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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451205/optical-read-out-and-modulation-of-peripheral-nerve-activity
#1
REVIEW
Arjun K Fontaine, Hans E Anderson, John H Caldwell, Richard F Weir
Numerous clinical and research applications necessitate the ability to interface with peripheral nerve fibers to read and control relevant neural pathways. Visceral organ modulation and rehabilitative prosthesis are two areas which could benefit greatly from improved neural interfacing approaches. Therapeutic neural interfacing, or 'bioelectronic medicine', has potential to affect a broad range of disorders given that all the major organs of the viscera are neurally innervated. However, a better understanding of the neural pathways that underlie function and a means to precisely interface with these fibers are required...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449490/dentate-gyrus-mossy-cells-control-spontaneous-convulsive-seizures-and-spatial-memory
#2
Anh D Bui, Theresa M Nguyen, Charles Limouse, Hannah K Kim, Gergely G Szabo, Sylwia Felong, Mattia Maroso, Ivan Soltesz
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is characterized by debilitating, recurring seizures and an increased risk for cognitive deficits. Mossy cells (MCs) are key neurons in the hippocampal excitatory circuit, and the partial loss of MCs is a major hallmark of TLE. We investigated how MCs contribute to spontaneous ictal activity and to spatial contextual memory in a mouse model of TLE with hippocampal sclerosis, using a combination of optogenetic, electrophysiological, and behavioral approaches. In chronically epileptic mice, real-time optogenetic modulation of MCs during spontaneous hippocampal seizures controlled the progression of activity from an electrographic to convulsive seizure...
February 16, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447015/optogenetics-in-cancer-drug-discovery
#3
Michał Kiełbus, Jakub Czapiński, Adrian Odrzywolski, Grażyna Stasiak, Kamila Szymańska, Joanna Kałafut, Michał Kos, Krzysztof Giannopoulos, Andrzej Stepulak, Adolfo Rivero-Müller
The discovery and domestication of biomolecules that respond to light has taken a light of its own, providing new molecular tools with incredible spatio-temporal resolution to manipulate cellular behavior. Areas covered: The authors herein analyze the current optogenetic tools in light of their current, and potential, uses in cancer drug discovery, biosafety and cancer biology. Expert opinion: The pipeline from drug discovery to the clinic is plagued with drawbacks, where most drugs fail in either efficacy or safety...
February 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445337/cocaine-induced-changes-in-low-dimensional-attractors-of-local-field-potentials-in-optogenetic-mice
#4
Sorinel A Oprisan, Julia Imperatore, Jessica Helms, Tamas Tompa, Antonieta Lavin
Optogenetically evoked local field potential (LFP) recorded from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of mice during basal conditions and following a systemic cocaine administration were analyzed. Blue light stimuli were delivered to mPFC through a fiber optic every 2 s and each trial was repeated 100 times. As in the previous study, we used a surrogate data method to check that nonlinearity was present in the experimental LFPs and only used the last 1.5 s of steady activity to measure the LFPs phase resetting induced by the brief 10 ms light stimulus...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444523/a-novel-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-using-optogenetics-representation-of-various-disease-stages-by-modulating-the-illumination-parameter
#5
Eun Jung Lee, Hyung Ho Yoon, Eun Suk Park, Joongkee Min, Sang Ryong Jeon
BACKGROUND: The classic animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD) using neurotoxin can only simulate fixed stages of the disease by causing irreversible damage to the nigrostriatal system. OBJECTIVES: To develop an optogenetic PD model that can modulate the severity of disease by optical stimulation by introducing the halorhodopsin (NpHR) gene into the substantia nigra compacta. METHODS: Fifteen rats received injections of engineered AAV with NpHR-YFP gene into the substantia nigra...
February 14, 2018: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442553/phase-reorganization-leads-to-transient-%C3%AE-lfp-spatial-wave-patterns-in-motor-cortex-during-steady-state-movement-preparation
#6
Michael Everett Rule, Carlos E Vargas-Irwin, John P Donoghue, Wilson Truccolo
Previous studies on the origin and properties of spatial patterns in motor cortex beta local field potential (β-LFP) oscillations have focused on planar traveling waves. However, it is unclear (a) whether β-LFP waves are limited to plane waves, or even (b) whether they are propagating waves of excito-excitatory activity, i.e. primarily traveling waves in excitable media; they could reflect, instead, reorganization in the relative phases of transient oscillations at different spatial sites. We addressed these two problems in β-LFPs recorded via microelectrode arrays implanted in three adjacent motor-cortex areas of non-human primates during steady-state movement preparation...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442428/optogenetic-control-by-pulsed-illumination
#7
Julia Hennemann, Roman S Iwasaki, Tamara N Grund, Ralph P Diensthuber, Florian Richter, Andreas Möglich
Sensory photoreceptors evoke numerous adaptive responses in Nature and serve as light-gated actuators in optogenetics to enable the spatiotemporally precise, reversible and noninvasive control of cellular events. The output of optogenetic circuits can often be dialed in by varying illumination quality, quantity and duration. Here, we devise a programmable matrix of light-emitting diodes to efficiently probe the response of optogenetic systems to intermittently applied light of varying intensity and pulse frequency...
February 14, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439241/near-infrared-deep-brain-stimulation-via-upconversion-nanoparticle-mediated-optogenetics
#8
Shuo Chen, Adam Z Weitemier, Xiao Zeng, Linmeng He, Xiyu Wang, Yanqiu Tao, Arthur J Y Huang, Yuki Hashimotodani, Masanobu Kano, Hirohide Iwasaki, Laxmi Kumar Parajuli, Shigeo Okabe, Daniel B Loong Teh, Angelo H All, Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Kenji F Tanaka, Xiaogang Liu, Thomas J McHugh
Optogenetics has revolutionized the experimental interrogation of neural circuits and holds promise for the treatment of neurological disorders. It is limited, however, because visible light cannot penetrate deep inside brain tissue. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) absorb tissue-penetrating near-infrared (NIR) light and emit wavelength-specific visible light. Here, we demonstrate that molecularly tailored UCNPs can serve as optogenetic actuators of transcranial NIR light to stimulate deep brain neurons. Transcranial NIR UCNP-mediated optogenetics evoked dopamine release from genetically tagged neurons in the ventral tegmental area, induced brain oscillations through activation of inhibitory neurons in the medial septum, silenced seizure by inhibition of hippocampal excitatory cells, and triggered memory recall...
February 9, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438803/sleep-state-dependence-of-optogenetically-evoked-responses-in-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-positive-cells-of-the-cerebral-cortex
#9
Dmitry Gerashchenko, Michelle A Schmidt, Mark R Zielinski, Michele E Moore, Jonathan P Wisor
Slow-wave activity (SWA) in the electroencephalogram during slow-wave sleep (SWS) varies as a function of sleep-wake history. A putative sleep-active population of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-containing interneurons in the cerebral cortex, defined as such by the expression of Fos in animals euthanized after protracted deep sleep, may be a local regulator of SWA. We investigated whether electrophysiological responses to activation of these cells are consistent with their role of a local regulator of SWA...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434375/bidirectional-and-long-lasting-control-of-alcohol-seeking-behavior-by-corticostriatal-ltp-and-ltd
#10
Tengfei Ma, Yifeng Cheng, Emily Roltsch Hellard, Xuehua Wang, Jiayi Lu, Xinsheng Gao, Cathy C Y Huang, Xiao-Yan Wei, Jun-Yuan Ji, Jun Wang
Addiction is proposed to arise from alterations in synaptic strength via mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD). However, the causality between these synaptic processes and addictive behaviors is difficult to demonstrate. Here we report that LTP and LTD induction altered operant alcohol self-administration, a motivated drug-seeking behavior. We first induced LTP by pairing presynaptic glutamatergic stimulation with optogenetic postsynaptic depolarization in the dorsomedial striatum, a brain region known to control goal-directed behavior...
February 12, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432701/plasticity-of-light-induced-concurrent-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-quantal-events-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#11
Juan Cheng, Xu Huang, Yue Liang, Tian Xue, Liecheng Wang, Jin Bao
Neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) exhibit circadian variation in their neuronal activities. Here, we show that their input synapses undergo daily regulation. We discovered daily variation in the frequencies, but not the peak amplitudes, of miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs) for both glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses. In addition, the changes in the frequencies of mPSCs from glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses were antiphasic: An increase in the glutamatergic mPSC frequency and a decrease in the GABAergic mPSC frequency co-occurred during the dark phase of the light-dark cycle...
February 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431646/basolateral-amygdala-inputs-to-the-medial-entorhinal-cortex-selectively-modulate-the-consolidation-of-spatial-and-contextual-learning
#12
Krista L Wahlstrom, Mary L Huff, Eric B Emmons, John H Freeman, Nandakumar S Narayanan, Christa K McIntyre, Ryan T LaLumiere
Although evidence suggests that the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) work together to influence the consolidation of spatial/contextual learning, the circuit mechanism by which the BLA selectively modulates spatial/contextual memory consolidation is not clear. The medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) is a critical region in the hippocampus-based system for processing spatial information. As an efferent target of the BLA, the mEC is a candidate by which the BLA influences the consolidation of such learning...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425907/visceral-pain-novel-approaches-for-optogenetic-control-of-spinal-afferents
#13
Nick J Spencer, Tim J Hibberd, Malin Lagerström, Yoichiro Otsuka, Nigel Kelly
Painful stimuli arising within visceral organs are detected by peripheral nerve endings of spinal afferents, whose cell bodies are located in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Recent technical advances have made it possible to reliably expose and inject single DRG with neuronal tracers or viruses in vivo. This has facilitated, for the first time, unequivocal identification of different types of spinal afferent endings in visceral organs. These technical advances paved the way for a very exciting series of in vivo experiments where individual DRG are injected to facilitate opsin expression (e...
February 6, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425501/homeostatic-plasticity-in-the-hippocampus-facilitates-memory-extinction
#14
Pablo Mendez, Thomas Stefanelli, Carmen E Flores, Dominique Muller, Christian Lüscher
Correlated activity in the hippocampus drives synaptic plasticity that is necessary for the recruitment of neuronal ensembles underlying fear memory. Sustained neural activity, on the other hand, may trigger homeostatic adaptations. However, whether homeostatic plasticity affects memory function remains unknown. Here, we use optogenetics to induce cell autonomous homeostatic plasticity in CA1 pyramidal neurons and granule cells of the hippocampus. High-frequency spike trains applied for 10 min decreased the number of excitatory spine synapses and increased the number of inhibitory shaft synapses...
February 6, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425490/fast-spiking-interneurons-supply-feedforward-control-of-bursting-calcium-and-plasticity-for-efficient-learning
#15
Scott F Owen, Joshua D Berke, Anatol C Kreitzer
Fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) are a prominent class of forebrain GABAergic cells implicated in two seemingly independent network functions: gain control and network plasticity. Little is known, however, about how these roles interact. Here, we use a combination of cell-type-specific ablation, optogenetics, electrophysiology, imaging, and behavior to describe a unified mechanism by which striatal FSIs control burst firing, calcium influx, and synaptic plasticity in neighboring medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs)...
February 8, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425263/determinants-of-optogenetic-cortical-spreading-depolarizations
#16
David Y Chung, Homa Sadeghian, Tao Qin, Sevda Lule, Hang Lee, Fahri Karakaya, Stacy Goins, Fumiaki Oka, Mohammad A Yaseen, Thijs Houben, Else A Tolner, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Michael J Whalen, Sava Sakadžic, Cenk Ayata
Cortical spreading depolarization (SD) is the electrophysiological event underlying migraine aura, and a critical contributor to secondary damage after brain injury. Experimental models of SD have been used for decades in migraine and brain injury research; however, they are highly invasive and often cause primary tissue injury, diminishing their translational value. Here we present a non-invasive method to trigger SDs using light-induced depolarization in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 in neurons (Thy1-ChR2-YFP)...
February 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420933/precisely-timed-nicotinic-activation-drives-sst-inhibition-in-neocortical-circuits
#17
Joanna Urban-Ciecko, Jean-Sebastien Jouhanneau, Stephanie E Myal, James F A Poulet, Alison L Barth
Sleep, waking, locomotion, and attention are associated with cell-type-specific changes in neocortical activity. The effect of brain state on circuit output requires understanding of how neuromodulators influence specific neuronal classes and their synapses, with normal patterns of neuromodulator release from endogenous sources. We investigated the state-dependent modulation of a ubiquitous feedforward inhibitory motif in mouse sensory cortex, local pyramidal (Pyr) inputs onto somatostatin (SST)-expressing interneurons...
February 7, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414944/posterior-parietal-cortex-represents-sensory-history-and-mediates-its-effects-on-behaviour
#18
Athena Akrami, Charles D Kopec, Mathew E Diamond, Carlos D Brody
Many models of cognition and of neural computations posit the use and estimation of prior stimulus statistics: it has long been known that working memory and perception are strongly impacted by previous sensory experience, even when that sensory history is not relevant to the current task at hand. Nevertheless, the neural mechanisms and regions of the brain that are necessary for computing and using such prior experience are unknown. Here we report that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is a critical locus for the representation and use of prior stimulus information...
February 7, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414738/integrated-optoelectronic-microprobes
#19
REVIEW
L Rudmann, M T Alt, D Ashouri Vajari, T Stieglitz
Optogenetics opened not only new exciting opportunities to interrogate the nervous system but also requires adequate probes to facilitate these wishes. Therefore, a multidisciplinary effort is essential to match these technical opportunities with biological needs in order to establish a stable and functional material-tissue interface. This in turn can address an optical intervention of the genetically modified, light sensitive cells in the nervous system and recording of electrical signals from single cells and neuronal networks that result in behavioral changes...
February 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412138/simultaneous-two-photon-optogenetics-and-imaging-of-cortical-circuits-in-three-dimensions
#20
Weijian Yang, Luis Carrillo-Reid, Yuki Bando, Darcy S Peterka, Rafael Yuste
The simultaneously imaging and manipulating of neural activity in three-dimensions could enable the functional dissection of neural circuits. Here we have combined two-photon optogenetics with simultaneous volumetric two-photon calcium imaging to manipulate neural activity in mouse neocortex in vivo in 3D, while maintaining cellular resolution. Using a hybrid holographic approach, we simultaneously photostimulate more than 80 neurons over 150 μm in depth in cortical layer 2/3 from mouse visual cortex. We validate the usefulness of the microscope by photoactivating in 3D selected groups of interneurons, suppressing the response of nearby pyramidal neurons to visual stimuli...
February 7, 2018: ELife
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