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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243588/dynamic-modulation-of-activity-in-cerebellar-nuclei-neurons-during-pavlovian-eyeblink-conditioning-in-mice
#1
Michiel Manuel Ten Brinke, Shane Heiney, Xiaolu Wang, Martina Proietti-Onori, Henk-Jan Boele, Jacob Bakermans, Javier F Medina, Zhenyu Gao, Chris I De Zeeuw
While research on the cerebellar cortex is crystallizing our understanding of its function in learning behavior, many questions surrounding its downstream targets remain. Here, we evaluate the dynamics of cerebellar interpositus nucleus (IpN) neurons over the course of Pavlovian eyeblink conditioning. A diverse range of learning-induced neuronal responses was observed, including increases and decreases in activity during the generation of conditioned blinks. Trial-by-trial correlational analysis and optogenetic manipulation demonstrate that facilitation in the IpN drives the eyelid movements...
December 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241537/nucleus-accumbens-dopamine-signaling-regulates-sexual-preference-for-females-in-male-mice
#2
Yamit Beny-Shefer, Noga Zilkha, Yael Lavi-Avnon, Nadav Bezalel, Ilana Rogachev, Alexander Brandis, Molly Dayan, Tali Kimchi
Sexual preference for the opposite sex is a fundamental behavior underlying reproductive success, but the neural mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we examined the role of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) in governing chemosensory-mediated preference for females in TrpC2-/- and wild-type male mice. TrpC2-/- males, deficient in VNO-mediated signaling, do not display mating or olfactory preference toward females. We found that, during social interaction with females, TrpC2-/- males do not show increased NAcc dopamine levels, observed in wild-type males...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241536/infrabarrels-are-layer-6-circuit-modules-in-the-barrel-cortex-that-link-long-range-inputs-and-outputs
#3
Shane R Crandall, Saundra L Patrick, Scott J Cruikshank, Barry W Connors
The rodent somatosensory cortex includes well-defined examples of cortical columns-the barrel columns-that extend throughout the cortical depth and are defined by discrete clusters of neurons in layer 4 (L4) called barrels. Using the cell-type-specific Ntsr1-Cre mouse line, we found that L6 contains infrabarrels, readily identifiable units that align with the L4 barrels. Corticothalamic (CT) neurons and their local axons cluster within the infrabarrels, whereas corticocortical (CC) neurons are densest between infrabarrels...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241005/spatiotemporal-control-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-with-light
#4
Yuchao Li, Minji Lee, Nury Kim, Guoyu Wu, Difan Deng, Xuedong Liu, Won Do Heo, Zhike Zi
Cells employ signaling pathways to make decisions in response to changes in their immediate environment. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is an important growth factor that regulates many cellular functions in development and disease. Although the molecular mechanisms of TGF-β signaling have been well studied, our understanding of this pathway is limited by the lack of tools that allow the control of TGF-β signaling with high spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we developed an optogenetic system (optoTGFBRs) that enables the precise control of TGF-β signaling in time and space...
December 14, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239168/variation-in-lov-photoreceptor-activation-dynamics-probed-by-time-resolved-infrared-spectroscopy
#5
James N Iuliano, Agnieszka A Gil, Sergey P Laptenok, Christopher R Hall, Jinnette Tolentino Collado, Andras Lukacs, Safaa A Hag Ahmed, Jenna Abyad, Taraneh Daryaee, Gregory M Greetham, Igor V Sazanovich, Boris Illarionov, Adelbert Bacher, Markus Fischer, Michael Towrie, Jarrod B French, Stephen R Meech, Peter J Tonge
The light, oxygen, voltage (LOV) domain proteins are blue light photoreceptors that utilize a non-covalently bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor as the chromophore. The modular nature of these proteins has led to their wide adoption in the emerging fields of optogenetics and optobiology, where the LOV domain has been fused to a variety of output domains leading to novel light-controlled applications. In the present work, we extend our studies of the sub-picosecond to several hundred microsecond transient infrared spectroscopy of the isolated LOV domain AsLOV2 to three full-length photoreceptors in which the LOV domain is fused to an output domain: the LOV-STAS protein, YtvA, the LOV-HTH transcription factor, EL222, and the LOV-histidine kinase, LovK...
December 14, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236669/-optically-dissecting-brain-nicotinic-receptor-function-with-photo-controllable-designer-receptors
#6
Romain Durand-de Cuttoli, Sarah Mondoloni, Alexandre Mourot
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels widely expressed in the central nervous system and the periphery. They play an important modulatory role in learning, memory and attention, and have been implicated in various diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, schizophrenia and addiction. These receptors are activated by the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine, or by nicotine, the alkaloid found in tobacco leaves. Both molecules open the ion channel and cause the movement of cations across the membrane, which directly affects neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235522/an-optogenetic-arrhythmia-model-to-study-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia-mutations
#7
Elisabeth Fischer, Alexander Gottschalk, Christina Schüler
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a condition of abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia), induced by physical activity or stress. Mutations in ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2), a Ca2+ release channel located in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), or calsequestrin 2 (CASQ2), a SR Ca2+ binding protein, are linked to CPVT. For specific drug development and to study distinct arrhythmias, simple models are required to implement and analyze such mutations. Here, we introduced CPVT inducing mutations into the pharynx of Caenorhabditis elegans, which we previously established as an optogenetically paced heart model...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229875/re-engineering-the-two-component-systems-as-light-regulated-in-escherichia-coli
#8
Siya Ma, Siwei Luo, L I Wu, Zhi Liang, Jia-Rui Wu
Bacteria live in environments with dynamic changes. To sense and respond to different external stimuli, bacteria make use of various sensor-response circuits, called two-component systems (TCSs). A TCS comprises a histidine protein kinase (HK) sensing environmental stimuli and a response regulator protein (RR) regulating downstream genes. The two components are coupled via a phosphorylation control mechanism. In a recent study, we adopted an optogenetics approach to re-engineer the sensor HKs in Escherichia coli as a light-sensing fusion protein...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229861/appetite-suppressive-role-of-medial-septal-glutamatergic-neurons
#9
Patrick Sweeney, Changhong Li, Yunlei Yang
Feeding behavior is controlled by diverse neurons and neural circuits primarily concentrated in the hypothalamus and hindbrain in mammals. In this study, by using chemo/optogenetic techniques along with feeding assays, we investigate how neurons within the medial septal complex (MSc), a brain area implicated in emotion and cognition, contribute to food intake. We find that chemo/optogenetic activation of MSc glutamatergic neurons profoundly reduces food intake during both light and dark periods of the rodent light cycle...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226248/deep-tissue-optical-focusing-and-optogenetic-modulation-with-time-reversed-ultrasonically-encoded-light
#10
Haowen Ruan, Joshua Brake, J Elliott Robinson, Yan Liu, Mooseok Jang, Cheng Xiao, Chunyi Zhou, Viviana Gradinaru, Changhuei Yang
Noninvasive light focusing deep inside living biological tissue has long been a goal in biomedical optics. However, the optical scattering of biological tissue prevents conventional optical systems from tightly focusing visible light beyond several hundred micrometers. The recently developed wavefront shaping technique time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) focusing enables noninvasive light delivery to targeted locations beyond the optical diffusion limit. However, until now, TRUE focusing has only been demonstrated inside nonliving tissue samples...
December 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222692/advances-in-understanding-hilar-mossy-cells-of-the-dentate-gyrus
#11
REVIEW
Helen E Scharfman
Hilar mossy cells (MCs) of the dentate gyrus (DG) distinguish the DG from other hippocampal subfields (CA1-3) because there are two glutamatergic cell types in the DG rather than one. Thus, in the DG, the main cell types include glutamatergic granule cells (GCs) and MCs, whereas in CA1-3, the only glutamatergic cell type is the pyramidal cell. In contrast to GCs, MCs are different in morphology, intrinsic electrophysiological properties, afferent input and axonal projections, so their function is likely to be very different from GCs...
December 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222469/hippocampal-oxytocin-receptors-are-necessary-for-discrimination-of-social-stimuli
#12
Tara Raam, Kathleen M McAvoy, Antoine Besnard, Alexa Veenema, Amar Sahay
Oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) signaling in neural circuits mediating discrimination of social stimuli and affiliation or avoidance behavior is thought to guide social recognition. Remarkably, the physiological functions of Oxtrs in the hippocampus are not known. Here we demonstrate using genetic and pharmacological approaches that Oxtrs in the anterior dentate gyrus (aDG) and anterior CA2/CA3 (aCA2/CA3) of mice are necessary for discrimination of social, but not non-social, stimuli. Further, Oxtrs in aCA2/CA3 neurons recruit a population-based coding mechanism to mediate social stimuli discrimination...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220192/fluidic-microactuation-of-flexible-electrodes-for-neural-recording
#13
Flavia Vitale, Daniel Vercosa, Alexander V Rodriguez, Sushma Sri Pamulapati, Frederik Seibt, Eric Lewis, Jiaxi Stephen Yan, Krishna Badhiwala, Mohammed Adnan, Gianni Royer-Carfagni, Michael Beierlein, Caleb Kemere, Matteo Pasquali, Jacob Robinson
Soft and conductive nanomaterials like carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nanowire scaffolds have expanded the family of ultra-flexible microelectrodes that can bend and flex with the natural movement of the brain, reduce the inflammatory response and improve the stability of long-term neural recordings. However, current methods to implant these highly flexible electrodes rely on temporary stiffening agents that temporarily increase the electrode size and stiffness thus aggravating neural damage during implantation, which can lead to cell loss and glial activation that persists even after the stiffening agents are removed or dissolve...
December 8, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219207/motor-complications-in-parkinson-s-disease-striatal-molecular-and-electrophysiological-mechanisms-of-dyskinesias
#14
REVIEW
Barbara Picconi, Ledia F Hernández, Jose A Obeso, Paolo Calabresi
Long-term levodopa (l-dopa) treatment in patients with Parkinson´s disease (PD) is associated with the development of motor complications (ie, motor fluctuations and dyskinesias). The principal etiopathogenic factors are the degree of nigro-striatal dopaminergic loss and the duration and dose of l-dopa treatment. In this review article we concentrate on analysis of the mechanisms underlying l-dopa-induced dyskinesias, a phenomenon that causes disability in a proportion of patients and that has not benefited from major therapeutic advances...
December 8, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216450/endocannabinoid-actions-on-cortical-terminals-orchestrate-local-modulation-of-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#15
Yolanda Mateo, Kari A Johnson, Dan P Covey, Brady K Atwood, Hui-Ling Wang, Shiliang Zhang, Iness Gildish, Roger Cachope, Luigi Bellocchio, Manuel Guzmán, Marisela Morales, Joseph F Cheer, David M Lovinger
Dopamine (DA) transmission mediates numerous aspects of behavior. Although DA release is strongly linked to firing of DA neurons, recent developments indicate the importance of presynaptic modulation at striatal dopaminergic terminals. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system regulates DA release and is a canonical gatekeeper of goal-directed behavior. Here we report that extracellular DA increases induced by selective optogenetic activation of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are inhibited by CB1 agonists and eCBs...
December 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215787/miniaturized-battery-free-optofluidic-systems-with-potential-for-wireless-pharmacology-and-optogenetics
#16
Kyung Nim Noh, Sung Il Park, Raza Qazi, Zhanan Zou, Aaron D Mickle, Jose G Grajales-Reyes, Kyung-In Jang, Robert W Gereau, Jianliang Xiao, John A Rogers, Jae-Woong Jeong
Combination of optogenetics and pharmacology represents a unique approach to dissect neural circuitry with high specificity and versatility. However, conventional tools available to perform these experiments, such as optical fibers and metal cannula, are limited due to their tethered operation and lack of biomechanical compatibility. To address these issues, a miniaturized, battery-free, soft optofluidic system that can provide wireless drug delivery and optical stimulation for spatiotemporal control of the targeted neural circuit in freely behaving animals is reported...
December 7, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211031/frequency-dependent-multi-well-cardiotoxicity-screening-enabled-by-optogenetic-stimulation
#17
Susanne Rehnelt, Daniela Malan, Krisztina Juhasz, Benjamin Wolters, Leo Doerr, Matthias Beckler, Ralf Kettenhofen, Heribert Bohlen, Tobias Bruegmann, Philipp Sasse
Side effects on cardiac ion channels causing lethal arrhythmias are one major reason for drug withdrawals from the market. Field potential (FP) recording from cardiomyocytes, is a well-suited tool to assess such cardiotoxic effects of drug candidates in preclinical drug development, but it is currently limited to the spontaneous beating of the cardiomyocytes and manual analysis. Herein, we present a novel optogenetic cardiotoxicity screening system suited for the parallel automated frequency-dependent analysis of drug effects on FP recorded from human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203208/systems-consolidation-revisited-but-not-revised-the-promise-and-limits-of-optogenetics-in-the-study-of-memory
#18
REVIEW
Hardt Oliver, Nadel Lynn
Episodic memories (in humans) and event-like memories (in non-human animals) require the hippocampus for some time after acquisition, but at remote points seem to depend more on cortical areas instead. Systems consolidation refers to the process that promotes this reorganization of memory. Various theoretical frameworks accounting for this process have been proposed, but clear evidence favoring one or another of these positions has been lacking. Addressing this issue, a recent study deployed some of the most advanced neurobiological technologies - optogenetics and calcium imaging - and provided high resolution, precise observations regarding brain systems involved in recent and remote contextual fear memories...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202749/inhibitory-or-excitatory-optogenetic-interrogation-of-the-functional-roles-of-gabaergic-interneurons-in-epileptogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Hui Ye, Stephanie Kaszuba
Alteration in the excitatory/inhibitory neuronal balance is believed to be the underlying mechanism of epileptogenesis. Based on this theory, GABAergic interneurons are regarded as the primary inhibitory neurons, whose failure of action permits hyperactivity in the epileptic circuitry. As a consequence, optogenetic excitation of GABAergic interneurons is widely used for seizure suppression. However, recent evidence argues for the context-dependent, possibly "excitatory" roles that GABAergic cells play in epileptic circuitry...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201627/dual-color-emitting-carbon-nanodots-for-multicolor-bioimaging-and-optogenetic-control-of-ion-channels
#20
Hyemin Kim, Yoonsang Park, Songeun Beack, Seulgi Han, Dooyup Jung, Hyung Joon Cha, Woosung Kwon, Sei Kwang Hahn
The development of intrinsically multicolor-emitting carbon nanodots (CNDs) has been one of the great challenges for their various fields of applications. Here, the controlled electronic structure engineering of CNDs is performed to emit two distinct colors via the facile surface modification with 4-octyloxyaniline. The so-called dual-color-emitting CNDs (DC-CNDs) can be stably encapsulated within poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PSMA). The prepared water-soluble DC-CNDs@PSMA can be successfully applied to in vitro and in vivo dual-color bioimaging and optogenetics...
November 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
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