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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147042/insecticide-treated-nets-and-malaria-prevalence-papua-new-guinea-2008-2014
#1
Manuel W Hetzel, Justin Pulford, Yangta Ura, Sharon Jamea-Maiasa, Anthony Tandrapah, Nandao Tarongka, Lina Lorry, Leanne J Robinson, Ken Lilley, Leo Makita, Peter M Siba, Ivo Mueller
Objective: To investigate changes in malaria prevalence in Papua New Guinea after the distribution of long-lasting Insecticide-treated nets, starting in 2004, and the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy in 2011. Methods: Two malaria surveys were conducted in 2010-2011 and 2013-2014. They included 77 and 92 randomly selected villages, respectively. In each village, all members of 30 randomly selected households gave blood samples and were assessed for malaria infection by light microscopy...
October 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141726/status-of-insecticide-resistance-in-papua-new-guinea-an-update-from-nation-wide-monitoring-of-anopheles-mosquitoes
#2
Gussy Koimbu, Cyrille Czeher, Michelle Katusele, Muker Sakur, Lemen Kilepak, Anthony Tandrapah, Manuel W Hetzel, Justin Pulford, Leanne Robinson, Stephan Karl
Insecticide resistance (IR) monitoring is an important component of vector-borne disease control. The last assessment of IR in Papua New Guinea (PNG) was conducted in 2010. Since then, vector populations have been exposed to higher levels of pyrethroids with the continued nation-wide distribution of insecticide-treated nets. Here, we provide an update on phenotypic IR in four highly malaria-endemic areas of PNG. IR against deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane was assessed using World Health Organization bioassays...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140229/epidemiology-of-imported-malaria-cases-in-japan-2006-2014-a-sentinel-traveler-surveillance-approach
#3
Atsuhiro Kanayama, Yuzo Arima, Tamano Matsui, Koki Kaku, Hitomi Kinoshita, Kazunori Oishi
Malaria continues to be imported into Japan. To better assess the risk of imported malaria, we describe malaria species, suspected country/area of infection (accounting for the number of travelers), demographic characteristics, clinical manifestation, and healthcare access, based on the national surveillance data from 2006 to 2014. Among 557 cases, the median age was 33 years (range: 1-83 years), and 76% were male; 306 (55%) were classified as Japanese based on the reported name. The majority were Plasmodium falciparum infections (58%), followed by Plasmodium vivax infections (30%)...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126719/the-effectiveness-of-school-educating-program-for-betel-quid-chewing-a-pilot-study-in-papua-new-guinea
#4
Gene Chen, Ming-Yu Hsieh, Andy Wei-Ge Chen, Nina Hsiao-Ling Kao, Mu-Kuan Chen
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effectiveness of educating program among primary and secondary school students in Papua New Guinea, where has the highest incidence of oral cancer all over the world. METHODS: A cross-sectional school based survey was arranged in primary and secondary school in Papua New Guinea in June, 2015. A self-administrated questionnaire was administered before and after education done by health experts from Taiwan. The subjects were chosen by random...
November 7, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125935/going-viral-in-png-exploring-routes-and-circumstances-of-entry-of-a-rabies-infected-dog-into-papua-new-guinea
#5
Victoria J Brookes, Chris Degeling, Michael P Ward
In this qualitative study implemented in November 2016, we elicited narratives about fictional rabies incursions from key employees (n = 16) of the National Agriculture and Quarantine Inspection Authority in Papua New Guinea (PNG) to explore the potential circumstances and routes of entry of a rabies-infected dog, and direct rabies preparedness. Although PNG is rabies free, proximity to rabies-endemic Indonesia poses a risk of introduction and it is expected that an outbreak in PNG would have devastating human health impacts consistent with other countries with similarly low human development indices and abundant free-roaming dogs...
November 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121088/vaccination-and-nutritional-status-of-children-in-karawari-east-sepik-province-papua-new-guinea
#6
Louis Samiak, Theophilus I Emeto
Delivery of health care services to rural and remote populations in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is problematic. This is mainly due to difficulties with transportation and communication. Hence, the children in this region of PNG are likely to be at risk of malnutrition compounded by inadequate vaccination that may predispose them to preventable diseases. This study was conducted to determine the vaccination and nutritional status of children less than 5 years old in the remote and rural Karawari area of PNG. 105 children were included in the study, of whom 55% were male and 45% female...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117244/re-establishing-safer-medical-circumcision-integrated-initiation-ceremonies-for-hiv-prevention-in-a-rural-setting-in-papua-new-guinea-a-multi-method-acceptability-study
#7
Clement Morris Manineng, David MacLaren, Maggie Baigry, Emil Trowalle, Reinhold Muller, Andrew Vallely, Patrick Gesch, Francis Hombhanje, William John McBride
BACKGROUND: Efforts to stem the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are hampered by multiple interrelated factors including limited health services, extreme diversities in culture and language and highly prevalent gender inequity, domestic violence and poverty. In the rural district of Yangoru-Saussia, a revival of previously ceased male initiation ceremonies (MICs) is being considered for a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. In this study, we explore the local acceptability of this undertaking including replacing traditional penile cutting practices with medical male circumcision (MMC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107621/effectiveness-of-single-dose-azithromycin-to-treat-latent-yaws-a-longitudinal-comparative-cohort-study
#8
Oriol Mitjà, Camila González-Beiras, Charmie Godornes, Reman Kolmau, Wendy Houinei, Haina Abel, August Kapa, Raymond Paru, Sibauk V Bieb, James Wangi, Sergi Sanz, Kingsley Asiedu, Sheila A Lukehart, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Treatment of latent yaws is a crucial component of the WHO yaws eradication strategy to prevent relapse and the resulting transmission to uninfected children. We assessed the effectiveness of single-dose azithromycin to treat patients with latent yaws. METHODS: This population-based cohort study included children (age <20 years) living on Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea, with high-titre (rapid plasma reagin titre ≥1:8) latent or active yaws, between April, 2013, and May, 2015...
October 26, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091738/the-evolution-of-the-community-health-worker-program-in-papua-new-guinea
#9
Cathy L Pilang, Marion A Gray, Florin I Oprescu
New Guinea (PNG) has a special history in regard to the training of Community Health Workers (CHWs) and is currently preparing its frontline health workforce to serve the 85% of the total PNG population of 7.3 million people who live in rural and remote settings. This article identifies and explains the five major developmental stages in the current CHW training program, as well as the changes that have occurred over the past century. The developmental stages are: (1) traditional; (2) early contact; (3) innovation; (4) the 1980s; and (5) new millennium...
October 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077788/high-endemism-and-stem-density-distinguish-new-caledonian-from-other-high-diversity-rainforests-in-the-southwest-pacific
#10
Thomas Ibanez, E Blanchard, V Hequet, G Keppel, M Laidlaw, R Pouteau, H Vandrot, P Birnbaum
Background and Aims: The biodiversity hotspot of New Caledonia is globally renowned for the diversity and endemism of its flora. New Caledonia's tropical rainforests have been reported to have higher stem densities, higher concentrations of relictual lineages and higher endemism than other rainforests. This study investigates whether these aspects differ in New Caledonian rainforests compared to other high-diversity rainforests in the Southwest Pacific. Methods: Plants (with a diameter at breast height ≥10 cm) were surveyed in nine 1-ha rainforest plots across the main island of New Caledonia and compared with 14 1-ha plots in high-diversity rainforests of the Southwest Pacific (in Australia, Fiji, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands)...
October 25, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075276/phenolic-profiling-for-traceability-of-vanilla-%C3%A3-tahitensis
#11
Matteo Busconi, Luigi Lucini, Giovanna Soffritti, Jamila Bernardi, Letizia Bernardo, Christel Brunschwig, Sandra Lepers-Andrzejewski, Phila Raharivelomanana, Jose A Fernandez
Vanilla is a flavoring recovered from the cured beans of the orchid genus Vanilla. Vanilla ×tahitensis is traditionally cultivated on the islands of French Polynesia, where vanilla vines were first introduced during the nineteenth century and, since the 1960s, have been introduced to other Pacific countries such as Papua New Guinea (PNG), cultivated and sold as "Tahitian vanilla," although both sensory properties and aspect are different. From an economic point of view, it is important to ensure V. ×tahitensis traceability and to guarantee that the marketed product is part of the future protected designation of the origin "Tahitian vanilla" (PDO), currently in progress in French Polynesia...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069104/reassessing-the-environmental-context-of-the-aitape-skull-the-oldest-tsunami-victim-in-the-world
#12
James Goff, Mark Golitko, Ethan Cochrane, Darren Curnoe, Shaun Williams, John Terrell
There is increasing recognition of the long-lasting effects of tsunamis on human populations. This is particularly notable along tectonically active coastlines with repeated inundations occurring over thousands of years. Given the often high death tolls reported from historical events though it is remarkable that so few human skeletal remains have been found in the numerous palaeotsunami deposits studied to date. The 1929 discovery of the Aitape Skull in northern Papua New Guinea and its inferred late Pleistocene age played an important role in discussions about the origins of humans in Australasia for over 25 years until it was more reliably radiocarbon dated to around 6000 years old...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069102/enduring-impact-of-conflict-on-mental-health-and-gender-based-violence-perpetration-in-bougainville-papua-new-guinea-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Rachel Jewkes, Nwabisa Jama-Shai, Yandisa Sikweyiya
BACKGROUND: Violence against women is often exacerbated by war, but most civilian research has investigated short term impact. We describe the conflict experiences of men and women from the general population of Bougainville Papua New Guinea, perceptions of the enduring impact of conflict, and the associations between these and the major health and development problems on the islands: mental ill-health and violence against women. METHODS: Fourteen years after the end of the decade long civil war, we conducted a household survey with a random sample of adult (n = 864) men and (n = 879) women living in Bougainville...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065884/risk-factors-and-pregnancy-outcomes-associated-with-placental-malaria-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-papua-new-guinean-women
#14
Elvin Lufele, Alexandra Umbers, Jaume Ordi, Maria Ome-Kaius, Regina Wangnapi, Holger Unger, Nandao Tarongka, Peter Siba, Ivo Mueller, Leanne Robinson, Stephen Rogerson
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum in pregnancy results in substantial poor health outcomes for both mother and child, particularly in young, primigravid mothers who are at greatest risk of placental malaria (PM) infection. Complications of PM include maternal anaemia, low birth weight and preterm delivery, which contribute to maternal and infant morbidity and mortality in coastal Papua New Guinea (PNG). METHODS: Placental biopsies were examined from 1451 pregnant women who were enrolled in a malaria prevention study at 14-26 weeks gestation...
October 24, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043981/southeast-asian-ovalocytosis-the-need-for-a-carefull-observation-of-red-cell-indices-and-blood-smear
#15
Pierre-Antoine Moulin, Vanessa Nivaggioni, Noémie Saut, Charlotte Grosdidier, Denis Bernot, Véronique Baccini
Southeast asian ovalocytosis (SAO) is characterized by macro-ovalocytes and ovalo-stomatocytes on blood smear. SAO is common in Malaisia and Papua-New-Guinea where upwards to 40 per cent of the population is affected in some coastal region. Inherited in an autosomal dominant way, illness results from deletion of codons 400-408 in SLC4A1 gene which encodes for band 3 erythrocyte membrane protein. This deletion is responsible for an unusual erythrocyte stiffness and oval shape of the cells on blood smear. Heterozygous carriers are usually asymptomatic whereas homozygous are not viable without an intensive antenatal care...
October 18, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037005/stroke-epidemiology-in-south-east-and-south-east-asia-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Byung Woo Yoon, Jeyaraj Pandian, Jose C Navarro
Asia, which holds 60% of the world's population, comprises some developing countries which are in economic transition. This paper reviews the epidemiology of stroke in South, East and South-East Asia. Data on the epidemiology of stroke in South, East, and South-East Asia were derived from the Global Burden of Disease study (mortality, disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs] lost because of stroke), World Health Organization (vascular risk factors in the community), and publications in PubMed (incidence, prevalence, subtypes, vascular risk factors among hospitalized stroke patients)...
September 2017: Journal of Stroke
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035853/the-gastrointestinal-nematodes-of-paramelomys-lorentzii-and-mammelomys-spp-rodentia-muridae-with-descriptions-of-a-new-genus-and-three-new-species-heligmonellidae-from-papua-new-guinea-and-indonesia
#17
Lesley R Smales
Unidentified cestodes and 14 species of nematode and larvae that could not be placed to family level, were collected from the digestive tracts of 27 individuals of Paramelomys lorentzii, four of Mammelomys lanosus and a single M. rattoides from Papua New Guinea and Papua Indonesia. Of these three were new species. Hughjonestrongylus woolleyae sp. nov. can be distinguished from its congeners in having up to 26 ridges in the synlophe and a dissymmetric dorsal ray. Parvinema bafunminensis gen. nov., sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other genera in the family by the combination of features in the synlophe; with a carene, up to 17 ridges, and the pattern of ridge sizes...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035849/a-new-species-of-spauligodon-nematoda-oxyuroidea-pharyngodonidae-and-other-nematodes-in-cyrtodactylus-epiroticus-squamata-gekkonidae-from-papua-new-guinea
#18
Charles R Bursey, Stephen R Goldberg, Fred Kraus
Spauligodon papuensis sp. nov. from the large intestines of Cyrtodactylus epiroticus (Gekkonidae) from Papua New Guinea is described and illustrated. Spauligodon papuensis sp. nov. represents the 54th species assigned to the genus and the second species from the Oceanic Region. The new species is separated from congeners by the unique combination of aspinose filamentous tail and no spicule in the male; and spinose filamentous tail, fusiform, flanged eggs, and postbulbar vulva in the female. Four additional species of nematodes were also found in C...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031011/a-framework-for-the-identification-of-hotspots-of-climate-change-risk-for-mammals
#19
Michela Pacifici, Piero Visconti, Carlo Rondinini
As rates of global warming increase rapidly, identifying species at risk of decline due to climate impacts and the factors affecting this risk have become key challenges in ecology and conservation biology. Here we present a framework for assessing three components of climate-related risk for species: vulnerability, exposure and hazard. We used the relationship between the observed response of species to climate change and a set of intrinsic traits (e.g., weaning age) and extrinsic factors (e.g., precipitation seasonality within a species geographic range) to predict, respectively, the vulnerability and exposure of all data-sufficient terrestrial non-volant mammals (3953 species)...
October 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029179/sustained-malaria-control-over-an-eight-year-period-in-papua-new-guinea-the-challenge-of-low-density-asymptomatic-infections
#20
Cristian Koepfli, Maria Ome-Kaius, Shadrach Jally, Elisheba Malau, Samuel Maripal, Jason Ginny, Lincoln Timinao, Johanna Helena Kattenberg, Thomas Obadia, Michael White, Patricia Rarau, Nicolas Senn, Alyssa E Barry, James W Kazura, Ivo Mueller, Leanne J Robinson
Background: The scale-up of effective malaria control in the last decade has resulted in a substantial decline in the incidence of clinical malaria in many countries. The effects on the proportions of asymptomatic and submicroscopic infections, and on transmission potential are yet poorly understood. Methods: In Papua New Guinea, vector control has been intensified since 2008, and improved diagnosis and treatment introduced in 2012. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Madang Province in 2006 (n=1280), 2010 (n=2117) and 2014 (n=2516)...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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