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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678866/correlation-between-investment-in-sexual-traits-and-valve-sexual-dimorphism-in-cyprideis-species-ostracoda
#1
Maria João Fernandes Martins, Gene Hunt, Rowan Lockwood, John P Swaddle, David J Horne
Assessing the long-term macroevolutionary consequences of sexual selection has been hampered by the difficulty of studying this process in the fossil record. Cytheroid ostracodes offer an excellent system to explore sexual selection in the fossil record because their readily fossilized carapaces are sexually dimorphic. Specifically, males are relatively more elongate than females in this superfamily. This sexual shape difference is thought to arise so that males carapaces can accommodate their very large copulatory apparatus, which can account for up to one-third of body volume...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633448/the-origin-of-novelty-through-the-evolution-of-scaling-relationships
#2
H Frederik Nijhout, Kenneth Z McKenna
Morphological novelty is often thought of as the evolution of an entirely new body plan or the addition of new structures to existing body plans. However, novel morphologies may also arise through modification of organ systems within an existing body plan. The evolution of novel scaling relationships between body size and organ size constitutes such a novel morphological feature. Experimental studies have demonstrated that there is genetic variation for allometries and that scaling relationships can evolve under artificial selection...
June 16, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590008/time-limited-environments-affect-the-evolution-of-egg-body-size-allometry
#3
Simon Eckerström-Liedholm, Will Sowersby, Alejandro Gonzalez-Voyer, Björn Rogell
Initial offspring size is a fundamental component of absolute growth rate, where large offspring will reach a given adult body size faster than smaller offspring. Yet, our knowledge regarding the coevolution between offspring and adult size is limited. In time-constrained environments, organisms need to reproduce at a high rate and reach a reproductive size quickly. To rapidly attain a large adult body size, we hypothesize that, in seasonal habitats, large species are bound to having a large initial size, and consequently, the evolution of egg size will be tightly matched to that of body size, compared to less time-limited systems...
June 7, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547211/sheldon-spectrum-and-the-plankton-paradox-two-sides-of-the-same-coin-a-trait-based-plankton-size-spectrum-model
#4
José A Cuesta, Gustav W Delius, Richard Law
The Sheldon spectrum describes a remarkable regularity in aquatic ecosystems: the biomass density as a function of logarithmic body mass is approximately constant over many orders of magnitude. While size-spectrum models have explained this phenomenon for assemblages of multicellular organisms, this paper introduces a species-resolved size-spectrum model to explain the phenomenon in unicellular plankton. A Sheldon spectrum spanning the cell-size range of unicellular plankton necessarily consists of a large number of coexisting species covering a wide range of characteristic sizes...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396676/a-conserved-potential-development-framework-applies-to-shoots-of-legume-species-with-contrasting-morphogenetic-strategies
#5
Lucas Faverjon, Abraham J Escobar-Gutiérrez, Isabelle Litrico, Gaëtan Louarn
A great variety of legume species are used for forage production and grown in multi-species grasslands. Despite their close phylogenetic relationship, they display a broad range of morphologies that markedly affect their competitive abilities and persistence in mixtures. Little is yet known about the component traits that control the deployment of plant architecture in most of these species. During the present study, we compared the patterns of shoot organogenesis and shoot organ growth in contrasting forage species belonging to the four morphogenetic groups previously identified in herbaceous legumes (i...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390726/effects-of-preweaning-nutrient-intake-in-the-developing-mammary-parenchymal-tissue
#6
F Soberon, M E Van Amburgh
Historically, mammary gland growth has been considered isometric the first 2 mo of life and then allometric until peripuberty. However, recent work indicated that the mammary gland might be responsive to nutrient intake preweaning. The objectives of this study were to describe the effects of nutrient intake preweaning on mammary gland development and to investigate cell specific proliferation during this phase of development. Twelve dairy heifer calves were fed either a fixed amount of milk replacer (MR; control, n = 6) or an amount of MR adjusted for BW (enhanced, n = 6)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338098/genome-wide-random-regression-analysis-for-parent-of-origin-effects-of-body-composition-allometries-in-mouse
#7
Jingli Zhao, Shuling Li, Lijuan Wang, Li Jiang, Runqing Yang, Yuehua Cui
Genomic imprinting underlying growth and development traits has been recognized, with a focus on the form of absolute or pure growth. However, little is known about the effect of genomic imprinting on relative growth. In this study, we proposed a random regression model to estimate genome-wide imprinting effects on the relative growth of multiple tissues and organs to body weight in mice. Joint static allometry scaling equation as sub-model is nested within the genetic effects of markers and polygenic effects caused by a pedigree...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331577/conservative-whole-organ-scaling-contrasts-with-highly-labile-suborgan-scaling-differences-among-compound-eyes-of-closely-related-formica-ants
#8
Craig D Perl, Sergio Rossoni, Jeremy E Niven
Static allometries determine how organ size scales in relation to body mass. The extent to which these allometric relationships are free to evolve, and how they differ among closely related species, has been debated extensively and remains unclear; changes in intercept appear common, but changes in slope are far rarer. Here, we compare the scaling relationships that govern the structure of compound eyes of four closely related ant species from the genus Formica. Comparison among these species revealed changes in intercept but not slope in the allometric scaling relationships governing eye area, facet number, and mean facet diameter...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323340/differential-scaling-patterns-of-vertebrae-and-the-evolution-of-neck-length-in-mammals
#9
Patrick Arnold, Eli Amson, Martin S Fischer
Almost all mammals have seven vertebrae in their cervical spines. This consistency represents one of the most prominent examples of morphological stasis in vertebrae evolution. Hence, the requirements associated with evolutionary modifications of neck length have to be met with a fixed number of vertebrae. It has not been clear whether body size influences the overall length of the cervical spine and its inner organization (i.e., if the mammalian neck is subject to allometry). Here, we provide the first large-scale analysis of the scaling patterns of the cervical spine and its constituting cervical vertebrae...
June 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319153/a-general-model-for-metabolic-scaling-in-self-similar-asymmetric-networks
#10
Alexander Byers Brummer, Van M Savage, Brian J Enquist
How a particular attribute of an organism changes or scales with its body size is known as an allometry. Biological allometries, such as metabolic scaling, have been hypothesized to result from selection to maximize how vascular networks fill space yet minimize internal transport distances and resistances. The West, Brown, Enquist (WBE) model argues that these two principles (space-filling and energy minimization) are (i) general principles underlying the evolution of the diversity of biological networks across plants and animals and (ii) can be used to predict how the resulting geometry of biological networks then governs their allometric scaling...
March 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276652/worker-brain-development-and-colony-organization-in-ants-does-division-of-labor-influence-neuroplasticity
#11
J Frances Kamhi, Aynsley Sandridge-Gresko, Christina Walker, Simon K A Robson, James F A Traniello
Brain compartment size allometries may adaptively reflect cognitive needs associated with behavioral development and ecology. Ants provide an informative system to study the relationship of neural architecture and development because worker tasks and sensory inputs may change with age. Additionally, tasks may be divided among morphologically and behaviorally differentiated worker groups (subcastes), reducing repertoire size through specialization and aligning brain structure with task-specific cognitive requirements...
March 9, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241131/ontogenetic-shifts-in-brain-organization-in-the-bluespotted-stingray-neotrygon-kuhlii-chondrichthyes-dasyatidae
#12
Thomas J Lisney, Kara E Yopak, Victoria Camilieri-Asch, Shaun P Collin
Fishes exhibit lifelong neurogenesis and continual brain growth. One consequence of this continual growth is that the nervous system has the potential to respond with enhanced plasticity to changes in ecological conditions that occur during ontogeny. The life histories of many teleost fishes are composed of a series of distinct stages that are characterized by shifts in diet, habitat, and behavior. In many cases, these shifts correlate with changes in overall brain growth and brain organization, possibly reflecting the relative importance of different senses and locomotor performance imposed by the new ecological niches they encounter throughout life...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228514/differentiating-causality-and-correlation-in-allometric-scaling-ant-colony-size-drives-metabolic-hypometry
#13
James S Waters, Alison Ochs, Jennifer H Fewell, Jon F Harrison
Metabolic rates of individual animals and social insect colonies generally scale hypometrically, with mass-specific metabolic rates decreasing with increasing size. Although this allometry has wide ranging effects on social behaviour, ecology and evolution, its causes remain controversial. Because it is difficult to experimentally manipulate body size of organisms, most studies of metabolic scaling depend on correlative data, limiting their ability to determine causation. To overcome this limitation, we experimentally reduced the size of harvester ant colonies (Pogonomyrmex californicus) and quantified the consequent increase in mass-specific metabolic rates...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225037/the-scaling-and-allometry-of-organ-size-associated-with-miniaturization-in-insects-a-case-study-for-coleoptera-and-hymenoptera
#14
Alexey A Polilov, Anastasia A Makarova
The study of the influence of body size on structure in animals, as well as scaling of organs, is one of the key areas of functional and evolutionary morphology of organisms. Most studies in this area treated mammals or birds; comparatively few studies are available on other groups of animals. Insects, because of the huge range of their body sizes and because of their colossal diversity, should be included in the discussion of the problem of scaling and allometry in animals, but to date they remain insufficiently studied...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153981/does-the-membrane-pacemaker-theory-of-metabolism-explain-the-size-dependence-of-metabolic-rate-in-marine-mussels
#15
Alexey Sukhotin, Natalia Fokina, Tatiana Ruokolainen, Christian Bock, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Gisela Lannig
According to the membrane pacemaker theory of metabolism (MPT), allometric scaling of metabolic rate in animals is determined by the composition of cellular and mitochondrial membranes, which changes with body size in a predictable manner. MPT has been elaborated from interspecific comparisons in mammals. It projects that the degree of unsaturation of membrane phospholipids decreases in larger organisms, thereby lowering ion permeability of the membranes and making cellular, and thus whole-animal metabolism more efficient...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925167/size-matters-for-lice-on-birds-coevolutionary-allometry-of-host-and-parasite-body-size
#16
Andrea Harnos, Zsolt Lang, Dóra Petrás, Sarah E Bush, Krisztián Szabó, Lajos Rózsa
Body size is one of the most fundamental characteristics of all organisms. It influences physiology, morphology, behavior, and even interspecific interactions such as those between parasites and their hosts. Host body size influences the magnitude and variability of parasite size according to Harrison's rule (HR: positive relationship between host and parasite body sizes) and Poulin's Increasing Variance Hypothesis (PIVH: positive relationship between host body size and the variability of parasite body size)...
December 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823784/body-size-dependent-cd-accumulation-in-the-zebra-mussel-dreissena-polymorpha-from-different-routes
#17
Wen-Li Tang, Douglas Evans, Lisa Kraemer, Huan Zhong
Understanding body size-dependent metal accumulation in aquatic organisms (i.e., metal allometry) is critical in interpreting biomonitoring data. While growth has received the most attention, little is known about controls of metal exposure routes on metal allometry. Here, size-dependent Cd accumulation in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from different routes were investigated by exposing mussels to A.((111)Cd spiked algae+(113)Cd spiked river water) or B.((111)Cd spiked sediments+(113)Cd spiked river water)...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737577/secular-changes-in-the-postcranial-skeleton-of-american-whites
#18
Richard L Jantz, Lee Meadows Jantz, Joanne L Devlin
Secular change in height has been extensively investigated, but size and shape of the postcranial skeleton much less so. The availability of large, documented collections of nineteenth- and twentieth-century skeletons makes it possible to examine changes in skeletal structure over the past 150 years. We examined secular changes in long bone lengths and proportions, their allometric relationship to stature, and crosssectional properties of long bone shafts. Bone measurements and stature were organized into 10-year birth cohorts, ranging from 1840 to 1989...
January 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726136/prenatal-growth-stages-show-the-development-of-the-ruminant-bony-labyrinth-and-petrosal-bone
#19
Loïc Costeur, Bastien Mennecart, Bert Müller, Georg Schulz
Foetuses are a source of scientific information to understand the development and evolution of anatomical structures. The bony labyrinth, surrounding the organ of balance and hearing, is a phylogenetically and ecologically informative structure for which still little concerning growth and shape variability is known in many groups of vertebrates. Except in humans, it is poorly known in many other placentals and its prenatal growth has almost never been studied. Ruminants are a diversified group of placentals and represent an interesting case study to understand the prenatal growth of the ear region...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605422/trait-allometries-generate-super-honesty-in-anolis-dewlaps-and-may-underlie-sexual-dimorphism
#20
Maria Petelo, Lindsey Swierk
Whether or not sexually selected traits consistently exhibit positive allometry (i.e. are disproportionately large in larger individuals) is an ongoing debate. Multiple models and exceptions to this rule suggest that the underlying drivers of sexual trait allometry are nuanced. Here, we compare allometries of sexual and non-sexual traits of a species (Anolis aquaticus) within a well-studied lizard genus to test the competing hypotheses that sexual traits are, or are not, defined by positive allometry. We further consider the relationships of trait functions, which are relatively well understood in the genus Anolis, and allometry to identify potential drivers of allometric patterns...
March 2017: Integrative Zoology
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