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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212099/high-density-high-radiance-%C3%AE-led-matrix-for-optogenetic-retinal-prostheses-and-planar-neural-stimulation
#1
Ahmed Soltan, Brian McGovern, Emmanuel Drakakis, Mark Neil, Pleun Maaskant, Mahbub Akhter, Jun Su Lee, Patrick Degenaar
Optical neuron stimulation arrays are important for both in-vitro biology and retinal prosthetic biomedical applications. Hence, in this work, we present an 8100 pixel high radiance photonic stimulator. The chip module vertically combines custom made gallium nitride μLEDs with a CMOS application specific integrated circuit. This is designed with active pixels to ensure random access and to allow continuous illumination of all required pixels. The μLEDs have been assembled on the chip using a solder ball flip-chip bonding technique which has allowed for reliable and repeatable manufacture...
February 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211858/another-advance-in-wireless-optogenetics
#2
Ellen P Neff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210796/optogenetic-switches-for-light-controlled-gene-expression-in-yeast
#3
REVIEW
Francisco Salinas, Vicente Rojas, Verónica Delgado, Eduardo Agosin, Luis F Larrondo
Light is increasingly recognized as an efficient means of controlling diverse biological processes with high spatiotemporal resolution. Optogenetic switches are molecular devices for regulating light-controlled gene expression, protein localization, signal transduction and protein-protein interactions. Such molecular components have been mainly developed through the use of photoreceptors, which upon light stimulation undergo conformational changes passing to an active state. The current repertoires of optogenetic switches include red, blue and UV-B light photoreceptors and have been implemented in a broad spectrum of biological platforms...
February 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209738/optogenetic-low-frequency-stimulation-of-specific-neuronal-populations-abates-ictogenesis
#4
Zahra Shiri, Maxime Lévesque, Guillaume Etter, Frédéric Manseau, Sylvain Williams, Massimo Avoli
Despite many advances made in understanding the pathophysiology of epileptic disorders, seizures remain poorly controlled in approximately one third of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients. Here, we established the efficacy of cell type-specific low-frequency stimulation (LFS) in controlling ictogenesis in the mouse entorhinal cortex (EC) in an in vitro brain slice preparation. Specifically, we used 1 Hz optogenetic stimulation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-positive principal cells as well as of parvalbumin- or somatostatin-positive interneurons to study the effects of such repetitive activation on epileptiform discharges induced by 4-aminopyridine...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207921/pneumatic-stimulation-of-c-elegans-mechanoreceptor-neurons-in-a-microfluidic-trap
#5
Adam L Nekimken, Holger Fehlauer, Anna A Kim, Sandra N Manosalvas-Kjono, Purim Ladpli, Farah Memon, Divya Gopisetty, Veronica Sanchez, Miriam B Goodman, Beth L Pruitt, Michael Krieg
New tools for applying force to animals, tissues, and cells are critically needed in order to advance the field of mechanobiology, as few existing tools enable simultaneous imaging of tissue and cell deformation as well as cellular activity in live animals. Here, we introduce a novel microfluidic device that enables high-resolution optical imaging of cellular deformations and activity while applying precise mechanical stimuli to the surface of the worm's cuticle with a pneumatic pressure reservoir. To evaluate device performance, we compared analytical and numerical simulations conducted during the design process to empirical measurements made with fabricated devices...
February 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205521/genetically-encoded-bioluminescent-voltage-indicator-for-multi-purpose-use-in-wide-range-of-bioimaging
#6
Shigenori Inagaki, Hidekazu Tsutsui, Kazushi Suzuki, Masakazu Agetsuma, Yoshiyuki Arai, Yuka Jinno, Guirong Bai, Matthew J Daniels, Yasushi Okamura, Tomoki Matsuda, Takeharu Nagai
We report development of the first genetically encoded bioluminescent indicator for membrane voltage called LOTUS-V. Since it is bioluminescent, imaging LOTUS-V does not require external light illumination. This allows bidirectional optogenetic control of cellular activity triggered by Channelrhodopsin2 and Halorhodopsin during voltage imaging. The other advantage of LOTUS-V is the robustness of a signal-to-background ratio (SBR) wherever it expressed, even in the specimens where autofluorescence from environment severely interferes fluorescence imaging...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203155/neurovascular-network-explorer-2-0-a-database-of-2-photon-single-vessel-diameter-measurements-from-mouse-si-cortex-in-response-to-optogenetic-stimulation
#7
Hana Uhlirova, Peifang Tian, Kıvılcım Kılıç, Martin Thunemann, Vishnu B Sridhar, Hauke Bartsch, Anders M Dale, Anna Devor, Payam A Saisan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203147/astrocyte-dependent-slow-inward-currents-sics-participate-in-neuromodulatory-mechanisms-in-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-ppn
#8
Adrienn Kovács, Balázs Pál
Slow inward currents (SICs) are known as excitatory events of neurons caused by astrocytic glutamate release and consequential activation of neuronal extrasynaptic NMDA receptors. In the present article we investigate the role of these astrocyte-dependent excitatory events on a cholinergic nucleus of the reticular activating system (RAS), the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). It is well known about this and other elements of the RAS, that they do not only give rise to neuromodulatory innervation of several areas, but also targets neuromodulatory actions from other members of the RAS or factors providing the homeostatic drive for sleep...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202570/aav-mediated-delivery-of-optogenetic-constructs-to-the-macaque-brain-triggers-humoral-immune-responses
#9
Skyler D Mendoza, Yasmine El-Shamayleh, Gregory D Horwitz
Gene delivery to the primate central nervous system via recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) allows neurophysiologists to control and observe neural activity precisely. A current limitation of this approach is variability in vector transduction efficiency. Low levels of transduction can foil experimental manipulations, prompting vector readministration. The ability to make multiple vector injections into the same animal, even in cases where successful vector transduction has already been achieved, is also desirable...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199723/brief-optogenetic-inhibition-of-the-basolateral-amygdala-bla-in-mice-alters-effects-of-stressful-experiences-on-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-rem
#10
Mayumi Machida, Laurie L Wellman, Mairen E Fitzpatrick, Olga Hallum, Amy M Sutton, György Lonart, Larry D Sanford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198703/implantable-optoelectronic-probes-for-in-vivo-optogenetics
#11
Ege Iseri, Duygu Kuzum
More than a decade has passed since optics and genetics came together and lead to the emerging technologies of optogenetics. The advent of light-sensitive opsins made it possible to optically trigger the neurons into activation or inhibition by using visible light. The importance of spatiotemporally isolating a segment of a neural network and controlling nervous signaling in a precise manner has driven neuroscience researchers and engineers to invest great efforts in designing high precision in-vivo implantable devices...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196880/agrp-to-kiss1-neuron-signaling-links-nutritional-state-and-fertility
#12
Stephanie L Padilla, Jian Qiu, Casey C Nestor, Chunguang Zhang, Arik W Smith, Benjamin B Whiddon, Oline K Rønnekleiv, Martin J Kelly, Richard D Palmiter
Mammalian reproductive function depends upon a neuroendocrine circuit that evokes the pulsatile release of gonadotropin hormones (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone) from the pituitary. This reproductive circuit is sensitive to metabolic perturbations. When challenged with starvation, insufficient energy reserves attenuate gonadotropin release, leading to infertility. The reproductive neuroendocrine circuit is well established, composed of two populations of kisspeptin-expressing neurons (located in the anteroventral periventricular hypothalamus, Kiss1(AVPV), and arcuate hypothalamus, Kiss1(ARH)), which drive the pulsatile activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195693/assembly-domain-based-optogenetic-system-for-the-efficient-control-of-cellular-signaling
#13
Akihiro Furuya, Fuun Kawano, Takahiro Nakajima, Yoshibumi Ueda, Moritoshi Sato
We previously developed the Magnet system, which consists of two distinct Vivid protein variants, one positively and one negatively charged, designated the positive Magnet (pMag) and negative Magnet (nMag), respectively. These two proteins bind to each other through electrostatic interactions, preventing unwanted homodimerization and providing selective light-induced heterodimerization. The Magnet system enables the manipulation of cellular functions such as protein-protein interactions and genome editing, although the system could be improved further...
February 14, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193860/investigations-of-human-myosin-vi-targeting-using-optogenetically-controlled-cargo-loading
#14
Alexander R French, Tobin R Sosnick, Ronald S Rock
Myosins play countless critical roles in the cell, each requiring it to be activated at a specific location and time. To control myosin VI with this specificity, we created an optogenetic tool for activating myosin VI by fusing the light-sensitive Avena sativa phototropin1 LOV2 domain to a peptide from Dab2 (LOVDab), a myosin VI cargo protein. Our approach harnesses the native targeting and activation mechanism of myosin VI, allowing direct inferences on myosin VI function. LOVDab robustly recruits human full-length myosin VI to various organelles in vivo and hinders peroxisome motion in a light-controllable manner...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193691/optogenetic-examination-of-prefrontal-amygdala-synaptic-development
#15
Maithe Arruda-Carvalho, Wan-Chen Wu, Kirstie A Cummings, Roger L Clem
A brain network comprising the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala plays important roles in developmentally-regulated cognitive and emotional processes. However, very little is known about the maturation of mPFC-amygdala circuitry. We conducted anatomical tracing of mPFC projections and optogenetic interrogation of their synaptic connections with neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) at neonatal to adult developmental stages in mice. Results indicate that mPFC-BLA projections exhibit delayed emergence relative to other mPFC pathways and establish synaptic transmission with BLA excitatory and inhibitory neurons in late infancy, events which coincide with a massive increase in overall synaptic drive...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193320/transient-inhibition-and-long-term-facilitation-of-locomotion-by-phasic-optogenetic-activation-of-serotonin-neurons
#16
Patrícia A Correia, Eran Lottem, Dhruba Banerjee, Ana S Machado, Megan R Carey, Zachary F Mainen
Serotonin (5-HT) is associated with mood and motivation but the function of endogenous 5-HT remains controversial. Here, we studied the impact of phasic optogenetic activation of 5-HT neurons in mice over time scales from seconds to weeks. We found that activating dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-HT neurons induced a strong suppression of spontaneous locomotor behavior in the open field with rapid kinetics (onset ≤1 s). Inhibition of locomotion was independent of measures of anxiety or motor impairment and could be overcome by strong motivational drive...
February 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193318/slow-motion
#17
Naoshige Uchida, Jeremiah Y Cohen
Optogenetic stimulation of serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe causes mice to move more slowly without causing any apparent motor deficits or anxiety-like effects.
February 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192394/retinal-origin-of-direction-selectivity-in-the-superior-colliculus
#18
Xuefeng Shi, Jad Barchini, Hector Acaron Ledesma, David Koren, Yanjiao Jin, Xiaorong Liu, Wei Wei, Jianhua Cang
Detecting visual features in the environment, such as motion direction, is crucial for survival. The circuit mechanisms that give rise to direction selectivity in a major visual center, the superior colliculus (SC), are entirely unknown. We optogenetically isolate the retinal inputs that individual direction-selective SC neurons receive and find that they are already selective as a result of precisely converging inputs from similarly tuned retinal ganglion cells. The direction-selective retinal input is linearly amplified by intracollicular circuits without changing its preferred direction or level of selectivity...
February 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192090/optogenetic-control-of-ca-2-and-voltage-dependent-large-conductance-bk-potassium-channels
#19
Thomas Mager, Phillip G Wood, Ernst Bamberg
Ca(2+) concentration jumps for the activation of Ca(2+) dependent ion channels or transporters can be obtained either by fast solution exchange or the use of caged Ca(2+). Here we report on an alternate optogenetic method for activation of Ca(2+) and voltage dependent large conductance (BK) potassium channels. This was achieved through the use of the light-gated Ca(2+) permeable Channelrhodopsin 2 variant, CatCh, with enhanced Ca(2+) permeability, which produces locally [Ca(2+)] in the μM range on the inner side of the membrane, without significant [Ca(2+)] increase in the cytosol...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191872/spatiotemporal-correlation-of-spinal-network-dynamics-underlying-spasms-in-chronic-spinalized-mice
#20
Carmelo Bellardita, Vittorio Caggiano, Roberto Leiras, Vanessa Caldeira, Andrea Fuchs, Julien Bouvier, Peter Löw, Ole Kiehn
Spasms after spinal cord injury (SCI) are debilitating involuntary muscle contractions that have been associated with increased motor neuron excitability and decreased inhibition. However, whether spasms involve activation of premotor spinal excitatory neuronal circuits is unknown. Here we use mouse genetics, electrophysiology, imaging and optogenetics to directly target major classes of spinal interneurons as well as motor neurons during spasms in a mouse model of chronic SCI. We find that assemblies of excitatory spinal interneurons are recruited by sensory input into functional circuits to generate persistent neural activity, which interacts with both the graded expression of plateau potentials in motor neurons to generate spasms, and inhibitory interneurons to curtail them...
February 13, 2017: ELife
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