeutic-treatment-for-the-control-of-the-agent-of-withering-syndrome-ws-in-red-abalone-haliotis-rufescens
#6
Federico M Winkler, Ricardo García, María Vicenta Valdivia, Karin B Lohrmann
Withering Syndrome (WS) is a lethal disease that affects abalone species in both wild and farmed populations. This infection, caused by the rickettsial-like intracellular organism (RLO) Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, can severely impair the normal development of affected animals, and ultimately, their survival. The most common line of action against the WS has been the use of antibiotics, specifically oxytetracycline (OTC), administered via intramuscular injection and per os via medicated feed. In the present study, we have assessed the effectiveness of OTC baths as therapeutic treatment for the control of the WS agent in H...
March 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470499/unveiling-relationships-between-crime-and-property-in-england-and-wales-via-density-scale-adjusted-metrics-and-network-tools
#7
Haroldo V Ribeiro, Quentin S Hanley, Dan Lewis
Scale-adjusted metrics (SAMs) are a significant achievement of the urban scaling hypothesis. SAMs remove the inherent biases of per capita measures computed in the absence of isometric allometries. However, this approach is limited to urban areas, while a large portion of the world's population still lives outside cities and rural areas dominate land use worldwide. Here, we extend the concept of SAMs to population density scale-adjusted metrics (DSAMs) to reveal relationships among different types of crime and property metrics...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243890/the-evolution-of-floral-ontogenetic-allometry-in-the-andean-genus-caiophora-loasaceae-subfam-loasoideae
#8
Marina Micaela Strelin, Santiago Benitez-Vieyra, Juan Fornoni, Christian Peter Klingenberg, Andrea Cocucci
The astounding variety of angiosperm flower morphologies has evolved in response to many selective forces. Flower development is highly coordinated and involves developmental associations between size and shape, ontogenetic allometry, which in turn affect the morphology of mature flowers. Although ontogenetic allometries can act as a developmental constraint and may influence adaptive evolution, allometries can evolve themselves and may change rapidly in response to selection. We explored the evolution of ontogenetic allometry in the flowers of 11 species of Loasoideae...
January 2018: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201564/an-exceptionally-preserved-armored-dinosaur-reveals-the-morphology-and-allometry-of-osteoderms-and-their-horny-epidermal-coverings
#9
Caleb M Brown
Although the evolution and function of "exaggerated" bony projections in ornithischian dinosaurs has been subject to significant debate recently, our understanding of the structure and morphology of their epidermal keratinized coverings is greatly limited. The holotype of Borealopelta , a new nodosaurid ankylosaur, preserves osteoderms and extensive epidermal structures (dark organic residues), in anatomic position across the entire precaudal length. Contrasting previous specimens, organic epiosteodermal scales, often in the form of horn-like (keratinous) sheaths, cap and exaggerate nearly all osteoderms, allowing for morphometric and allometric analyses of both the bony osteoderms and their horny sheaths...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142108/growth-and-size-control-during-development
#10
REVIEW
Jannik Vollmer, Fernando Casares, Dagmar Iber
The size and shape of organs are characteristic for each species. Even when organisms develop to different sizes due to varying environmental conditions, such as nutrition, organ size follows species-specific rules of proportionality to the rest of the body, a phenomenon referred to as allometry. Therefore, for a given environment, organs stop growth at a predictable size set by the species's genotype. How do organs stop growth? How can related species give rise to organs of strikingly different size? No definitive answer has been given to date...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098692/ontogeny-of-hallucal-metatarsal-rigidity-and-shape-in-the-rhesus-monkey-macaca-mulatta-and-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes
#11
Biren A Patel, Jason M Organ, Tea Jashashvili, Stephanie H Bui, Holly M Dunsworth
Life history variables including the timing of locomotor independence, along with changes in preferred locomotor behaviors and substrate use during development, influence how primates use their feet throughout ontogeny. Changes in foot function during development, in particular the nature of how the hallux is used in grasping, can lead to different structural changes in foot bones. To test this hypothesis, metatarsal midshaft rigidity [estimated from the polar second moment of area (J) scaled to bone length] and cross-sectional shape (calculated from the ratio of maximum and minimum second moments of area, Imax /Imin ) were examined in a cross-sectional ontogenetic sample of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 73) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes; n = 79)...
January 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914457/gross-brain-morphology-of-the-armoured-catfish-rineloricaria-heteroptera-isbr%C3%A3-cker-and-nijssen-1976-siluriformes-loricariidae-loricariinae-a-descriptive-and-quantitative-approach
#12
Arturo Angulo, Francisco Langeani
The gross morphology of the brain of Rineloricaria heteroptera and its relation to the sensory/behavioural ecology of the species is described and discussed. The sexual and ontogenetic intraspecific variation in the whole brain length and mass, as well as within/between the eight different brain subdivisions volumes, is also examined and discussed. Negative allometry for the whole brain length/mass and relative growth of the telencephalon and optic tecta was observed. Positive allometry was observed for the relative growth of the olfactory bulbs and medulla oblongata...
December 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866006/the-natural-selection-of-metabolism-and-mass-selects-allometric-transitions-from-prokaryotes-to-mammals
#13
Lars Witting
The exponents of inter-specific allometries for several life history (metabolism, lifespan, reproductive rate, survival) and ecological (population density, home range) traits may evolve from the spatial dimensionality (d) of the intra-specific interactive competition that selects net assimilated energy into mass, with 1∕4 exponents being the two-dimensional (2D) case of the more general 1∕2d (Witting, 1995). While the exponents for mass-specific metabolism cluster around the predicted -1/4 and -1/6 in terrestrial and pelagic vertebrates, the allometries of mobile organisms are more diverse than the prediction...
October 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864302/the-allometry-of-the-central-nervous-system-during-the-postembryonic-development-of-the-spider-eratigena-atrica
#14
Teresa Napiórkowska, Jarosław Kobak
During ontogenesis, the size of a spider body, tissues and organs increases dramatically. The aim of the study was to estimate changes in the central nervous system of postembryonic stages of Eratigena atrica and compare them with the literature data on species differing in behavioural traits. Allometric analysis involved evaluation of histological slides embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The reduced major axis regression (RMA) was applied to find allometric relationships between the volumes of the particular parts of the body...
November 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754765/intraspecific-life-history-variation-in-contrasting-habitats-insights-from-an-obligate-symbiotic-organism
#15
Sonia Merinero, Gregorio Aragón, Isabel Martínez
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Life history theory predicts that plants in unfavorable habitats for juvenile growth and survival will commence reproduction at smaller sizes and exhibit higher reproductive allocations than those in favorable habitats. The scope of life history theory will increase if these predictions apply to a broad range of organisms. Populations of organisms in contrasting habitats may experience different demographic rates. Thus, we compared the demography and life history traits of a lichen species in contrasting habitats...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723960/a-validation-of-11-body-condition-indices-in-a-giant-snake-species-that-exhibits-positive-allometry
#16
Bryan G Falk, Ray W Snow, Robert N Reed
Body condition is a gauge of the energy stores of an animal, and though it has important implications for fitness, survival, competition, and disease, it is difficult to measure directly. Instead, body condition is frequently estimated as a body condition index (BCI) using length and mass measurements. A desirable BCI should accurately reflect true body condition and be unbiased with respect to size (i.e., mean BCI estimates should not change across different length or mass ranges), and choosing the most-appropriate BCI is not straightforward...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678866/correlation-between-investment-in-sexual-traits-and-valve-sexual-dimorphism-in-cyprideis-species-ostracoda
#17
Maria João Fernandes Martins, Gene Hunt, Rowan Lockwood, John P Swaddle, David J Horne
Assessing the long-term macroevolutionary consequences of sexual selection has been hampered by the difficulty of studying this process in the fossil record. Cytheroid ostracodes offer an excellent system to explore sexual selection in the fossil record because their readily fossilized carapaces are sexually dimorphic. Specifically, males are relatively more elongate than females in this superfamily. This sexual shape difference is thought to arise so that males carapaces can accommodate their very large copulatory apparatus, which can account for up to one-third of body volume...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633448/the-origin-of-novelty-through-the-evolution-of-scaling-relationships
#18
H Frederik Nijhout, Kenneth Z McKenna
Morphological novelty is often thought of as the evolution of an entirely new body plan or the addition of new structures to existing body plans. However, novel morphologies may also arise through modification of organ systems within an existing body plan. The evolution of novel scaling relationships between body size and organ size constitutes such a novel morphological feature. Experimental studies have demonstrated that there is genetic variation for allometries and that scaling relationships can evolve under artificial selection...
December 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590008/time-limited-environments-affect-the-evolution-of-egg-body-size-allometry
#19
Simon Eckerström-Liedholm, Will Sowersby, Alejandro Gonzalez-Voyer, Björn Rogell
Initial offspring size is a fundamental component of absolute growth rate, where large offspring will reach a given adult body size faster than smaller offspring. Yet, our knowledge regarding the coevolution between offspring and adult size is limited. In time-constrained environments, organisms need to reproduce at a high rate and reach a reproductive size quickly. To rapidly attain a large adult body size, we hypothesize that, in seasonal habitats, large species are bound to having a large initial size, and consequently, the evolution of egg size will be tightly matched to that of body size, compared to less time-limited systems...
July 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547211/sheldon-spectrum-and-the-plankton-paradox-two-sides-of-the-same-coin-a-trait-based-plankton-size-spectrum-model
#20
José A Cuesta, Gustav W Delius, Richard Law
The Sheldon spectrum describes a remarkable regularity in aquatic ecosystems: the biomass density as a function of logarithmic body mass is approximately constant over many orders of magnitude. While size-spectrum models have explained this phenomenon for assemblages of multicellular organisms, this paper introduces a species-resolved size-spectrum model to explain the phenomenon in unicellular plankton. A Sheldon spectrum spanning the cell-size range of unicellular plankton necessarily consists of a large number of coexisting species covering a wide range of characteristic sizes...
January 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
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