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Executive function small vessel disease

J Matthijs Biesbroek, Nick A Weaver, Saima Hilal, Hugo J Kuijf, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Xin Xu, Boon Yeow Tan, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Albert Postma, Geert Jan Biessels, Christopher P L H Chen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies on the impact of small vessel disease (SVD) on cognition generally focus on white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume. The extent to which WMH location relates to cognitive performance has received less attention, but is likely to be functionally important. We examined the relation between WMH location and cognition in a memory clinic cohort of patients with sporadic SVD. METHODS: A total of 167 patients with SVD were recruited from memory clinics...
2016: PloS One
Yuda Turana
Observational studies have conveyed the connection between hypertension and cognitive impairment. Several forms of dementia are more frequent in hypertensive subjects or those with previous history of hypertension compared to subjects with normal blood pressure.In many studies, hypertension occuring in mid-life is a risk factor of dementia occuring in later age. Long-standing hypertension will induce structural damages in the brain. It is also widely known that hypertension attributes to small vessel diseases causing lacunar infarcts and white matter lesions associated with cognitive decline...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
J E F Moonen, J C Foster-Dingley, A A van den Berg-Huijsmans, W de Ruijter, A J M de Craen, J van der Grond, R C van der Mast
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Small vessel disease is a major cause of neurocognitive dysfunction in the elderly. Small vessel disease may manifest as white matter hyperintensities, lacunar infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and atrophy, all of which are visible on conventional MR imaging or as microstructural changes determined by diffusion tensor imaging. This study investigated whether microstructural integrity is associated with neurocognitive dysfunction in older individuals, irrespective of the conventional features of small vessel disease...
September 22, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Yuda Turana
Observational studies have conveyed the connection between hypertension and cognitive impairment. Several forms of dementia are more frequent in hypertensive subjects or those with previous history of hypertension compared to subjects with normal blood pressure.In many studies, hypertension occuring in mid-life is a risk factor of dementia occuring in later age. Long-standing hypertension will induce structural damages in the brain. It is also widely known that hypertension attributes to small vessel diseases causing lacunar infarcts and white matter lesions associated with cognitive decline...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Chih-Ping Chung, Kun-Hsien Chou, Wei-Ta Chen, Li-Kuo Liu, Wei-Ju Lee, Liang-Kung Chen, Ching-Po Lin, Pei-Ning Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Different distributions of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are associated with distinct pathological mechanisms. Lobar CMBs are thought to be related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy, whereas deep or infratentorial CMBs are related to hypertensive vasculopathy. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of CMBs and their locations on a variety of cognitive domains. METHODS: Study subjects were selected from the community-based I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study...
October 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Zhaolu Wang, Susanne J van Veluw, Adrian Wong, Wenyan Liu, Lin Shi, Jie Yang, Yunyun Xiong, Alexander Lau, Geert Jan Biessels, Vincent C T Mok
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It was recently demonstrated that cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs) can be detected in vivo using 3.0 tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and the longitudinal cognitive consequence of cortical CMIs on 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging, in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. METHODS: A total of 231 patients undergoing 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging were included. Montreal Cognitive Assessment was used to evaluate global cognitive functions and cognitive domains (memory, language, and attention visuospatial and executive functions)...
October 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Raffaella Valenti, Alessandra Del Bene, Anna Poggesi, Andrea Ginestroni, Emilia Salvadori, Giovanni Pracucci, Laura Ciolli, Sandro Marini, Serena Nannucci, Marco Pasi, Francesca Pescini, Stefano Diciotti, Giovanni Orlandi, Mirco Cosottini, Alberto Chiti, Mario Mascalchi, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Domenico Inzitari, Leonardo Pantoni
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are a neuroimaging expression of small vessel disease (SVD). We investigated in a cohort of SVD patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI): 1) the reliability of the Microbleed Anatomical Rating Scale (MARS); 2) the burden and location of CMBs and their association with cognitive performances, independent of other clinical and neuroimaging features. METHODS: Patients underwent clinical, neuropsychological (4 cognitive domains), and MRI assessments...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Heidi Foo, Elijah Mak, Ting Ting Yong, Ming-Ching Wen, Russell Jude Chander, Wing Lok Au, Louis Tan, Nagaendran Kandiah
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD) is a risk factor for dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD), however the pathophysiological role of SVD in PD-dementia is unclear. We investigated the impact of baseline and progression of SVD on cortical thickness and the correlation to cognition. METHODS: Seventy-three mild PD patients with baseline and follow-up structural MRI scans, serial clinical and neuropsychological assessments were studied. SVD included the load of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes and perivascular spaces (PVS)...
June 30, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Emilia Salvadori, Anna Poggesi, Raffaella Valenti, Eleonora Della Rocca, Stefano Diciotti, Mario Mascalchi, Domenico Inzitari, Leonardo Pantoni
UNLABELLED: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) may cause attentional and executive cognitive deficits. No drug is currently available to improve cognitive performance or to prevent dementia in SVD patients, and cognitive rehabilitation could be a promising approach. We aimed to investigate: (1) the effectiveness of the Attention Process Training-II program in the rehabilitation of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and SVD; (2) the impact of the induced cognitive improvement on functionality and quality of life; (3) the effect of training on brain activity at rest and the possibility of a training-induced plasticity effect...
October 2016: Neurological Sciences
Adiukwu Frances, Ofori Sandra, Ugbomah Lucy
Over the past two decades, the term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) has been used to refer to a spectrum of cognitive decline characterized by executive dysfunction, associated with vascular pathology. With 30% of stroke survivors showing cognitive impairments, it is regarded as the most common cause of cognitive impairment. This is a narrative review of available literature citing sources from PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar. VCI has a high prevalence both before and after a stroke and is associated with great economic and caregiver burden...
June 22, 2016: World Journal of Psychiatry
Hee Jin Kim, Jin Ju Yang, Hunki Kwon, Changsoo Kim, Jong Min Lee, Phillip Chun, Yeo Jin Kim, Na-Yeon Jung, Juhee Chin, Seonwoo Kim, Sook-Young Woo, Yearn Seong Choe, Kyung-Han Lee, Sung Tae Kim, Jae Seung Kim, Jae Hong Lee, Michael W Weiner, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo
SEE COHEN DOI101093/AWW183 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Amyloid-β and cerebral small vessel disease are the two major causes of cognitive impairment in the elderly. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for precisely how amyloid-β and cerebral small vessel disease affect cognitive impairment remain unclear. We investigated the effects of amyloid-β and lacunes on downstream imaging markers including structural network and cortical thickness, further analysing their relative impact on cognitive trajectories...
September 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Matthew J Hollocks, Rebecca Brookes, Robin G Morris, Hugh S Markus
OBJECTIVES: In addition to neuropsychological difficulties, patients with cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) can have reduced activities of daily living and a poorer quality of life compared to healthy adults. The Brief Memory and Executive Test (BMET), is a cognitive screening tool designed to be sensitive to the neuropsychological profile of patients with SVD. While the BMET is sensitive to the cognitive consequences of SVD, it is unclear how well scores on this measure relate to functional outcomes...
May 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Yael D Reijmer, Panagiotis Fotiadis, Giovanni Piantoni, Gregoire Boulouis, Kathleen E Kelly, Mahmut E Gurol, Alexander Leemans, Michael J O'Sullivan, Steven M Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan
Central brain network connections greatly contribute to overall network efficiency. Here we examined whether small vessel disease (SVD) related white matter alterations in central brain network connections have a greater impact on executive functioning than alterations in non-central brain network connections. Brain networks were reconstructed from diffusion-weighted MRI scans in 72 individuals (75 ± 8 years) with cognitive impairment and SVD on MRI. The centrality of white matter connections in the network was defined using graph theory...
July 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Marjon Stijntjes, Anton J M de Craen, Jeroen van der Grond, Carel G M Meskers, P Eline Slagboom, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: The positive relationship between cognitive and physical performance has been widely established. The influence of brain structure on both domains has been shown as well. OBJECTIVE: We studied whether the relationship between brain structure and physical performance is independent of cognitive performance. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of 297 middle-aged to older adults (mean age ± SD 65.4 ± 6.8 years). Memory function, executive function and physical performance measured by the Tandem Stance Test, Chair Stand Test, 4-meter walk and 25-meter walk were assessed...
2016: Gerontology
Stefano Ciulli, Luca Citi, Emilia Salvadori, Raffaella Valenti, Anna Poggesi, Domenico Inzitari, Mario Mascalchi, Nicola Toschi, Leonardo Pantoni, Stefano Diciotti
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common condition in patients with diffuse hyperintensities of cerebral white matter (WM) in T2-weighted magnetic resonance images and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). In MCI due to SVD, the most prominent feature of cognitive impairment lies in degradation of executive functions, i.e., of processes that supervise the organization and execution of complex behavior. The trail making test is a widely employed test sensitive to cognitive processing speed and executive functioning...
July 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Ayan K Dey, Vessela Stamenova, Gary Turner, Sandra E Black, Brian Levine
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a highly prevalent condition associated with diffuse ischemic damage and cognitive dysfunction particularly in executive function and attention. Functional brain imaging studies can reveal mechanisms of cognitive impairment in CSVD, although findings are mixed. METHODS: A systematic review integrating findings from functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography in CSVD is involved. RESULTS: CSVD damages long-range white matter tracts connecting nodes within distributed brain networks...
July 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Young Kyoung Jang, Hunki Kwon, Yeo Jin Kim, Na Yeon Jung, Jin San Lee, Juyoun Lee, Juhee Chin, Kiho Im, Seun Jeon, Jong Min Lee, Joon-Kyoung Seong, Jeong Hun Kim, Seonwoo Kim, Yearn Seong Choe, Kyung-Han Lee, Sung Tae Kim, Jae Seung Kim, Jae Hong Lee, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo, Hee Jin Kim
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the differences between early-onset subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (EO-SVCI) and late-onset subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (LO-SVCI) with regard to pathologic burden, structural changes, and cognitive function. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 142 patients from a single referral center. Patients were divided into EO-SVCI (n = 30, age at onset <65 years) and LO-SVCI (n = 112, age at onset ≥ 65 years) groups. All patients underwent neuropsychological tests, 3T brain MRI, and [(11)C] Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET...
February 9, 2016: Neurology
Yusuke Yakushiji
Vigorous investigations for cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) have been made since the late 1990s. CMBs on paramagnetic-sensitive magnetic resonance sequences correspond pathologically to clusters of hemosiderin-laden macrophages and have emerged as an important new imaging marker of cerebral small vessel disease, including intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The prevalence of CMBs varies according to the specific disease settings (stroke subtypes and dementing disorders) and is highest (60%) in ICH patients. The associations of CMBs with aging, hypertension and apolipoprotein E genotype are consistent with the two major underlying pathogeneses of CMBs: hypertensive arteriopathy and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)...
2015: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Pieternella H van der Veen, Mirjam I Geerlings, Frank L J Visseren, Hendrik M Nathoe, Willem P T M Mali, Yolanda van der Graaf, Majon Muller
Hypertension has been related to structural and functional brain changes. In high-risk populations, hypertensive target organ damage might better represent exposure to high blood pressure than the blood pressure measurement itself. We examined the association of hypertensive target organ damage with longitudinal changes in brain structure and function within the Second Manifestations of Arterial Disease-Magnetic Resonance (SMART-MR) study. Renal function, albuminuria, and left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiography were measured in 663 patients with manifest arterial disease (mean age, 57±9 years; 81% men)...
December 2015: Hypertension
Andrew J Lawrence, Rebecca L Brookes, Eva A Zeestraten, Thomas R Barrick, Robin G Morris, Hugh S Markus
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive impairment, predominantly affecting processing speed and executive function, is an important consequence of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). To date, few longitudinal studies of cognition in SVD have been conducted. We determined the pattern and rate of cognitive decline in SVD and used the results to determine sample size calculations for clinical trials of interventions reducing cognitive decline. METHODS: 121 patients with MRI confirmed lacunar stroke and leukoaraiosis were enrolled into the prospective St George's Cognition And Neuroimaging in Stroke (SCANS) study...
2015: PloS One
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