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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346140/em-connectomics-reveals-axonal-target-variation-in-a-sequence-generating-network
#1
Jörgen Kornfeld, Sam E Benezra, Rajeevan T Narayanan, Fabian Svara, Robert Egger, Marcel Oberlaender, Winfried Denk, Michael A Long
The sequential activation of neurons has been observed in various areas of the brain, but in no case is the underlying network structure well understood. Here we examined the circuit anatomy of zebra finch HVC, a cortical region that generates sequences underlying the temporal progression of the song. We combined serial block-face electron microscopy with light microscopy to determine the cell types targeted by HVC(RA) neurons, which control song timing. Close to their soma, axons almost exclusively targeted inhibitory interneurons, consistent with what had been found with electrical recordings from pairs of cells...
March 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286317/7t-fmri-faster-temporal-resolution-yields-optimal-bold-sensitivity-for-functional-network-imaging-specifically-at-high-spatial-resolution
#2
Peter E Yoo, Sam E John, Shawna Farquharson, Jon O Cleary, Yan T Wong, Amanda Ng, Claire Mulcahy, David B Grayden, Roger J Ordidge, Nicholas L Opie, Terence J O'Brien, Thomas J Oxley, Bradford A Moffat
Recent developments in accelerated imaging methods allow faster acquisition of high spatial resolution images. This could improve the applications of functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T (7T-fMRI), such as neurosurgical planning and Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs). However, increasing the spatial and temporal resolution will both lead to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) losses due to decreased signal intensity and T1-relaxation effect, respectively. This could potentially offset the SNR efficiency gains made with increasing temporal resolution...
March 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269269/suitability-of-nitinol-electrodes-in-neural-prostheses-such-as-endovascular-neural-interfaces
#3
Yan T Wong, Nicholas L Opie, Sam E John, Giulia Gerboni, Gil S Rind, Stephen M Ronayne, Kate E Fox, Thomas J Oxley, David B Grayden
A major challenge facing neural prostheses is the development of electrodes that are well tolerated by the brain and body. A novel way to circumvent the need to perform an invasive craniotomy and penetration of the blood-brain barrier to implant electrodes, is to guide electrodes up into the cerebral veins and place electrodes on the vessel walls adjacent to neuronal populations. To aid in the development of these stent based devices, microelectrodes manufactured from Nitinol would allow electrodes to be implanted via a catheter and then once deployed, alter their shape to conform to the vessel walls...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269267/feasibility-of-a-chronic-minimally-invasive-endovascular-neural-interface
#4
Nicholas L Opie, Gil S Rind, Sam E John, Stephen M Ronayne, David B Grayden, Anthony N Burkitt, Clive N May, Terence J O'Brien, Thomas J Oxley
Development of a neural interface that can be implanted without risky, open brain surgery will increase the safety and viability of chronic neural recording arrays. We have developed a minimally invasive surgical procedure and an endovascular electrode-array that can be delivered to overlie the cortex through blood vessels. Here, we describe feasibility of the endovascular interface through electrode viability, recording potential and safety. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrated that electrode impedance was stable over 91 days and low frequency phase could be used to infer electrode incorporation into the vessel wall...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244512/spectroscopic-evidence-for-the-origin-of-odd-even-effects-in-self-assembled-monolayers-and-effects-of-substrate-roughness
#5
Jiahao Chen, Jian Liu, Ian D Tevis, Richard S Andino, Christina M Miller, Lawrence D Ziegler, Xin Chen, Martin M Thuo
This paper reports the effects of substrate roughness on the odd-even effect in n-alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) probed by vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy. By fabricating SAMs on surfaces across the so-called odd-even limit, we demonstrate that differentiation of the vibrational frequencies of CH3 from SAMs derived from alkyl thiols with either odd (SAM(O)) or even (SAM(E)) numbers of carbons depends on the roughness of the substrate on which they are formed. Odd-even oscillation in SFG susceptibility amplitudes was observed for spectra derived from SAM(E) and SAM(O) fabricated on flat surfaces (RMS roughness = 0...
February 28, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227503/suitability-of-nitinol-electrodes-in-neural-prostheses-such-as-endovascular-neural-interfaces
#6
Yan T Wong, Nicholas L Opie, Sam E John, Giulia Gerboni, Gil S Rind, Stephen M Ronayne, Kate E Fox, Thomas J Oxley, David B Grayden, Yan T Wong, Nicholas L Opie, Sam E John, Giulia Gerboni, Gil S Rind, Stephen M Ronayne, Kate E Fox, Thomas J Oxley, David B Grayden, Sam E John, Stephen M Ronayne, David B Grayden, Nicholas L Opie, Kate E Fox, Giulia Gerboni, Thomas J Oxley, Yan T Wong, Gil S Rind
A major challenge facing neural prostheses is the development of electrodes that are well tolerated by the brain and body. A novel way to circumvent the need to perform an invasive craniotomy and penetration of the blood-brain barrier to implant electrodes, is to guide electrodes up into the cerebral veins and place electrodes on the vessel walls adjacent to neuronal populations. To aid in the development of these stent based devices, microelectrodes manufactured from Nitinol would allow electrodes to be implanted via a catheter and then once deployed, alter their shape to conform to the vessel walls...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227501/feasibility-of-a-chronic-minimally-invasive-endovascular-neural-interface
#7
Nicholas L Opie, Gil S Rind, Sam E John, Stephen M Ronayne, David B Grayden, Anthony N Burkitt, Clive N May, Terence J O'Brien, Thomas J Oxley, Nicholas L Opie, Gil S Rind, Sam E John, Stephen M Ronayne, David B Grayden, Anthony N Burkitt, Clive N May, Terence J O'Brien, Thomas J Oxley, Sam E John, Stephen M Ronayne, David B Grayden, Nicholas L Opie, Anthony N Burkitt, Terence J O'Brien, Clive N May, Thomas J Oxley, Gil S Rind
Development of a neural interface that can be implanted without risky, open brain surgery will increase the safety and viability of chronic neural recording arrays. We have developed a minimally invasive surgical procedure and an endovascular electrode-array that can be delivered to overlie the cortex through blood vessels. Here, we describe feasibility of the endovascular interface through electrode viability, recording potential and safety. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrated that electrode impedance was stable over 91 days and low frequency phase could be used to infer electrode incorporation into the vessel wall...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161829/effect-of-oral-niacin-on-central-retinal-vein-occlusion
#8
Michael W Gaynon, Yannis M Paulus, Ehsan Rahimy, Janet L Alexander, Sam E Mansour
PURPOSE: Niacin, a treatment for dyslipidemia, is known to induce vasodilation as a secondary effect. Previous instances of patients with chronic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and cystoid macular edema (CME) have been observed to spontaneously improve when placed on systemic niacin for hypercholesterolemia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of niacin on CRVO and associated ocular complications. METHODS: A prospective, single-center, non-randomized, interventional case series of niacin for CRVO was conducted...
February 4, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040731/quantifying-the-extent-to-which-index-event-biases-influence-large-genetic-association-studies
#9
Hanieh Yaghootkar, Michael P Bancks, Sam E Jones, Aaron McDaid, Robin Beaumont, Louise Donnelly, Andrew R Wood, Archie Campbell, Jessica Tyrrell, Lynne J Hocking, Marcus A Tuke, Katherine S Ruth, Ewan R Pearson, Anna Murray, Rachel M Freathy, Patricia B Munroe, Caroline Hayward, Colin Palmer, Michael N Weedon, James S Pankow, Timothy M Frayling, Zoltán Kutalik
As genetic association studies increase in size to 100 000s of individuals, subtle biases may influence conclusions. One possible bias is 'index event bias' (IEB) that appears due to the stratification by, or enrichment for, disease status when testing associations between genetic variants and a disease-associated trait. We aimed to test the extent to which IEB influences some known trait associations in a range of study designs and provide a statistical framework for assessing future associations. Analyzing data from 113 203 non-diabetic UK Biobank participants, we observed three (near TCF7L2, CDKN2AB and CDKAL1) overestimated (body mass index (BMI) decreasing) and one (near MTNR1B) underestimated (BMI increasing) associations among 11 type 2 diabetes risk alleles (at P  <  0...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27971266/a-new-coverage-with-evidence-development-dedicated-to-innovative-medical-biology-and-pathological-anatomy-and-cytology-procedures-in-france-overview-of-the-situation-after-one-year-of-implementation-and-focus-on-innovative-genetics-procedures
#10
E Sam, C Carbonneil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745971/the-landscape-of-mouse-meiotic-double-strand-break-formation-processing-and-repair
#11
Julian Lange, Shintaro Yamada, Sam E Tischfield, Jing Pan, Seoyoung Kim, Xuan Zhu, Nicholas D Socci, Maria Jasin, Scott Keeney
Heritability and genome stability are shaped by meiotic recombination, which is initiated via hundreds of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The distribution of DSBs throughout the genome is not random, but mechanisms molding this landscape remain poorly understood. Here, we exploit genome-wide maps of mouse DSBs at unprecedented nucleotide resolution to uncover previously invisible spatial features of recombination. At fine scale, we reveal a stereotyped hotspot structure-DSBs occur within narrow zones between methylated nucleosomes-and identify relationships between SPO11, chromatin, and the histone methyltransferase PRDM9...
October 20, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734204/postoperative-hypothermia-and-surgical-site-infection-following-peritoneal-insufflation-with-warm-humidified-carbon-dioxide-during-laparoscopic-colorectal-surgery-a-cohort-study-with-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#12
Sam E Mason, James M Kinross, Jane Hendricks, Thanjakumar H Arulampalam
BACKGROUND: Surgical Site Infection (SSI) occurs in 9 % of laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Warming and humidifying carbon dioxide (CO2) used for peritoneal insufflation may protect against SSI by avoiding postoperative hypothermia (itself a risk factor for SSI). This study aimed to assess the impact of CO2 conditioning on postoperative hypothermia and SSI and to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal resection was performed at a single UK specialist centre...
April 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497050/ocean-acidification-has-little-effect-on-developmental-thermal-windows-of-echinoderms-from-antarctica-to-the-tropics
#13
Sam E Karelitz, Sven Uthicke, Shawna A Foo, Mike F Barker, Maria Byrne, Danilo Pecorino, Miles D Lamare
As the ocean warms, thermal tolerance of developmental stages may be a key driver of changes in the geographical distributions and abundance of marine invertebrates. Additional stressors such as ocean acidification may influence developmental thermal windows and are therefore important considerations for predicting distributions of species under climate change scenarios. The effects of reduced seawater pH on the thermal windows of fertilization, embryology and larval morphology were examined using five echinoderm species: two polar (Sterechinus neumayeri and Odontaster validus), two temperate (Fellaster zelandiae and Patiriella regularis) and one tropical (Arachnoides placenta)...
August 6, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486153/canadian-network-for-mood-and-anxiety-treatments-canmat-2016-clinical-guidelines-for-the-management-of-adults-with-major-depressive-disorder-section-5-complementary-and-alternative-medicine-treatments
#14
Arun V Ravindran, Lynda G Balneaves, Guy Faulkner, Abigail Ortiz, Diane McIntosh, Rachel L Morehouse, Lakshmi Ravindran, Lakshmi N Yatham, Sidney H Kennedy, Raymond W Lam, Glenda M MacQueen, Roumen V Milev, Sagar V Parikh
BACKGROUND: The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) conducted a revision of the 2009 guidelines by updating the evidence and recommendations. The scope of the 2016 guidelines remains the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults, with a target audience of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. METHODS: Using the question-answer format, we conducted a systematic literature search focusing on systematic reviews and meta-analyses...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378157/chronic-impedance-spectroscopy-of-an-endovascular-stent-electrode-array
#15
Nicholas L Opie, Sam E John, Gil S Rind, Stephen M Ronayne, David B Grayden, Anthony N Burkitt, Clive N May, Terence J O'Brien, Thomas J Oxley
OBJECTIVE: Recently, we reported a minimally invasive stent-electrode array capable of recording neural signals from within a blood vessel. We now investigate the use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements to infer changes occurring to the electrode-tissue interface from devices implanted in a cohort of sheep for up to 190 days. APPROACH: In a cohort of 15 sheep, endovascular stent-electrode arrays were implanted in the superior sagittal sinus overlying the motor cortex for up to 190 days...
August 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337706/micro-ct-and-histological-evaluation-of-an-neural-interface-implanted-within-a-blood-vessel
#16
Nicholas Lachlan Opie, Nicole R van der Nagel, Sam E John, Kirstan Vessey, Gil S Rind, Stephen M Ronayne, Erica L Fletcher, Clive N May, Terence J OBrien, Thomas J Oxley
OBJECTIVE: Recently, we reported the development of a stent-mounted electrode array (Stentrode) capable of chronically recording neural signals from within a blood vessel with high fidelity. Preliminary data suggested incorporation of the Stentrode into the blood vessel wall was associated with improved recording sensitivity. We now investigate neointimal incorporation of the Stentrode, implanted in a cohort of sheep for up to 190 days. METHODS: Micro-CT, obtained from the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron, and histomorphometic techniques developed specifically for evaluation of cerebral vasculature implanted with a stent-electrode array were compared as measures to assess device incorporation and vessel patency...
April 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302913/improved-attachment-style-for-female-veterans-who-graduated-warrior-renew-sexual-trauma-treatment
#17
Lori S Katz, Sam E Park, Geta Cojucar, Cristi Huffman, Sarah Douglas
The Warrior Renew sexual trauma treatment program proposes to target perceived attachment style and the internal working models of interpersonal relationships. This study examined scores on the Relationships Scales Questionnaire and Brief Symptom Inventory pre- and posttreatment in a sample of 62 female veterans who graduated the program. Findings revealed that graduates of Warrior Renew reported significant decreases in fearful and dismissive insecure attachment and significant increases in secure attachment...
2016: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27227881/potentially-reversible-effect-of-niacin-therapy-on-edema-from-retinal-vein-occlusion
#18
Ehsan Rahimy, Michael W Gaynon, Yannis M Paulus, Janet L Alexander, Sam E Mansour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27210437/withanolides-derived-from-physalis-peruviana-poha-with-potential-anti-inflammatory-activity
#19
Mayuramas Sang-Ngern, Ui Joung Youn, Eun-Jung Park, Tamara P Kondratyuk, Charles J Simmons, Marisa M Wall, Michael Ruf, Sam E Lorch, Ethyn Leong, John M Pezzuto, Leng Chee Chang
Three new withanolides, physaperuvin G (1), with physaperuvins I (2), and J (3), along with seven known derivatives (4-10), were isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis peruviana. The structures of 1-3 were determined by NMR, X-ray diffraction, and mass spectrometry. Compounds 1-10 were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Compounds 4, 5, and 10 with potent nitric oxide inhibitory activity in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells, with IC50 values in the range of 0.32-7...
June 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207519/genetic-evidence-for-a-link-between-favorable-adiposity-and-lower-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-hypertension-and-heart-disease
#20
Hanieh Yaghootkar, Luca A Lotta, Jessica Tyrrell, Roelof A J Smit, Sam E Jones, Louise Donnelly, Robin Beaumont, Archie Campbell, Marcus A Tuke, Caroline Hayward, Katherine S Ruth, Sandosh Padmanabhan, J Wouter Jukema, Colin C Palmer, Andrew Hattersley, Rachel M Freathy, Claudia Langenberg, Nicholas J Wareham, Andrew R Wood, Anna Murray, Michael N Weedon, Naveed Sattar, Ewan Pearson, Robert A Scott, Timothy M Frayling
Recent genetic studies have identified some alleles that are associated with higher BMI but lower risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. These "favorable adiposity" alleles are collectively associated with lower insulin levels and higher subcutaneous-to-visceral adipose tissue ratio and may protect from disease through higher adipose storage capacity. We aimed to use data from 164,609 individuals from the UK Biobank and five other studies to replicate associations between a genetic score of 11 favorable adiposity variants and adiposity and risk of disease, to test for interactions between BMI and favorable adiposity genetics, and to test effects separately in men and women...
August 2016: Diabetes
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