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Papua new guinea

Anthea Burnett, Aryati Yashadhana, Maria Cabrera Aguas, Yvonne Hanni, Mitasha Yu
INTRODUCTION: A person's capability to access services and achieve good eye health is influenced by their behaviours, perceptions, beliefs and experiences. As evidence from Papua New Guinea (PNG) about people's lived experience with vision impairment is limited, the purpose of the present study was to better understand the beliefs, perceptions and emotional responses to vision impairment in PNG. METHODS: A qualitative study, using both purposive and convenience sampling, was undertaken to explore common beliefs and perceptions about vision impairment, as well as the emotional responses to vision impairment...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
Thomas Briese, David T Williams, Vishal Kapoor, Sinead M Diviney, Andrea Certoma, Jianning Wang, Cheryl A Johansen, Rashmi Chowdhary, John S Mackenzie, W Ian Lipkin
The Mapputta group comprises antigenically related viruses indigenous to Australia and Papua New Guinea that are included in the family Bunyaviridae but not currently assigned to a specific genus. We determined and analyzed the genome sequences of five Australian viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during routine arbovirus surveillance in Western Australia (K10441, SW27571, K13190, and K42904) and New South Wales (12005). Based on matching sequences of all three genome segments to prototype MRM3630 of Trubanaman virus (TRUV), NB6057 of Gan Gan virus (GGV), and MK7532 of Maprik virus (MPKV), isolates K13190 and SW27571 were identified as TRUV, 12005 as GGV, and K42904 as a Mapputta group virus from Western Australia linking GGV and MPKV...
2016: PloS One
Shi-Yong Dong, Zheng-Yu Zuo, Yi-Shan Chao, Kipiro Damas, Bernard Sule
To determine the taxonomic identities and the systematic positions of some collections of Lindsaea sect. Synaphlebium (Lindsaeaceae) from Papua New Guinea, we conducted morphological comparisons and phylogenetic analyses on the whole section. A total of 22 morphological characters were selected and coded for each of all known taxa in L. sect. Synaphlebium, and were analyzed using maximum parsimony. The datasets containing either of or combined two plastid DNA sequences (trnL-trnF spacer and trnH-psbA spacer) of 37 taxa were analyzed using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference...
2016: PloS One
Chris T McAllister, Donald W Duszynski, Christopher C Austin, Robert N Fisher
Between September and November 1991, 54 adult skinks from 15 species including 5 seaside skinks (Emoia atrocostata), 1 Pacific blue-tailed skink (Emoia caeroleocauda), 2 Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor), 15 white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), 1 Bulolo River forest skink (Emoia guttata), 6 dark-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia impar), 5 Papua five-striped skinks (Emoia jakati), 2 Papua slender treeskinks (Emoia kordoana), 3 Papua robust treeskinks (Emoia longicauda), 1 brown-backed forest skink (Emoia loveridgei), 3 Papua black-sided skinks (Emoia pallidiceps), 2 Papua white- spotted skinks (Emoia physicae), 2 Papua yellow-head skinks (Emoia popei), 1 Papua brown forest skink (Emoia submetallica), and 5 Fiji barred treeskinks (Emoia trossula) were collected by hand or blowpipe from several localities on Rarotonga, Cook Islands, Ovalau Island, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and their feces examined for coccidians...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Matthew A R Stokes, Glenn D Guest, Perista Mamadi, Westin Seta, Noel Yaubihi, Grace Karawiga, Billy Naidi, David A K Watters
BACKGROUND: Timely access to emergency and essential surgical care (EESC) and anaesthesia in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) prevents premature death, minimises lifelong disability and reduces their economic impact on families and communities. Papua New Guinea is one of the poorest countries in the Pacific region, and provides much of its surgical care at a district hospital level. We aimed to evaluate the surgical capacity of a district hospital in PNG and estimate the effectiveness of surgical interventions provided...
October 13, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Carlos Crivelli, James A Russell, Sergio Jarillo, José-Miguel Fernández-Dols
We report 2 studies on how residents of Papua New Guinea interpret facial expressions produced spontaneously by other residents of Papua New Guinea. Members of a small-scale indigenous society, Trobrianders (Milne Bay Province; N = 32, 14 to 17 years) were shown 5 facial expressions spontaneously produced by members of another small-scale indigenous society, Fore (Eastern Highlands Province) that Ekman had photographed, labeled, and published in The Face ofMan (1980), each as an expression of a basic emotion: happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, and disgust...
October 13, 2016: Emotion
Ching-Chih Chang, George S Burr, A J Timothy Jull, Joellen L Russell, Dana Biddulph, Lara White, Nancy G Prouty, Yue-Gau Chen, Chuan-Chou Shen, Weijian Zhou, Doan Dinh Lam
The long-lived radionuclide (129)I (half-life: 15.7 × 10(6) yr) is well-known as a useful environmental tracer. At present, the global (129)I in surface water is about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than pre-1960 levels. Since the 1990s, anthropogenic (129)I produced from industrial nuclear fuels reprocessing plants has been the primary source of (129)I in marine surface waters of the Atlantic and around the globe. Here we present four coral (129)I time series records from: 1) Con Dao and 2) Xisha Islands, the South China Sea, 3) Rabaul, Papua New Guinea and 4) Guam...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Pilar Requena, Edmilson Rui, Norma Padilla, Flor E Martínez-Espinosa, Maria Eugenia Castellanos, Camila Bôtto-Menezes, Adriana Malheiro, Myriam Arévalo-Herrera, Swati Kochar, Sanjay K Kochar, Dhanpat K Kochar, Alexandra J Umbers, Maria Ome-Kaius, Regina Wangnapi, Dhiraj Hans, Michela Menegon, Francesca Mateo, Sergi Sanz, Meghna Desai, Alfredo Mayor, Chetan C Chitnis, Azucena Bardají, Ivo Mueller, Stephen Rogerson, Carlo Severini, Carmen Fernández-Becerra, Clara Menéndez, Hernando Del Portillo, Carlota Dobaño
P. vivax infection during pregnancy has been associated with poor outcomes such as anemia, low birth weight and congenital malaria, thus representing an important global health problem. However, no vaccine is currently available for its prevention. Vir genes were the first putative virulent factors associated with P. vivax infections, yet very few studies have examined their potential role as targets of immunity. We investigated the immunogenic properties of five VIR proteins and two long synthetic peptides containing conserved VIR sequences (PvLP1 and PvLP2) in the context of the PregVax cohort study including women from five malaria endemic countries: Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, India and Papua New Guinea (PNG) at different timepoints during and after pregnancy...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Dirk Gassmann, Stephen J Richards, Dan A Polhemus
Idiocnemis schorri sp. nov. is described from the Hindenburg and Muller Ranges and the Kikori River Basin of southern Papua New Guinea. The new species differs from all congeners by, among other characters, a unique colour pattern on the thorax. Characters of males and females are illustrated and compared to those of similar species from the Idiocnemis bidentata group. The new species is found along small, shallow rainforest streams and is currently known only from the Trans-Fly Foreland and Papuan Gulf Foreland areas of endemism...
September 29, 2016: Zootaxa
A G Orr, V J Kalkman
Two new species of Papuagrion Ris, 1913 are described from Papua Province, Indonesia. These are P. marirobi sp .nov. from Japen Island and P. stellimontanum sp .nov., from the Star Mountains. The new species are, respectively, most closely allied to P. degeneratum Lieftinck and P. digitiferum Lieftinck. They bring the number of Papuagrion species to 28. New locality records of several other species are noted.
October 2, 2016: Zootaxa
Samuel Kapia, B K Rajashekhar Rao, Harry Sakulas
This study reports the heavy metal (Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb) contamination risks to and safety of two species of fresh water fish (tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus and carp, Cyprinus carpio) that are farmed in the Yonki Reservoir in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG). The upper reaches of the reservoir are affected by alluvial and large-scale gold mining activities. We also assessed heavy metal levels in the surface waters and sediments and in selected aquatic plant species from the reservoir and streams that intersect the gold mining areas...
October 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Damien R Drew, Danny W Wilson, Salenna R Elliott, Nadia Cross, Ulrich Terheggen, Anthony N Hodder, Peter M Siba, Kiprotich Chelimo, Arlene E Dent, James W Kazura, Ivo Mueller, James G Beeson
BACKGROUND: The polymorphic nature of many malaria vaccine candidates presents major challenges to achieving highly efficacious vaccines. Presently, there is very little knowledge on the prevalence and patterns of functional immune responses to polymorphic vaccine candidates in populations to guide vaccine design. A leading polymorphic vaccine candidate against blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum is apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1), which is essential for erythrocyte invasion. The importance of AMA1 as a target of acquired human inhibitory antibodies, their allele specificity and prevalence in populations is unknown, but crucial for vaccine design...
September 23, 2016: BMC Medicine
Davinia Pla, Benjamin W Bande, Ronelle E Welton, Owen K Paiva, Libia Sanz, Álvaro Segura, Christine E Wright, Juan J Calvete, José María Gutiérrez, David J Williams
: The Papuan black snake (Pseudechis papuanus Serpentes: Elapidae) is endemic to Papua New Guinea, Indonesian Papua and Australia's Torres Strait Islands. We have investigated the biological activity and proteomic composition of its venom. The P. papuanus venom proteome is dominated by a variety (n≥18) of PLA2s, which together account for ~90% of the venom proteins, and a set of low relative abundance proteins, including a short-neurotoxic 3FTx (3.1%), 3-4 PIII-SVMPs (2.8%), 3 cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP; 2...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Glenn D Guest, David F Scott, Joao P Xavier, Nelson Martins, Eric Vreede, Antony Chennal, Daliah Moss, David A Watters
BACKGROUND: Timor-Leste suffered a destructive withdrawal by the Indonesian military in 1999, leaving only 20 Timorese-based doctors and no practising specialists for a population of 700 000 that has now grown to 1.2 million. METHODS: This article assesses the outcomes and impact of Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) specialist medical support from 2001 to 2015. Three programmes were designed collaboratively with the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and Australian Aid...
September 20, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Erica C Larson, Christopher D Pond, Prem P Rai, Teatulohi K Matainaho, Pius Piskaut, Michael R Franklin, Louis R Barrows
The hypothesis underlying this current work is that fresh juice expressed from Papua New Guinea (PNG) medicinal plants (succus) will inhibit human Cytochrome P450s (CYPs). The CYP inhibitory activity identified in fresh material was compared with inhibition in methanol extracts of dried material. Succus is the most common method of traditional medicine (TM) preparation for consumption in PNG. There is increasing concern that TMs might antagonize or complicate drug therapy. We have previously shown that methanol extracts of commonly consumed PNG medicinal plants are able to induce and/or inhibit human CYPs in vitro...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Kylie M Cairns, Alan N Wilton
How and when dingoes arrived in Oceania poses a fascinating question for scientists with interest in the historical movements of humans and dogs. The dingo holds a unique position as top terrestrial predator of Australia and exists in a wild state. In the first geographical survey of genetic diversity in the dingo using whole mitochondrial genomes, we analysed 16,428 bp in 25 individuals from five separate populations. We also investigated 13 nuclear loci to compare with the mitochondrial population history patterns...
October 2016: Genetica
Neil B Chilton, Florence Huby-Chilton, Robin B Gasser, Anson V Koehler, Ian Beveridge
Pharyngostrongylus thylogale n. sp. (Nematoda: Strongylida) is described from the stomach of the red-legged pademelon, Thylogale stigmatica (Gould) (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) from north-eastern Queensland and Papua New Guinea, having formerly been confused with P. iota Johnston & Mawson, 1939. Pharyngostrongylus thylogale n. sp. differs from all congeners in having 12 labial crown elements rather than eight or 16. Pharyngostrongylus iota was found in T. stigmatica, but only in southern Queensland and northern New South Wales, in the subspecies T...
October 2016: Systematic Parasitology
Rupert Weaver, Linda Reiling, Gaoqian Feng, Damien R Drew, Ivo Mueller, Peter M Siba, Takafumi Tsuboi, Jack S Richards, Freya J I Fowkes, James G Beeson
Understanding the targets and mechanisms of human immunity to malaria is important for advancing the development of highly efficacious vaccines and serological tools for malaria surveillance. The PfRH5 and PfRipr proteins form a complex on the surface of P. falciparum merozoites that is essential for invasion of erythrocytes and are vaccine candidates. We determined IgG subclass responses to these proteins among malaria-exposed individuals in Papua New Guinea and their association with protection from malaria in a longitudinal cohort of children...
September 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
Richard M Gallagher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Manjula Marella, Mitasha Yu, Prakash Paudel, Alois Michael, Kevin Ryan, Sumrana Yasmin, Hasan Minto
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the current situation of low vision services and barriers to low vision service delivery in Papua New Guinea (PNG). METHODS: An exploratory study was undertaken to assess the situation of available services, human resources, training, equipment and assistive devices, supportive policies, needs of people with low vision and community attitudes toward people with low vision. In-depth interviews with 50 key informants were conducted in-country...
September 1, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
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