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Paulina R Davis, Ginevra Giannini, Karin Rudolph, Nathaniel Calloway, Christopher M Royer, Tina L Beckett, M Paul Murphy, Frederick Bresch, Dieter Pagani, Thomas Platt, Xiaohong Wang, Amy Skinner Donovan, Tiffany L Sudduth, Wenjie Lou, Erin Abner, Richard Kryscio, Donna M Wilcock, Edward G Barrett, Elizabeth Head
Beta-amyloid (Aβ) immunotherapy is a promising intervention to slow Alzheimer's disease. Aging dogs naturally accumulate Aβ and show cognitive decline. An active vaccine against fibrillar Aβ 1-42 (VAC) in aged beagles resulted in maintenance but not improvement of cognition along with reduced brain Aβ. Behavioral enrichment (ENR) led to cognitive benefits but no reduction in Aβ. We hypothesized cognitive outcomes could be improved by combining VAC with ENR in aged dogs. Aged dogs (11-12 years) were placed into 4 groups: (1) control/control (C/C); (2) control/VAC (C/V); (3) ENR/control (E/C); and (4) ENR/VAC (E/V) and treated for 20 months...
September 26, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Huiting Zhao, Yali Du, Pengfei Gao, Shujie Wang, Jianfang Pan, Yusuo Jiang
Chemosensory genes play a central role in sensing chemical signals and guiding insect behavior. The Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, is one of the most important insect species in China in terms of resource production, and providing high-quality products for human consumption, and also serves as an important pollinator. Communication and foraging behavior of worker bees is likely linked to a complex chemosensory system. Here, we used transcriptome sequencing on adult A. c. cerana workers of different ages to identify the major chemosensory gene families and the differentially expressed genes(DEGs), and to investigate their expression profiles...
2016: PloS One
R Barrois, Th Gregory, L Oudre, Th Moreau, Ch Truong, A Aram Pulini, A Vienne, Ch Labourdette, N Vayatis, S Buffat, A Yelnik, C de Waele, S Laporte, P P Vidal, D Ricard
For diagnosis and follow up, it is important to be able to quantify limp in an objective, and precise way adapted to daily clinical consultation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine if an inertial sensor-based method could provide simple features that correlate with the severity of lower limb osteoarthritis evaluated by the WOMAC index without the use of step detection in the signal processing. Forty-eight patients with lower limb osteoarthritis formed two severity groups separated by the median of the WOMAC index (G1, G2)...
2016: PloS One
Nidhi Rawat, Michael O Pumphrey, Sixin Liu, Xiaofei Zhang, Vijay K Tiwari, Kaori Ando, Harold N Trick, William W Bockus, Eduard Akhunov, James A Anderson, Bikram S Gill
Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat and barley that leads to reduced yield and mycotoxin contamination of grain, making it unfit for human consumption. FHB is a global problem, with outbreaks in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia and South America. In the United States alone, total direct and secondary economic losses from 1993 to 2001 owing to FHB were estimated at $7.67 billion. Fhb1 is the most consistently reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) for FHB resistance breeding...
October 24, 2016: Nature Genetics
Mandeep S Tamber, Dimitrios Nikas, Alexandra Beier, Lissa C Baird, David F Bauer, Susan Durham, Paul Klimo, Alexander Y Lin, Catherine Mazzola, Catherine McClung-Smith, Laura Mitchell, Rachana Tyagi, Ann Marie Flannery
BACKGROUND: No evidence-based guidelines exist on the role of cranial-molding orthosis (helmet) therapy for patients with positional plagiocephaly. OBJECTIVE: To address the clinical question: "Does helmet therapy provide effective treatment for positional plagiocephaly?" and to make treatment recommendations based on the available evidence. METHODS: The US National Library of Medicine Medline database and the Cochrane Library were queried by using MeSH headings and key words relevant to the objective of this systematic review...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Lissa C Baird, Paul Klimo, Ann Marie Flannery, David F Bauer, Alexandra Beier, Susan Durham, Alexander Y Lin, Catherine McClung-Smith, Laura Mitchell, Dimitrios Nikas, Mandeep S Tamber, Rachana Tyagi, Catherine Mazzola
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based guidelines are not currently available for the treatment of positional plagiocephaly and, in particular, for the use of physical therapy for treatment. OBJECTIVE: To answer the question: "does physical therapy provide effective treatment for positional plagiocephaly?" Treatment recommendations are created based on the available evidence. METHODS: The PubMed and the Cochrane Library were queried using MeSH headings and key words relevant to the objective of this systematic review...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Paul Klimo, Patrick Ryan Lingo, Lissa C Baird, David F Bauer, Alexandra Beier, Susan Durham, Alexander Y Lin, Catherine McClung-Smith, Laura Mitchell, Dimitrios Nikas, Mandeep S Tamber, Rachana Tyagi, Catherine Mazzola, Ann Marie Flannery
BACKGROUND: Plagiocephaly, involving positional deformity of the calvarium in infants, is one of the most common reasons for pediatric neurosurgical consultation. OBJECTIVE: To answer the question: "what is the evidence for the effectiveness of repositioning for positional plagiocephaly?" Treatment recommendations are provided based on the available evidence. METHODS: The National Library of Medicine MEDLINE database and the Cochrane Library were queried using MeSH headings and key words relevant to repositioning as a means to treat plagiocephaly and brachycephaly...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Catherine Mazzola, Lissa C Baird, David F Bauer, Alexandra Beier, Susan Durham, Paul Klimo, Alexander Y Lin, Catherine McClung-Smith, Laura Mitchell, Dimitrios Nikas, Mandeep S Tamber, Rachana Tyagi, Ann Marie Flannery
BACKGROUND: No evidence-based guidelines exist for the imaging of patients with positional plagiocephaly. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review and evidence-based guideline is to answer the question, Is imaging necessary for infants with positional plagiocephaly to make a diagnosis? METHODS: The National Library of Medicine Medline database and the Cochrane Library were queried with the use of MeSH headings and key words relevant to imaging as a means to diagnose plagiocephaly...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Abbas Agaimy, Matthias Bieg, Michael Michal, Helene Geddert, Bruno Märkl, Jan Seitz, Evgeny A Moskalev, Matthias Schlesner, Markus Metzler, Arndt Hartmann, Stefan Wiemann, Michal Michal, Thomas Mentzel, Florian Haller
Infantile myofibroma (MF) is an uncommon benign myofibroblastic tumor of infancy and childhood. Solitary adult MF shares similar features with infantile MF. The lesions occur in 3 clinicopathologic settings: solitary, multicentric, and generalized and can be either sporadic or familial. Traditionally, infantile MF has been included in the spectrum of infantile hemangiopericytoma. The recent World Health Organization classification listed MF, angioleiomyoma, and myopericytoma under the general heading of perivascular tumors in the sense of a morphologic spectrum of perivascular myoid cell neoplasms...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Shane Virani, Colin Russell, Megan L Bruschetta, Kevin Ngoc Hua, Brigitte M Potvin, David Cox, Stephen N Robinovitch
INTRODUCTION: Shoulder-to-head contact is the most common cause of concussions in ice hockey, accounting for 42% of cases in the National Hockey League (NHL). The goal of this project was to determine how shoulder pad stiffness, modified by adding foam padding over the shoulder cap of existing shoulder pads, affected head impact severity when participants delivered checks to an instrumented dummy. METHODS: Fifteen participants administered "the hardest shoulder checks they were comfortable delivering" to the head of a dummy equipped with tri-axial accelerometers and gyros mounted in its helmet...
October 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
William D Erwin, Aaron C Jessop, Martha V Mar, Homer A Macapinlac, Osama R Mawlawi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of IQ-SPECT gated blood pool (MUGA) under conditions of decreased scan time (ST). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten patients underwent routine 26-min, two-view planar, followed by LEHR and IQ-SPECT MUGA, on a Siemens dual-head Symbia scanner. Six 'back and forth' 4-min SPECT scans were summed into 4-, 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, and 24-min equivalent scans, and reconstructed iteratively (IQ-SPECT and LEHR) and with FBP (LEHR)...
October 21, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Tessa Brabander, Jaap Teunissen, Dik Kwekkeboom
PURPOSE: Physiological uptake in the uncinate process or pancreatic head has been described with Ga-labeled PET tracers for somatostatin receptor imaging. In-DTPA-octreotide is the only registered radiopharmaceutical for the imaging of neuroendocrine tumors. We studied the uptake in this region of the pancreatic head on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) using In-DTPA-octreotide in a large group of patients. Furthermore, known physiological and clinical characteristics are discussed in an attempt to elucidate this phenomenon...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Ana Coito, Christoph M Michel, Pieter van Mierlo, Serge Vulliemoz, Gijs Plomp
: The importance of functional brain connectivity to study physiological and pathological brain activity has been widely recognized. Here, we aimed to 1) review a methodological pipeline to investigate directed functional connectivity between brain regions using source signals derived from high-density EEG; 2) elaborate on some methodological challenges; 3) apply this pipeline to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and healthy controls to investigate directed functional connectivity differences in the theta and beta frequency bands during EEG epochs without visible pathological activity...
October 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Stijn van Weert, Rinze Reinhard, Elisabeth Bloemena, Jan Buter, Birgit I Witte, Marije R Vergeer, C René Leemans
BACKGROUND: We examined the assumption in conventional teaching about metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) being an indolent type of disease. METHODS: A single center analysis of 105 cases of ACC was performed. Radiographs were reviewed and tumor response to chemotherapy was measured. Distant disease-free survival (DDFS) and time to death since distant metastases diagnosis were analyzed. RESULTS: Forty-two percent of the patients were diagnosed with distant metastases...
October 24, 2016: Head & Neck
Joey Berlin
The Texas Medical Association's Hard Hats for Little Heads program has given away more than 235,000 helmets to Texas children in the past 22 years. A properly fitting helmet can reduce the risk of head injury by as much as 85 percent, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, and can reduce the risk of brain injury by as much as 88 percent.
October 1, 2016: Texas Medicine
Zuzana Novak, Mary Aglipay, Nick Barrowman, Keith O Yeates, Miriam H Beauchamp, Jocelyn Gravel, Stephen B Freedman, Isabelle Gagnon, Gerard Gioia, Kathy Boutis, Emma Burns, Andrée-Anne Ledoux, Martin H Osmond, Roger L Zemek
Importance: Persistent postconcussion symptoms (PPCS) pose long-term challenges and can negatively affect patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). To date, no large comprehensive study has addressed the association between PPCS and HRQoL. Objectives: To determine the association between HRQoL and PPCS at 4 weeks after concussion and assess the degree of impairment of HRQoL in the subsequent 12 weeks. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a prospective, multicenter cohort study (Predicting Persistent Postconcussive Problems in Pediatrics [5P]) from August 14, 2013, to September 30, 2014, children aged 5 to 18 years who presented to the emergency department within 48 hours after head injury and were considered to have an acute concussion were enrolled across 9 pediatric emergency departments within the Pediatric Emergency Research Canada Network...
October 24, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Vjekoslav Tomaić
Approximately 200 human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect human epithelial cells, of which the alpha and beta types have been the most extensively studied. Alpha HPV types mainly infect mucosal epithelia and a small group of these causes over 600,000 cancers per year worldwide at various anatomical sites, especially anogenital and head-and-neck cancers. Of these the most important is cervical cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women in many parts of the world. Beta HPV types infect cutaneous epithelia and may contribute towards the initiation of non-melanoma skin cancers...
October 19, 2016: Cancers
Kerry L Gagnon, Anne P DePrince
OBJECTIVE: While the importance of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has gained public attention in recent years, relatively little attention has been paid to head injuries among women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study screened for lifetime exposure to mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) among a sample of women who experienced recent IPV (median days since target incident = 26). METHOD: Participants included ethnically diverse women whose IPV experiences were reported to law enforcement...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Naeim Bahrami, Dev Sharma, Scott Rosenthal, Elizabeth M Davenport, Jillian E Urban, Benjamin Wagner, Youngkyoo Jung, Christopher G Vaughan, Gerard A Gioia, Joel D Stitzel, Christopher T Whitlow, Joseph A Maldjian
Purpose To examine the effects of subconcussive impacts resulting from a single season of youth (age range, 8-13 years) football on changes in specific white matter (WM) tracts as detected with diffusion-tensor imaging in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussions. Materials and Methods Head impact data were recorded by using the Head Impact Telemetry system and quantified as the combined-probability risk-weighted cumulative exposure (RWECP). Twenty-five male participants were evaluated for seasonal fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in specific WM tracts: the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)...
October 24, 2016: Radiology
Gilles Dreyfuss, Philippe Vignoles, Daniel Rondelaud
Field investigations on the habitats colonized by Galba truncatula or Omphiscola glabra were carried out on 162 farms of the Limousin region, Central France, to determine whether there is currently a decline in the number and size of snail populations. Seven types of snail habitats were considered here. Compared to the numbers of snail populations recorded from 1976 to 1992, the values noted from 2013 to 2016 were significantly lower, with a decline rate of 34% for G. truncatula and 23% for O. glabra. Variations in this decline rate with the type of snail habitat were also noted...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
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