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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103875/effects-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-on-umbilical-artery-resistance-and-intrafetal-blood-flow-distribution-a-doppler-ultrasound-study-from-papua-new-guinea
#1
Maria Ome-Kaius, Stephan Karl, Regina Alice Wangnapi, John Walpe Bolnga, Glen Mola, Jane Walker, Ivo Mueller, Holger Werner Unger, Stephen John Rogerson
BACKGROUND: Doppler velocimetry studies of umbilical artery (UA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow help to determine the presence and severity of fetal growth restriction. Increased UA resistance and reduced MCA pulsatility may indicate increased placental resistance and intrafetal blood flow redistribution. Malaria causes low birth weight and fetal growth restriction, but few studies have assessed its effects on uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood flow. METHODS: Colour-pulsed Doppler ultrasound was used to assess UA and MCA flow in 396 Papua New Guinean singleton fetuses...
January 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086845/the-social-determinants-of-tuberculosis-treatment-adherence-in-a-remote-region-of-papua-new-guinea
#2
Tanya Diefenbach-Elstob, David Plummer, Robert Dowi, Sinba Wamagi, Bisato Gula, Keyanato Siwaeya, Daniel Pelowa, Peter Siba, Jeffrey Warner
BACKGROUND: Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a diverse and culturally-rich country with severe infrastructural and health problems. Tuberculosis (TB) is widespread, and the number of cases with drug resistance is rising. Treatment adherence is known to be important for both effective treatment and limiting the emergence of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to construct a matrix of the factors that act as facilitators or barriers to TB treatment adherence in a remote region of PNG. METHODS: The study was based in the Balimo region of the Western Province...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072863/a-single-dose-oral-azithromycin-versus-intramuscular-benzathine-penicillin-for-the-treatment-of-yaws-a-randomized-non-inferiority-trial-in-ghana
#3
Cynthia Kwakye-Maclean, Nsiire Agana, John Gyapong, Priscilia Nortey, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Esther Aryee, Kingsley Asiedu, Roland Ballard, Fred Binka
BACKGROUND: Yaws is a treponemal infection that was almost eradicated fifty years ago; however, the disease has re-emerged in a number of countries including Ghana. A single-dose of intramuscular benzathine penicillin has been the mainstay of treatment for yaws. However, intramuscular injections are painful and pose safety and logistical constraints in the poor areas where yaws occurs. A single center randomized control trial (RCT) carried out in Papua New Guinea in 2012 demonstrated the efficacy of a single-dose of oral azithromycin for the treatment of yaws...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070005/higher-complexity-of-infection-and-genetic-diversity-of-plasmodium-vivax-than-plasmodium-falciparum-across-all-malaria-transmission-zones-of-papua-new-guinea
#4
Abebe A Fola, G L Abby Harrison, Mita Hapsari Hazairin, Céline Barnadas, Manuel W Hetzel, Jonah Iga, Peter M Siba, Ivo Mueller, Alyssa E Barry
Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax have varying transmission dynamics that are informed by molecular epidemiology. This study aimed to determine the complexity of infection and genetic diversity of P. vivax and P. falciparum throughout Papua New Guinea (PNG) to evaluate transmission dynamics across the country. In 2008-2009, a nationwide malaria indicator survey collected 8,936 samples from all 16 endemic provinces of PNG. Of these, 892 positive P. vivax samples were genotyped at PvMS16 and PvmspF3, and 758 positive P...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060812/a-novel-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-type-1c-molecular-variant-in-an-indigenous-individual-from-new-caledonia-melanesia
#5
Olivier Cassar, Françoise Charavay, Frédéric Touzain, Patricia Jeannin, Jean-Paul Grangeon, Sylvie Laumond, Eliane Chungue, Paul M V Martin, Antoine Gessain
BACKGROUND: Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic among people of Melanesian descent in Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, and in Indigenous populations from Central Australia. Molecular studies revealed that these Australo-Melanesian strains constitute the highly divergent HTLV-1c subtype. New Caledonia is a French overseas territory located in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. HTLV-1 situation is poorly documented in New Caledonia and the molecular epidemiology of HTLV-1 infection remains unknown...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056949/the-treatment-of-non-malarial-febrile-illness-in-papua-new-guinea-findings-from-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-studies-of-health-worker-practice
#6
Olga P M Saweri, Manuel W Hetzel, Ivo Mueller, Peter M Siba, Justin Pulford
BACKGROUND: The Papua New Guinea Department of Health recently shifted from a presumptive to a 'test and treat' malaria case management policy. This shift was supported by the widespread introduction of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in health facilities across the country. Health workers received training and job-aids detailing how to conduct and interpret a malaria rapid diagnostic test and how to treat test positive cases; however, little instruction on treating non-malaria febrile cases was provided...
January 5, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040252/tropical-co2-seeps-reveal-the-impact-of-ocean-acidification-on-coral-reef-invertebrate-recruitment
#7
Ro Allen, Andrew Foggo, Katharina Fabricius, Annalisa Balistreri, Jason M Hall-Spencer
Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification by reducing seawater pH and carbonate saturation levels. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that many larval and juvenile marine invertebrates are vulnerable to these changes in surface ocean chemistry, but challenges remain in predicting effects at community and ecosystem levels. We investigated the effect of ocean acidification on invertebrate recruitment at two coral reef CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea. Invertebrate communities differed significantly between 'reference' (median pH7...
December 29, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033717/active-community-based-case-finding-for-tuberculosis-with-limited-resources
#8
Bindu Karki, Guenter Kittel, Ignatius Bolokon, Trevor Duke
Papua New Guinea is one of the 14 highest-burden countries for tuberculosis (TB) infection, but few community-based studies exist. We evaluated a low-cost method of active community case finding in Kabwum and Wasu in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. Over 3 months we visited 26 villages and screened adults and children for symptoms and signs of TB. Sputum samples were examined using smear microscopy. A total of 1700 people had chronic symptoms, of which 267 were suspicious for TB on further examination. Sputum from 230 symptomatic adults yielded 97 samples that were positive for acid-fast bacilli...
December 1, 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027326/haemophilus-ducreyi-cutaneous-ulcer-strains-diverged-from-both-class-i-and-class-ii-genital-ulcer-strains-implications-for-epidemiological-studies
#9
Dharanesh Gangaiah, Stanley M Spinola
BACKGROUND: Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU) in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU) disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Using whole-genome sequencing of 4 CU strains from Samoa, 1 from Vanuatu and 1 from Papua New Guinea, we showed that CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP and that one CU strain expressed β-lactamase...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012447/health-promotion-and-empowerment-in-henganofi-district-papua-new-guinea
#10
Richard Barcham, Esther Silas, Jesse Irie
Evidence shows that the government of Papua New Guinea is failing to provide basic services in health to the majority of its people. Local non-government organisations (NGOs), partnered with international NGOs, are attempting to fill this gap. With limited resources, these small Indigenous organisations must focus much of their effort on training that supports self-reliance as the main strategy for communities to improve their quality of life. This project explored the training content and methodology of Touching The Untouchables (TTU), a small Indigenous NGO based in Goroka, Eastern Highlands Province, that has trained a network of village volunteers in health promotion and safe motherhood...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007921/mosquito-behaviour-change-after-distribution-of-bednets-results-in-decreased-protection-against-malaria-exposure
#11
Edward K Thomsen, Gussy Koimbu, Justin Pulford, Sharon Jamea-Maiasa, Yangta Ura, John B Keven, Peter M Siba, Ivo Mueller, Manuel W Hetzel, Lisa J Reimer
BACKGROUND: Behavioural resilience in mosquitoes poses a significant challenge to mosquito control. Although behaviour changes in anopheline vectors have been reported over the last decade, there are no empirical data to suggest they compromise the efficacy of vector control in reducing malaria transmission. METHODS: In this study, we quantified human exposure to both bites and infective bites of a major malaria vector in Papua New Guinea over the course of four years surrounding a nationwide bednet distribution...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003287/maternal-malaria-and-malnutrition-m3-initiative-a-pooled-birth-cohort-of-13-pregnancy-studies-in-africa-and-the-western-pacific
#12
Holger W Unger, Jordan E Cates, Julie Gutman, Valerie Briand, Nadine Fievet, Innocent Valea, Halidou Tinto, Umberto d'Alessandro, Sarah H Landis, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Kathryn G Dewey, Feiko Ter Kuile, Stephanie Dellicour, Peter Ouma, Laurence Slutsker, Dianne J Terlouw, Simon Kariuki, John Ayisi, Bernard Nahlen, Meghna Desai, Mwayi Madanitsa, Linda Kalilani-Phiri, Per Ashorn, Kenneth Maleta, Ivo Mueller, Danielle Stanisic, Christentze Schmiegelow, John Lusingu, Daniel Westreich, Anna Maria van Eijk, Steven Meshnick, Stephen Rogerson
PURPOSE: The Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative has pooled together 13 studies with the hope of improving understanding of malaria-nutrition interactions during pregnancy and to foster collaboration between nutritionists and malariologists. PARTICIPANTS: Data were pooled on 14 635 singleton, live birth pregnancies from women who had participated in 1 of 13 pregnancy studies. The 13 studies cover 8 countries in Africa and Papua New Guinea in the Western Pacific conducted from 1996 to 2015...
December 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989671/marine-dispersal-scales-are-congruent-over-evolutionary-and-ecological-time
#13
Malin L Pinsky, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Océane C Salles, Glenn R Almany, Michael Bode, Michael L Berumen, Serge Andréfouët, Simon R Thorrold, Geoffrey P Jones, Serge Planes
The degree to which offspring remain near their parents or disperse widely is critical for understanding population dynamics, evolution, and biogeography, and for designing conservation actions. In the ocean, most estimates suggesting short-distance dispersal are based on direct ecological observations of dispersing individuals, while indirect evolutionary estimates often suggest substantially greater homogeneity among populations. Reconciling these two approaches and their seemingly competing perspectives on dispersal has been a major challenge...
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988748/a-taxonomic-revision-of-the-kalshoveni-species-group-of-the-genus-i-nemophora-i-hoffmannsegg-lepidoptera-adelidae-with-descriptions-of-six-new-species-from-indonesia-and-papua-new-guinea
#14
Mikhail V Kozlov
A monophyletic group of seven externally similar, grey to light brown species of the genus Nemophora Hoffmannsegg from the islands of Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, recognised as the new kalshoveni species-group, is revised. All species of this group possess an oblique light stripe, which arises from the costal margin of the forewing at 0.7-0.8 of its length towards the middle of an external wing margin. The proboscis of these species is unusually thick due to a dense cover of raised dark brown and black scales...
November 10, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988699/ten-new-species-of-i-oreophryne-i-anura-microhylidae-from-papua-new-guinea
#15
Fred Kraus
Oreophryne presently represents the second-most-diverse genus of microhylid frogs, with 57 named species, most occurring on New Guinea and its satellite islands. Nonetheless, a diversity of species remains to be described. Using morphological, color-pattern, and advertisement-call data, I describe ten new species of Oreophryne from the Papuan Peninsula of New Guinea and adjacent islands, which together form the East Papuan Composite Terrane. All but two of these species can be placed into two species groups based on call type...
November 17, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988636/-i-papuaneon-i-a-new-genus-of-jumping-spiders-from-papua-new-guinea-araneae-salticidae-neonini
#16
Wayne P Maddison
The genus Neon Simon stands alone as a phylogenetically isolated astioid jumping spider, the only member of the Neonini. The new genus Papuaneon is established for the jumping spider Papuaneon tualapa sp. nov. from Papua New Guinea. Resembling a large, hirsute Neon, it is here shown to be the sister group to Neon, based on data from the nuclear 28S and Actin 5C, and the mitochondrial 16SND1 region. Photographs of living specimens are provided.
November 29, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988577/-i-galeus-i-i-corriganae-i-sp-nov-a-new-species-of-deepwater-catshark-carcharhiniformes-pentanchidae-from-papua-new-guinea
#17
William T White, Ralph R Mana, Gavin J P Naylor
A new species of catshark, provisionally placed in the genus Galeus, is described from Papua New Guinea based on 7 specimens collected during recent deepwater surveys of the region. The new species, Galeus corriganae, is closest to G. priapus from New Caledonia and G. gracilis from northwestern Australia but differs in several morphological characters. A reclassification of the catshark groups is required to revise the familial and generic arrangement of the group.
December 6, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988565/revision-of-early-taxa-of-australian-gall-midges-diptera-cecidomyiidae
#18
Peter Kolesik, Raymond J Gagné
Australian Cecidomyiidae described by Schiner (1868), Skuse (1888, 1890), Koebele (1893), Felt (1915), Edwards (1916) and Rübsaamen (1916), totalling 111 species and three subgenera, are revised. Chastomera Skuse, 1888 is confirmed to be a junior synonym of Haplusia Karsch, 1878 and Gonioclema Skuse, 1888 and Necrophlebia Skuse, 1888 are declared nomina dubia. Twenty-two species are placed to genus, an additional four species are placed to supertribe or subfamily, all of them redescribed. The remaining species are declared junior synonyms or nomina dubia...
December 7, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979388/new-case-of-lateral-asymmetry-in-fishes-a-new-subfamily-genus-and-species-of-deep-water-clingfishes-from-papua-new-guinea-western-pacific-ocean
#19
Ronald Fricke, Jhen-Nien Chen, Wei-Jen Chen
The unusual clingfish Protogobiesox asymmetricus n. gen, n. sp. is described on the basis of four specimens collected in deep water off the north coast of Papua New Guinea in 2012. The species is characterized by its 9-10 dorsal rays, 8 anal rays, 17-24 pectoral-fin rays, 15 principal caudal-fin rays, 3 gills, third arch with 3 gill rakers, 34-35 total vertebrae, with asymmetrical lateral bending starting behind the skull, bent at an angle of 85°-92°; skull asymmetrical in frontal view; skin naked, surface of head and body without striae; disc without adhesive papillae...
December 12, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957387/pests-diseases-and-crop-protection-practices-in-the-smallholder-sweetpotato-production-system-of-the-highlands-of-papua-new-guinea
#20
Geoff M Gurr, Jian Liu, Anne C Johnson, Deane N Woruba, Gunnar Kirchhof, Ryosuke Fujinuma, William Sirabis, Yapo Jeffery, Ramakrishna Akkinapally
Sweetpotato (Ipomea batatans) is a food crop of global significance. The storage roots and foliage of crop are attacked by a wide range of pests and diseases. Whilst these are generally well controlled in developed countries using approaches such as clean planting material and monitoring with pheromone traps to guide insecticide use, research into methods suitable for developing countries has lagged. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), sweetpotato is grown extensively as a subsistence crop and commercial production as a cash crop is developing...
2016: PeerJ
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