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Papua new guinea

Sofonias K Tessema, Digjaya Utama, Olga Chesnokov, Anthony N Hodder, Clara S Lin, G L Abby Harrison, Jakob S Jespersen, Bent Petersen, Livingstone Tavul, Peter Siba, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Thomas Lavstsen, Diana S Hansen, Andrew V Oleinikov, Ivo Mueller, Alyssa E Barry
Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) mediates parasite sequestration to the cerebral microvasculature via binding of DBLβ domains to Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM1) and is associated with severe cerebral malaria. In a cohort of 187 young children from Papua New Guinea (PNG), we examined baseline antibody levels to the ICAM1-binding PfEMP1 domain, DBLβ3PF11_0521 , in comparison to four control antigens including NTS-DBLα and CIDR1 domains from another group A variant and a group B/C variant...
May 21, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Jocelyn Chan, Cattram D Nguyen, Jana Y R Lai, Eileen M Dunne, Ross Andrews, Christopher C Blyth, Siddhartha Datta, Kim Fox, Rebecca Ford, Jason Hinds, Sophie La Vincente, Deborah Lehmann, Ruth Lim, Tuya Mungun, Paul N Newton, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Willam S Pomat, Anonh Xeuatvongsa, Claire von Mollendorf, David A B Dance, Catherine Satzke, Kim Muholland, Fiona M Russell
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) prevent disease through both direct protection of vaccinated individuals and indirect protection of unvaccinated individuals by reducing nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage and transmission of vaccine-type (VT) pneumococci. While the indirect effects of PCV vaccination are well described, the PCV coverage required to achieve the indirect effects is unknown. We will investigate the relationship between PCV coverage and VT carriage among undervaccinated children using hospital-based NP pneumococcal carriage surveillance at three sites in Asia and the Pacific...
May 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Justin Pulford, Serah Kurumop, Ivo Mueller, Peter M Siba, Manuel W Hetzel
BACKGROUND: This paper examines the impact of the scale-up of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) on routine clinical diagnosis procedures for febrile illness in primary healthcare settings in Papua New Guinea. METHODS: Repeat, cross-sectional surveys in randomly selected primary healthcare services were conducted. Surveys included passive observation of consecutive febrile case management cases and were completed immediately prior to RDT scale-up (2011) and at 12- (2012) and 60-months (2016) post scale-up...
May 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
Joseph D Tucci, Paul P Pumuye, Nuala A Helsby, Daniel T Barratt, Percy P Pokeya, Francis Hombhanje, Andrew A Somogyi
Papua New Guinea (PNG) can be roughly divided into highland, coastal and island peoples with significant mitochondrial DNA differentiation reflecting early and recent distinct migrations from Africa and East Asia, respectively. Infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria and HIV severely impact on the health of its peoples for which drug therapy is the major treatment and pharmacogenetics has clinical relevance for many of these drugs. Although there is generally little information about known single nucleotide polymorphisms in the population, in some instances, their frequencies have been shown to be higher than anywhere worldwide...
June 2018: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
Francis B Ntumngia, Richard Thomson-Luque, Sandra Galusic, Gabriel Frato, Sarah Frischmann, David S Peabody, Bryce Chackerian, Marcelo U Ferreira, Christopher L King, John H Adams
Background: Erythrocyte invasion by malaria parasites is essential for blood-stage development. Consequently, parasite proteins critically involved in erythrocyte invasion such as the Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte-binding proteins (RBPs) that mediate preferential invasion of reticulocytes are considered potential vaccine targets. Thus, targeting the RBPs could prevent blood-stage infection and disease. The RBPs are large and little is known about their functional domains and whether individuals naturally exposed to P...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jessica Davis, Cathy Vaughan, Justine Nankinga, Lisa Davidson, Hellen Kigodi, Eileen Alalo, Liz Comrie-Thomson, Stanley Luchters
BACKGROUND: The importance of engaging men in maternal and child health programs is well recognised internationally. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), men's involvement in maternal and child health services remains limited and barriers and enablers to involving fathers in antenatal care have not been well studied. The purpose of this paper is to explore attitudes to expectant fathers participating in antenatal care, and to identify barriers and enablers to men's participation in antenatal care with their pregnant partner in PNG...
May 8, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Antonio Arnaiz-Villena, Jose Palacio-Grüber, Ester Muñiz, Ennio Hernández, Brayan Bayona, Cristina Campos, Jorge Nuñez, AdrianLopez-Nares, Manuel Martin-Villa, Carlos Silvera
We have studied Wiwa/Sanja Amerindians HLA-A,-B,-C.-DRB1 and DQB1 allele frequencies and extended haplotypes in 52 unrelated individuals from "El Encanto" town at Guanachacariverside.Highfrequency alleles were in general present in other Amerindian populetions.Also,three extended haplotypes and eight ones were respectively both "new found" and already described in Amerindians from North,Central and South America,including Lakota-Sioux,Mayas,Teeneks,Quechua and Aymaras.Analyses of HLA-A∗24:02 and -C∗01:02 Wiwa high frequency alleles suggested a specific relatedness with another Amerindian and Pacific Islander ethnic groups (these two particular alleles bearing in high frequencies);they include New Zealand Maoris,Taiwanese,Japanese,Papua New Guinea,and Samoans among others...
May 2, 2018: Human Immunology
Benny K K Chan, Guang Xu, Hyun Kyong Kim, Jin-Ho Park, Won Kim
Corals and their associated fauna are extremely diverse in tropical waters and form major reefs. In the high-latitude temperate zone, corals living near their distribution limit are considered marginal communities because they are particularly extremely sensitive to environmental and climatic changes. In this study, we examined the diversity and host usage of coral-associated barnacles on Jeju Island, Korea, the northern coral distribution limit in the East China Sea. In this study, only three coral-associated barnacles-from two genera in two subfamilies-were collected...
2018: PloS One
S A Appleyard, W T White, S Vieira, B Sabub
Our study is the first detailed examination of species composition using DNA COI barcoding of elasmobranchs from an artisanal fishery of Papua New Guinea. The study is the first in the region to provide biomass estimates based on species confirmation following examination of dried fins. Over 20 species of elasmobranchs were identified from 623 fins from the artisanal fishery in Milne Bay Province of PNG, with Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos and Carcharhinus melanopterus the most abundant species in the catches. Of concern, 21% of fins examined were from IUCN listed threatened species (Vulnerable or Endangered) with 8% of fins from the Endangered scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini)...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Petra Pjevac, Dimitri V Meier, Stephanie Markert, Christian Hentschker, Thomas Schweder, Dörte Becher, Harald R Gruber-Vodicka, Michael Richter, Wolfgang Bach, Rudolf Amann, Anke Meyerdierks
At hydrothermal vent sites, chimneys consisting of sulfides, sulfates, and oxides are formed upon contact of reduced hydrothermal fluids with oxygenated seawater. The walls and surfaces of these chimneys are an important habitat for vent-associated microorganisms. We used community proteogenomics to investigate and compare the composition, metabolic potential and relative in situ protein abundance of microbial communities colonizing two actively venting hydrothermal chimneys from the Manus Basin back-arc spreading center (Papua New Guinea)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sarah M Smith, Roger A Beaver, Sudhir Singh, Anthony I Cognato
Xyleborini currently consists of more than 1168 species in 36 genera, nearly all of which were described in Xyleborus (Hulcr et al. 2015; Smith 2017). The tribe has been the focus of considerable taxonomic attention over the last decade resulting in phylogenetically based revisions and the erection of new genera (e.g. Hulcr et al. 2007, Hulcr and Cognato 2010). However in the Old World these efforts have largely been restricted to faunas of particular countries such as Taiwan (Beaver and Liu 2010), Thailand (Beaver et al...
March 12, 2018: Zootaxa
JÁnos NovÁk, Mark S Harvey
Two new pseudoscorpion species, Geogarypus muchmorei sp. nov. from India and G. klarae sp. nov. from Papua New Guinea, are described and illustrated. New data for G. sagittatus Beier, 1965 are reported and a supplementary description is given, based on a new specimen. New occurrences of G. longidigitatus (Rainbow, 1897) are recorded from Papua New Guinea and Sri Lanka.
March 14, 2018: Zootaxa
Pekka Vilkamaa, Hans-Georg Rudzinski, Nikola BurdÍkovÁ, Jan ŠevČÍk
Four Oriental species of Aerumnosa Mohrig, 1999 (Diptera: Sciaridae), a genus previously known only from Papua New Guinea, are newly described and illustrated: Aerumnosa bituberculata sp. n. (India), A. gemmifera sp. n. (Malaysia: Sabah), A. horrifica sp. n. (Brunei, Thailand) and A. impar sp. n. (Malaysia: Sabah). On the basis of the new material, the genus is redefined. A key to the known species of Aerumnosa is presented, including four new species. An updated molecular phylogenetic analysis based on four gene markers (18S, 28S, 16S and COI) shows Aerumnosa to be a member of the subfamily Cratyninae...
March 21, 2018: Zootaxa
M B Malipatil
The assassin bugs of the genus Ptilocerus Gray, 1831 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Holoptilinae) occurring in the Australian Region are reviewed for the first time, resulting in the description of two new species, viz., P. spangenbergi sp. nov. (Queensland and Northern Territory, Australia) and P. papuensis sp. nov. (Papua New Guinea). The latter species differs from P. fuscus Gray, 1831 (the type-species of genus Ptilocerus) in a couple of major external morphological characters, hence its tentative placement in the genus Ptilocerus is discussed...
April 16, 2018: Zootaxa
William T White, Alfred Ko'ou
An annotated checklist of the chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, rays, and chimaeras) of Papua New Guinean waters is herein presented. The checklist is the result of a large biodiversity study on the chondrichthyan fauna of Papua New Guinea between 2013 and 2017. The chondrichthyan fauna of Papua New Guinea has historically been very poorly known due to a lack of baseline information and limited deepwater exploration. A total of 131 species, comprising 36 families and 68 genera, were recorded. The most speciose families are the Carcharhinidae with 29 species and the Dasyatidae with 23 species...
April 19, 2018: Zootaxa
Mariom A Carvajal, Eduardo I FaÚndez, David A Rider
Kaytuesso flavolateralis gen. and sp. nov. is described from Papua New Guinea. The new genus is remarkable in that the only included species is one of the smallest species known within the Oncomerinae. The relationships among Kaytuesso and the related genera Agapophyta Guerin, Erga Walker and Musgraveia Leston and Scudder are discussed.
January 25, 2018: Zootaxa
Brittany Finucci, William T White, Jenny M Kemper, Gavin J P Naylor
An integrated taxonomic approach, combining both morphological and molecular data, was adopted to investigate the Hydrolagus lemures-ogilbyi group in the Indo-Australian region. Single mitochondrial markers (CO1 and NADH2) provided evidence supporting the separation of four distinct species in this group. However, detailed morphological data collected from specimens from across their range failed to find any consistent differences, and many features previously considered to be diagnostic were found to be variable...
January 24, 2018: Zootaxa
Andrew Tukana, Robert Hedlefs, Bruce Gummow
A semi-systematic literature review of national policies was carried out in relation to surveillance and disease reporting in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). It also analysed the animal disease reporting structures in Fiji, Papua New Guinea (PNG), Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of those reporting structures were examined in relation to how they impacted the detection and management of animal diseases in PICTs. Field missions collected information on animal disease reporting structures and these were discussed in detail with country officials and documented...
April 20, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Yoshiaki Kai, Ronald Fricke
Three valid species of Parabembras are recognized: P. curta , P. robinsoni , and the new species P. multisquamata . Parabembras robinsoni from the southwestern Indian Ocean (South Africa to Mozambique) is easily distinguishable from the other species in having eleven spines in the first dorsal fin, a distinct symphyseal knob on the lower jaw, two preocular spines, and a single lachrymal spine. Parabembras multisquamata from the southwestern Pacific (Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea) and the Philippines, and P. curta , known from the northwestern Pacific (southern Japan to South China Sea), are similar in sharing the absence of a symphyseal knob on the lower jaw, the presence of two lachrymal spines, and a single preocular spine, but the former is clearly distinguished from the latter in usually having 10 spines in the first dorsal fin (vs...
2018: ZooKeys
Michael T White, Stephan Karl, Cristian Koepfli, Rhea J Longley, Natalie E Hofmann, Rahel Wampfler, Ingrid Felger, Tom Smith, Wang Nguitragool, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Leanne Robinson, Azra Ghani, Ivo Mueller
BACKGROUND: In malaria endemic populations, complex patterns of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage infection dynamics may be observed. Genotyping samples from longitudinal cohort studies for merozoite surface protein (msp) variants increases the information available in the data, allowing multiple infecting parasite clones in a single individual to be identified. msp genotyped samples from two longitudinal cohorts in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Thailand were analysed using a statistical model where the times of acquisition and clearance of each clone in every individual were estimated using a process of data augmentation...
April 17, 2018: Malaria Journal
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