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Uncorrected refractive error

Sumit Malhotra, Praveen Vashist, Mani Kalaivani, Noopur Gupta, Suraj Singh Senjam, Ramashankar Rath, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, causes and associated factors for visual impairment (VI) in rural population of Jhajjar district, Haryana, north India. METHODS: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in two blocks of Jhajjar district. A total of 34 villages were selected using probability proportionate to size sampling method. Adults aged 50 years and above were selected using compact segment cluster sampling approach. Presenting visual acuity using LogMAR E chart was measured along with collection of other demographic details as part of the house-to-house survey...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Nazife Sefi-Yurdakul, Hüseyin Kaykısız, Feray Koç
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of partial and full correction of refractive errors on sensorial and motor outcomes in children with refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE). METHODS: The records of pediatric cases with full RAE were reviewed; their first and last sensorial and motor findings were evaluated in two groups, classified as partial (Group 1) and full correction (Group 2) of refractive errors. RESULTS: The mean age at first admission was 5...
March 17, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Rupert R A Bourne, Jost B Jonas, Alain M Bron, Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Aditi Das, Seth R Flaxman, David S Friedman, Jill E Keeffe, John H Kempen, Janet Leasher, Hans Limburg, Kovin Naidoo, Konrad Pesudovs, Tunde Peto, Jinan Saadine, Alexander J Silvester, Nina Tahhan, Hugh R Taylor, Rohit Varma, Tien Y Wong, Serge Resnikoff
BACKGROUND: Within a surveillance of the prevalence and causes of vision impairment in high-income regions and Central/Eastern Europe, we update figures through 2015 and forecast expected values in 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of blindness, moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI), mild vision impairment and presbyopia was estimated for 1990, 2010, 2015, and 2020. RESULTS: Age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI for all ages decreased from 1990 to 2015 from 0...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Seyyedhassan Paylakhi, Cassandre Labelle-Dumais, Nicholas G Tolman, Michael A Sellarole, Yusef Seymens, Joseph Saunders, Hesham Lakosha, Wilhelmine N deVries, Andrew C Orr, Piotr Topilko, Simon Wm John, K Saidas Nair
A mismatch between optical power and ocular axial length results in refractive errors. Uncorrected refractive errors constitute the most common cause of vision loss and second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Although the retina is known to play a critical role in regulating ocular growth and refractive development, the precise factors and mechanisms involved are poorly defined. We have previously identified a role for the secreted serine protease PRSS56 in ocular size determination and PRSS56 variants have been implicated in the etiology of both hyperopia and myopia, highlighting its importance in refractive development...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Thomas A Berk, Matthew B Schlenker, Xavier Campos-Möller, Austin M Pereira, Iqbal Ike K Ahmed
PURPOSE: Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) has emerged as an alternative to manual cataract surgery (MCS) for corneal incision and capsulorhexis creation, as well as nuclear fragmentation. This study compares postoperative refractive and visual outcomes in eyes receiving MCS or FLACS. DESIGN: Single-center, comparative, retrospective cohort analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive eyes receiving FLACS and MCS from July 1, 2012, to July 31, 2015, at a single tertiary care center...
March 6, 2018: Ophthalmology
Tomoaki Nakamura, Takahiro Kataoka, Takashi Kojima, Yoko Yoshida, Yasuo Sugiyama
PURPOSE: This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel procedure named phototherapeutic refractive keratectomy (PTRK), which is a sequential procedure composed of phototherapeutic keratectomy ablation for removal of opacities, followed by smoothing ablation for reducing the corneal surface irregularities and photorefractive keratectomy ablation for correcting refractive errors in eyes with primary granular corneal dystrophy. METHODS: Twenty-three eyes of 17 patients with granular corneal dystrophy were treated with PTRK...
February 22, 2018: Cornea
Vinay Kansal, Matthew Schlenker, Iqbal Ike K Ahmed
PURPOSE: To determine whether differences between eyes in axial length (AL) and corneal power (K) on optical biometry are predictive of refractive outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 729 patients (1458 eyes) who underwent bilateral phacoemulsification at TLC (Mississauga, Ontario, Canada) from September 2013 to August 2015. METHODS: We compared the proportion of patients having >0...
February 16, 2018: Ophthalmology
Jennifer R Evans, Priya Morjaria, Christine Powell
BACKGROUND: Although the benefits of vision screening seem intuitive, the value of such programmes in junior and senior schools has been questioned. In addition there exists a lack of clarity regarding the optimum age for screening and frequency at which to carry out screening. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of vision screening programmes carried out in schools to reduce the prevalence of correctable visual acuity deficits due to refractive error in school-age children...
February 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Guisen Zhang, Yih-Chung Tham, Hui Gong, Fengmei Ren, Jilitu Morige, Wei Dai, Ching-Yu Cheng, Han Zhang, Lei Liu
BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence and causes of visual impairment (VI), and to describe the characteristics of cataract surgery coverage and related barriers among adults aged ≥50 years residing in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was performed. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was measured using the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) methodology. All VI cases were defined using the WHO definition, based on the PVA of the better-seeing eye...
February 8, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Yanping Li, Wenyong Huang, Aoyun Qiqige, Hongwei Zhang, Ling Jin, Pula Ti, Jennifer Yip, Baixiang Xiao
BACKGROUND: The aim of this cross-sectional study is to ascertain the prevalence and causes of blindness, visual impairment, uptake of cataract surgery among different ethnic groups in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. METHODS: Four thousand one hundred fifty people at 50 years and above from different minority ethnic groups were randomly selected for an eye examination. The four trained eye teams collected data using tumbling E visual chart, torch, portable slit lamp and direct ophthalmoscope in 2015...
February 13, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
T Liu, T Yu, J Pan, Y C Zou, L N Liu, Q X Kan, J Bai
Objective: To observe the change of refractive status and possible influencing factors for patients with different corneal power who underwent small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) surgery. Methods: Prospective cohort study was performed for patients who underwent small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) surgery at Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery of Third Military Medical University between January and August 2016. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to their corneal power: low curvature group (K(1)≤41...
January 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
L Zhang, Y Wang, T Cui, W Zhao, W B Cheng
Objective: To evaluate the changes of corneal transparency over the 1-year period after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) according to corneal Scheimpflug densitometry. Methods: Prospective cohort study. Fifty-five patients (100 eyes) with myopia (19 male and 36 female, aged 18 to 39 years with average of 24) who underwent SMILE and regular follow-up for at least 1 year at Tianjin Eye Hospital were enrolled. Examinations took place before SMILE and postoperatively at 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months...
January 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Pamela M Anketell, Kathryn J Saunders, Stephen M Gallagher, Clare Bailey, Julie-Anne Little
SIGNIFICANCE: Accommodative responses were significantly poorer in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with age-matched typically developing control subjects, and hypoaccommodation was associated with reduced near visual acuity (NVA) and convergence. PURPOSE: Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a reported prevalence of 1.1 to 1.5%. Accommodative dysfunction has been noted in other developmental conditions including cerebral palsy and Down syndrome...
February 8, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Tawna L Roberts, Scott B Stevenson, Julia S Benoit, Ruth E Manny, Heather A Anderson
SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that blur detection thresholds are elevated in young children compared with adults, and poorer blur detection thresholds are significantly correlated with the magnitude of accommodative microfluctuations. Given that accommodative microfluctuations are greater with greater accommodative responses, these findings may have implications for young uncorrected hyperopes. PURPOSE: This study investigated the association between subjective blur detection thresholds and accommodative microfluctuations in children 3 years to younger than 10 years old and adults...
February 3, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Anvesh Annadanam, Varshini Varadaraj, Lucy I Mudie, Alice Liu, William G Plum, J Kevin White, Megan E Collins, David S Friedman
BACKGROUND: The USee device is a new self-refraction tool that allows users to determine their own refractive error. We evaluated the ease of use of USee in adults, and compared the refractive error correction achieved with USee to clinical manifest refraction. METHODS: Sixty adults with uncorrected visual acuity <20/30 and spherical equivalent between -6.00 and +6.00 diopters completed manifest refraction and self-refraction. RESULTS: Subjects had a mean (±SD) age of 53...
2018: PloS One
Abdulrahman Mohammed Al-Amri
AIM: To evaluate the visual outcomes of simultaneous non-topography guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) in eyes with keratoconus 5y after the procedure. METHODS: Prospective, interventional, non-randomized, and non-controlled case series design was used. Sixty eyes of 30 patients (16 males and 14 females; age: 21-41y) with mild, non-progressive (stages 1-2) keratoconus were enrolled. Refraction, uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), flat and steep keratometry readings, and adverse events were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Joshua Foreman, Jing Xie, Stuart Keel, Ghee Soon Ang, Pei Ying Lee, Rupert Bourne, Jonathan G Crowston, Hugh R Taylor, Mohamed Dirani
Importance: This study determines the prevalence of unilateral vision impairment (VI) and unilateral blindness to assist in policy formulation for eye health care services. Objective: To determine the prevalence and causes of unilateral VI and unilateral blindness in Australia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted from March 2015 to April 2016 at 30 randomly selected sites across all strata of geographic remoteness in Australia...
January 25, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Juan A Durán, Elisa Gutiérrez, Rebeca Atienza, David P Piñero
PURPOSE: To assess the ocular optical quality results as well as the astigmatic changes after wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in eyes with myopic astigmatism. SETTING: Instituto Clínico-Quirúrgico Oftalmológico, Bilbao, Vizcaya, Spain. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: Thirty-three eyes having wavefront-guided LASIK with the Star S4IR excimer laser combined with the iDesign system were enrolled in the study...
December 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Islay Mactaggart, Sarah Polack, Gvs Murthy, Hannah Kuper
PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence and correlates of visual impairment in Mahabubnagar district, Telangana, India. METHODS: Fifty-one clusters of 80 people (all ages) were sampled with probability proportionate to size. Households within clusters were selected through the compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was measured with a tumbling "E" chart. An Ophthalmic Assistant or Vision Technician examined people with VA<6/12 in either eye. Other impairments (hearing, physical) were clinically assessed and self-reported functional difficulties measured using the Washington Group Extended Set...
December 27, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Baha Toygar, Ozge Yabas Kiziloglu, Okan Toygar, Ali Murat Hacimustafaoglu
AIM: To evaluate clinical outcomes after implantation of a new diffractive aspheric multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) with +3.00 addition power. METHODS: This is a retrospective, consecutive case series of cataract patients who underwent bilateral implantation of the Optiflex MO/HF D012 (Moss Vision Inc. Ltd, London, UK) multifocal IOL. Patients followed for 6mo were included in the study. Data on distance, intermediate and near visual acuity, refractive error [manifest spherical equivalent (MSE)], contrast sensitivity, adverse events, subjective symptoms, spectacle independence and patient satisfaction [visual function questionnaire (VFQ)-25 questionnaire] were retrieved from electronic medical records and analyzed...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
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