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Philipp Leinen, Matthew F B Green, Taner Esat, Christian Wagner, F Stefan Tautz, Ruslan Temirov
Considering organic molecules as the functional building blocks of future nanoscale technology, the question of how to arrange and assemble such building blocks in a bottom-up approach is still open. The scanning probe microscope (SPM) could be a tool of choice; however, SPM-based manipulation was until recently limited to two dimensions (2D). Binding the SPM tip to a molecule at a well-defined position opens an opportunity of controlled manipulation in 3D space. Unfortunately, 3D manipulation is largely incompatible with the typical 2D-paradigm of viewing and generating SPM data on a computer...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Martin Dobricki, Paul Pauli
Almost all living species regularly explore environments that they experience as pleasant, aversive, arousing or frightening. We postulate that such exploratory behavior and emotional experience both are regulated based on the interdependent perception of one's body and stimuli that collectively define a spatial context such as a cliff. Here we examined this by testing if the interaction of the sensory input on one's gait and the sensory input on the spatial context is modulating both the emotional experience of the environment and its exploration through head motion...
October 2016: Heliyon
Daniel Tarsy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Sergei Kurenov, Juan Cendan, Saleh Dindar, Kristopher Attwood, James Hassett, Ruth Nawotniak, Gregory Cherr, William G Cance, Jörg Peters
OBJECTIVE: The study assesses user acceptance and effectiveness of a surgeon-authored virtual reality (VR) training module authored by surgeons using the Toolkit for Illustration of Procedures in Surgery (TIPS). METHODS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was selected to test the TIPS framework on an unusual and complex procedure. No commercial simulation module exists to teach this procedure. A specialist surgeon authored the module, including force-feedback interactive simulation, and designed a quiz to test knowledge of the key procedural steps...
October 6, 2016: Surgical Innovation
Edouard Mazerand, Marc Le Renard, Sophie Hue, Jean-Michel Lemee, Evelyne Klinger, Philippe Menei
BACKGROUND: Brain mapping during awake craniotomy is a well-known technique to preserve neurological functions, especially the language. It is still challenging to map the optic radiations due to the difficulty to test the visual field intraoperatively. OBJECTIVE: To assess the visual field during awake craniotomy, we developed the Functions' Explorer based on a Virtual Reality Headset (FEX-VRH). METHODS: The impaired visual field of ten patients was tested with the gold standard exam (an automated perimetry), and the FEX-VRH...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Kai Ren, Xiao-Ming Gong, Rong Zhang, Xiu-Hui Chen
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of virtual reality (VR) training on the gross motor function of the lower limb and the fine motor function of the upper limb in children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy. METHODS: Thirty-five children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy were randomly assigned to VR training group (n=19) and conventional training group (n=16). The conventional training group received conventional physical therapy and occupational therapy for three months...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Nikolaus E Wolter, Sharon L Cushing, Luis D Vilchez Madrigal, Adrian L James, Jennifer Campos, Blake C Papsin, Karen A Gordon
OBJECTIVE: To determine if children with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (UHL) demonstrate impaired balance compared with their normal hearing (NH) peers. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, case-control study. METHODS: Balance was assessed in14 UHL and 14 NH children using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test-2 (BOT-2) and time to fall (TTF) in an immersive, virtual-reality laboratory. Postural control was quantified by center of pressure (COP) using force plates...
September 30, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Gow-Lieng Tseng, Cheng-Yu Chen
High myopia is a global eye health problem because of its high incidence of sight-threatening complications. Due to the role of awareness, self-examination, and preventive behavior in prevention of morbidity of high myopia complications, promoting knowledge, capabilities, and attitude of high myopic personnel are required in this regard.In this quasi-experiment study, 31 freshmen with high myopia in a national university were enrolled in 2014. The data were collected by validated and reliable questionnaire based on health belief model (HBM) and self-efficacy theory...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Matthew J Smith, Morris D Bell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
A L Krupa, Aarti Jagannathan, Shanivaram K Reddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Allen Q Ye, Olusola A Ajilore, Giorgio Conte, Johnson GadElkarim, Galen Thomas-Ramos, Liang Zhan, Shaolin Yang, Anand Kumar, Richard L Magin, Angus G Forbes, Alex D Leow
This paper describes novel methods for constructing the intrinsic geometry of the human brain connectome using dimensionality-reduction techniques. We posit that the high-dimensional, complex geometry that represents this intrinsic topology can be mathematically embedded into lower dimensions using coupling patterns encoded in the corresponding brain connectivity graphs. We tested both linear and nonlinear dimensionality-reduction techniques using the diffusion-weighted structural connectome data acquired from a sample of healthy subjects...
December 2015: Brain Informatics
Giuseppe Riva, Rosa M Baños, Cristina Botella, Fabrizia Mantovani, Andrea Gaggioli
During life, many personal changes occur. These include changing house, school, work, and even friends and partners. However, the daily experience shows clearly that, in some situations, subjects are unable to change even if they want to. The recent advances in psychology and neuroscience are now providing a better view of personal change, the change affecting our assumptive world: (a) the focus of personal change is reducing the distance between self and reality (conflict); (b) this reduction is achieved through (1) an intense focus on the particular experience creating the conflict or (2) an internal or external reorganization of this experience; (c) personal change requires a progression through a series of different stages that however happen in discontinuous and non-linear ways; and (d) clinical psychology is often used to facilitate personal change when subjects are unable to move forward...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Youssef Shiban, Julia Dieme, Simone Brandl, Rebecca Zack, Andreas Mühlberger, Stefan Wüst
The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is considered a reliable paradigm for inducing psychosocial stress. Virtual reality (VR) has successfully been applied to ensure a greater degree of efficiency and standardization in the TSST. Studies using the TSST in VR (VR-TSST) have reported significant stress reactions, with subjective and peripheral physiological reactions comparable to those in response to the in vivo TSST and with lower cortisol reactions. The current study examined whether an additional virtual competitive factor triggers larger stress responses than a standard VR-TSST...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Yan-Lin Liu, Guo-Yang Li, Ping He, Ze-Qi Mao, Yanping Cao
Determining the mechanical properties of brain tissues is essential in such cases as the surgery planning and surgical training using virtual reality based simulators, trauma research and the diagnosis of some diseases that alter the elastic properties of brain tissues. Here, we suggest a protocol to measure the temperature-dependent elastic properties of brain tissues in physiological saline using the shear wave elastography method. Experiments have been conducted on six porcine brains. Our results show that the shear moduli of brain tissues decrease approximately linearly with a slope of -0...
September 21, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Sherrill J Smith, Sharon Farra, Deborah L Ulrich, Eric Hodgson, Stephanie Nicely, William Matcham
AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal effects of virtual reality simulation (VRS) on learning outcomes and retention. BACKGROUND: Disaster preparation for health care professionals is seriously inadequate. VRS offers an opportunity to practice within a realistic and safe environment, but little is known about learning and retention using this pedagogy. METHOD: A quasiexperimental design was used to examine the use of VRS with baccalaureate nursing students in two different nursing programs in terms of the skill of decontamination...
July 2016: Nursing Education Perspectives
Joanna Hale, Antonia F De C Hamilton
People mimic each other's actions and postures during everyday interactions. It is widely believed this mimicry acts as a social glue, leading to increased rapport. We present two studies using virtual reality to rigorously test this hypothesis. In Study 1, 50 participants interacted with two avatars who either mimicked their head and torso movements at a 1 or 3 second time delay or did not mimic, and rated feelings of rapport and trust toward the avatars. Rapport was higher towards mimicking avatars, with no effect of timing...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Brenda K Wiederhold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Kathryn B Francis, Charles Howard, Ian S Howard, Michaela Gummerum, Giorgio Ganis, Grace Anderson, Sylvia Terbeck
The nature of moral action versus moral judgment has been extensively debated in numerous disciplines. We introduce Virtual Reality (VR) moral paradigms examining the action individuals take in a high emotionally arousing, direct action-focused, moral scenario. In two studies involving qualitatively different populations, we found a greater endorsement of utilitarian responses-killing one in order to save many others-when action was required in moral virtual dilemmas compared to their judgment counterparts...
2016: PloS One
Shelley B Brundage, James M Brinton, Adrienne B Hancock
PURPOSE: Virtual reality environments (VREs) allow for immersion in speaking environments that mimic real-life interactions while maintaining researcher control. VREs have been used successfully to engender arousal in other disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of virtual reality environments to examine physiological reactivity and subjective ratings of distress in persons who stutter (PWS). METHOD: Subjective and objective measures of arousal were collected from 10PWS during four-minute speeches to a virtual audience and to a virtual empty room...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Fluency Disorders
W Geoffrey Wright, Jane McDevitt, Ryan Tierney, F Jay Haran, Kwadwo Osei Appiah-Kubi, Alex Dumont
PURPOSE: Balance impairment is a common sensorimotor symptom in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We designed an affordable, portable virtual reality (VR)-based balance screening device (Virtual Environment TBI Screen [VETS]), which will be validated relative to the Neurocom Sensory Organization Test (SOT) to determine if it can replace commonly used postural assessments. METHODS: This preliminary study examines healthy adults (n = 56) and adults with mTBI (n = 11)...
October 10, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
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