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allometry organ

James S Waters, Alison Ochs, Jennifer H Fewell, Jon F Harrison
Metabolic rates of individual animals and social insect colonies generally scale hypometrically, with mass-specific metabolic rates decreasing with increasing size. Although this allometry has wide ranging effects on social behaviour, ecology and evolution, its causes remain controversial. Because it is difficult to experimentally manipulate body size of organisms, most studies of metabolic scaling depend on correlative data, limiting their ability to determine causation. To overcome this limitation, we experimentally reduced the size of harvester ant colonies (Pogonomyrmex californicus) and quantified the consequent increase in mass-specific metabolic rates...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Alexey A Polilov, Anastasia A Makarova
The study of the influence of body size on structure in animals, as well as scaling of organs, is one of the key areas of functional and evolutionary morphology of organisms. Most studies in this area treated mammals or birds; comparatively few studies are available on other groups of animals. Insects, because of the huge range of their body sizes and because of their colossal diversity, should be included in the discussion of the problem of scaling and allometry in animals, but to date they remain insufficiently studied...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alexey Sukhotin, Natalia Fokina, Tatiana Ruokolainen, Christian Bock, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Gisela Lannig
According to the Membrane Pacemaker Theory of metabolism (MPT) allometric scaling of metabolic rate in animals is determined by the composition of cellular and mitochondrial membranes that changes with body size in a predictable manner. MPT has been elaborated from interspecific comparisons in mammals. It projects that the degree of unsaturation of membrane phospholipids decreases in larger organisms, thereby lowering ion permeability of the membranes and making cellular and thus whole animal metabolism more efficient...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Andrea Harnos, Zsolt Lang, Dóra Petrás, Sarah E Bush, Krisztián Szabó, Lajos Rózsa
Body size is one of the most fundamental characteristics of all organisms. It influences physiology, morphology, behavior, and even interspecific interactions such as those between parasites and their hosts. Host body size influences the magnitude and variability of parasite size according to Harrison's rule (HR: positive relationship between host and parasite body sizes) and Poulin's Increasing Variance Hypothesis (PIVH: positive relationship between host body size and the variability of parasite body size)...
December 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Wen-Li Tang, Douglas Evans, Lisa Kraemer, Huan Zhong
Understanding body size-dependent metal accumulation in aquatic organisms (i.e., metal allometry) is critical in interpreting biomonitoring data. While growth has received the most attention, little is known about controls of metal exposure routes on metal allometry. Here, size-dependent Cd accumulation in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from different routes were investigated by exposing mussels to A.((111)Cd spiked algae+(113)Cd spiked river water) or B.((111)Cd spiked sediments+(113)Cd spiked river water)...
February 2017: Chemosphere
Richard L Jantz, Lee Meadows Jantz, Joanne L Devlin
Secular change in height has been extensively investigated, but size and shape of the postcranial skeleton much less so. The availability of large, documented collections of nineteenth- and twentieth-century skeletons makes it possible to examine changes in skeletal structure over the past 150 years. We examined secular changes in long bone lengths and proportions, their allometric relationship to stature, and crosssectional properties of long bone shafts. Bone measurements and stature were organized into 10-year birth cohorts, ranging from 1840 to 1989...
January 2016: Human Biology
Loïc Costeur, Bastien Mennecart, Bert Müller, Georg Schulz
Foetuses are a source of scientific information to understand the development and evolution of anatomical structures. The bony labyrinth, surrounding the organ of balance and hearing, is a phylogenetically and ecologically informative structure for which still little concerning growth and shape variability is known in many groups of vertebrates. Except in humans, it is poorly known in many other placentals and its prenatal growth has almost never been studied. Ruminants are a diversified group of placentals and represent an interesting case study to understand the prenatal growth of the ear region...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
M Petelo, L Swierk
Whether or not sexually selected traits consistently exhibit positive allometry, i.e., are disproportionately large in larger individuals, is an ongoing debate. Multiple models and exceptions to this rule suggest that the underlying drivers of sexual trait allometry are nuanced. Here, we compare allometries of sexual and non-sexual traits of a species (Anolis aquaticus Taylor, 1956) within a well-studied lizard genus to test the competing hypotheses that sexual traits are, or are not, defined by positive allometry...
September 8, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Iswar K Hariharan
Coincident with the blossoming of the sakura was the 14th annual CDB Symposium hosted by the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology in Kobe, Japan. This year's meeting, 'Size in Development: Growth, Shape and Allometry' focused on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying differences in size and shape and how they have evolved. On display was the power of using diverse approaches ranging from the study of organoids to whole organisms.
August 1, 2016: Development
Christen K Mirth, W Anthony Frankino, Alexander W Shingleton
The relationship between organ and body size, known as morphological allometry, has fascinated biologists for over a century because changes in allometry generate the vast diversity of organism shapes. Nevertheless, progress has been limited in understanding the genetic mechanisms that regulate allometries and how these mechanisms evolve. This is perhaps because allometry is measured at the population level, however adult organ and body size depends on genetic background and the developmental environment of individuals...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Pasquale Raia, Federico Passaro, Francesco Carotenuto, Shai Meiri, Paolo Piras
Conventional wisdom holds that the complex shapes of deer antlers are produced under the sole influence of sexual selection. We questioned this view by demonstrating that trends for increased body size evolution passively yield more-complex ornaments, even in organisms where no effect of sexual selection is possible, with similar allometric slopes. Recent investigations suggest that sexual selection on antlers of larger deer species is stronger than that in smaller species; hence, the use of conspicuous antlers for display in large male deer is a secondary function driven by especially intense sexual selection on these large-bodied species...
August 2016: American Naturalist
M A Velazquez, C G C Smith, N R Smyth, C Osmond, T P Fleming
STUDY QUESTION: Does advanced maternal age (AMA) in mice affect cardiometabolic health during post-natal life in offspring derived from an assisted reproduction technology (ART) procedure? SUMMARY ANSWER: Offspring derived from blastocysts collected from aged female mice displayed impaired body weight gain, blood pressure, glucose metabolism and organ allometry during post-natal life compared with offspring derived from blastocysts from young females; since all blastocysts were transferred to normalized young mothers, this effect is independent of maternal pregnancy conditions...
September 2016: Human Reproduction
Eli Amson, Christian Kolb
How skeletal elements scale to size is a fundamental question in biology. While the external shape of long bones was intensively studied, an important component of their organization is also found in their less accessible inner structure. Here, we studied mid-diaphyseal properties of limb long bones, characterizing notably the thickness of their cortices (bone walls), in order to test whether body size directly influences bone inner organization. Previous examinations of scaling in long bones used broad samplings to encompass a wide range of body sizes...
August 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
Austin P Dreyer, Omid Saleh Ziabari, Eli M Swanson, Akshita Chawla, W Anthony Frankino, Alexander W Shingleton
Morphological scaling relationships between organ and body size-also known as allometries-describe the shape of a species, and the evolution of such scaling relationships is central to the generation of morphological diversity. Despite extensive modeling and empirical tests, however, the modes of selection that generate changes in scaling remain largely unknown. Here, we mathematically model the evolution of the group-level scaling as an emergent property of individual-level variation in the developmental mechanisms that regulate trait and body size...
August 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Kjetil Lysne Voje
Biological diversity is, to a large extent, a matter of variation in size. Proportional (isometric) scaling, where large and small individuals are magnified versions of each other, is often assumed to be the most common way morphological traits scale relative to overall size within species. However, the many traits showing nonproportional (allometric) scaling have motivated some of the most discussed hypotheses on scaling relationships in biology, like the positive allometry hypothesis for secondary sexual traits and the negative allometry hypothesis for genitals...
January 2016: American Naturalist
Vikram B Baliga, Rita S Mehta
Body shape plays a crucial role in the movement of organisms. In the aquatic environment, the shape of the body, fins, and the underlying axial skeleton reflect the ability of organisms to propel and maneuver through water. Ontogenetic changes in body shape and flexibility of the axial skeleton may coincide with shifts in ecology (e.g., changes in habitat or feeding mode). We use the evolution of cleaning behavior in the Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes) as a case study. Cleaner fishes are species that remove and consume ectoparasites from other organisms...
September 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Marie-Pier Hébert, Beatrix E Beisner, Roxane Maranger
The use of functional traits to characterize community composition has been proposed as a more effective way to link community structure to ecosystem functioning. Organismal morphology, body stoichiometry, and physiology can be readily linked to large-scale ecosystem processes through functional traits that inform on interspecific and species-environment interactions; yet such effect traits are still poorly included in trait-based approaches. Given their key trophic position in aquatic ecosystems, individual zooplankton affect energy fluxes and elemental processing...
April 2016: Ecology
Natalia Siomava, Ernst A Wimmer, Nico Posnien
Body size is an integral feature of an organism that influences many aspects of life such as fecundity, life span and mating success. Size of individual organs and the entire body size represent quantitative traits with a large reaction norm, which are influenced by various environmental factors. In the model system Drosophila melanogaster, pupal size and adult traits, such as tibia and thorax length or wing size, accurately estimate the overall body size. However, it is unclear whether these traits can be used in other flies...
June 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Jesús Marugán-Lobón, Akinobu Watanabe, Soichiro Kawabe
Encephalization is a core concept in comparative neurobiology, aiming to quantify the neurological capacity of organisms. For measuring encephalization, many studies have employed relative brain sizes corrected for expected allometric scaling to body size. Here we highlight the utility of a multivariate geometric morphometric (GM) approach for visualizing and analyzing neuroanatomical shape variation associated with encephalization. GM readily allows the statistical evaluation of covariates, such as size, and many software tools exist for visualizing their effects on shape...
2016: Journal of Anatomy
Wataru Morita, Naoki Morimoto, Hayato Ohshima
Human molars exhibit a type of metameric variation, which is the difference in serially repeated morphology within an organism. Various theories have been proposed to explain how this variation is brought about in the molars. Actualistic data that support the theories, however, are still relatively scarce because of methodological limitations. Here we propose new methods to analyse detailed tooth crown morphologies. We applied morphometric mapping to the enamel-dentine junction of human maxillary molars and examined whether odontogenetic models were adaptable to human maxillary molars...
September 2016: Journal of Anatomy
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