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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345743/refining-mortality-estimates-in-shark-demographic-analyses-a-bayesian-inverse-matrix-approach
#1
Jonathan J Smart, André E Punt, William T White, Colin A Simpfendorfer
Leslie matrix models are an important analysis tool in conservation biology that are applied to a diversity of taxa. The standard approach estimates the finite rate of population growth (λ) from a set of vital rates. In some instances, an estimate of λ is available, but the vital rates are poorly understood and can be solved for using an inverse matrix approach. However, these approaches are rarely attempted due to pre-requisites of information on the structure of age or stage-classes. This study addressed this issue by using a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and the sample-importance-resampling (SIR) algorithm to solve the inverse matrix problem without data on population structure...
January 18, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313805/nationwide-genetic-surveillance-of-plasmodium-vivax-in-papua-new-guinea-reveals-heterogeneous-transmission-dynamics-and-routes-of-migration-amongst-subdivided-populations
#2
Abebe A Fola, Elma Nate, G L Abby Harrison, Céline Barnadas, Manuel W Hetzel, Jonah Iga, Peter Siba, Ivo Mueller, Alyssa E Barry
The Asia Pacific Leaders in Malaria Alliance (APLMA) have committed to eliminate malaria from the region by 2030. Papua New Guinea (PNG) has the highest malaria burden in the Asia-Pacific region but with the intensification of control efforts since 2005, transmission has been dramatically reduced and Plasmodium vivax is now the dominant malaria infection in some parts of the country. To gain a better understanding of the transmission dynamics and migration patterns of P. vivax in PNG, here we investigate population structure in eight geographically and ecologically distinct regions of the country...
December 4, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310751/multi-clonal-evolution-of-multi-drug-resistant-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-a-high-prevalence-setting-of-papua-new-guinea-for-over-three-decades
#3
Arnold Bainomugisa, Evelyn Lavu, Stenard Hiashiri, Suman Majumdar, Alice Honjepari, Rendi Moke, Paison Dakulala, Grant A Hill-Cawthorne, Sushil Pandey, Ben J Marais, Chris Coulter, Lachlan Coin
An outbreak of multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been reported on Daru Island, Papua New Guinea. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains driving this outbreak and the temporal accrual of drug resistance mutations have not been described. Whole genome sequencing of 100 of 165 clinical isolates referred from Daru General Hospital to the Supranational reference laboratory, Brisbane, during 2012-2015 revealed that 95 belonged to a single modern Beijing sub-lineage strain. Molecular dating suggested acquisition of streptomycin and isoniazid resistance in the 1960s, with potentially enhanced virulence mediated by an mycP1 mutation...
January 4, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291350/accessing-chemical-diversity-from-the-uncultivated-symbionts-of-small-marine-animals
#4
Thomas E Smith, Christopher D Pond, Elizabeth Pierce, Zachary P Harmer, Jason Kwan, Malcolm M Zachariah, Mary Kay Harper, Thomas P Wyche, Teatulohi K Matainaho, Tim S Bugni, Louis R Barrows, Chris M Ireland, Eric W Schmidt
Chemistry drives many biological interactions between the microbiota and host animals, yet it is often challenging to identify the chemicals involved. This poses a problem, as such small molecules are excellent sources of potential pharmaceuticals, pretested by nature for animal compatibility. We discovered anti-HIV compounds from small, marine tunicates from the Eastern Fields of Papua New Guinea. Tunicates are a reservoir for new bioactive chemicals, yet their small size often impedes identification or even detection of the chemicals within...
January 1, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288183/performance-of-syndromic-management-for-the-detection-and-treatment-of-genital-chlamydia-trachomatis-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-and-trichomonas-vaginalis-among-women-attending-antenatal-well-woman-and-sexual-health-clinics-in-papua-new-guinea-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Lisa M Vallely, Pamela Toliman, Claire Ryan, Glennis Rai, Johanna Wapling, Josephine Gabuzzi, Joyce Allen, Christine Opa, Gloria Munnull, Petronia Kaima, Benny Kombuk, Antonia Kumbia, Zure Kombati, Greg Law, Angela Kelly-Hanku, Handan Wand, Peter M Siba, Glen D L Mola, John M Kaldor, Andrew J Vallely
OBJECTIVE: Papua New Guinea (PNG) has among the highest estimated prevalences of genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) of any country in the Asia-Pacific region. Diagnosis and treatment of these infections have relied on the WHO-endorsed syndromic management strategy that uses clinical presentation without laboratory confirmation to make treatment decisions. We evaluated the performance of this strategy in clinical settings in PNG...
December 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281641/development-of-a-multilocus-sequence-typing-mlst-scheme-for-treponema-pallidum-subsp-pertenue-application-to-yaws-in-lihir-island-papua-new-guinea
#6
Charmie Godornes, Lorenzo Giacani, Alyssa E Barry, Oriol Mitja, Sheila A Lukehart
BACKGROUND: Yaws is a neglected tropical disease, caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue. The disease causes chronic lesions, primarily in young children living in remote villages in tropical climates. As part of a global yaws eradication campaign initiated by the World Health Organization, we sought to develop and evaluate a molecular typing method to distinguish different strains of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue for disease control and epidemiological purposes. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Published genome sequences of strains of T...
December 27, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259329/dengue-viruses-in-papua-new-guinea-evidence-of-endemicity-and-phylogenetic-variation-including-the-evolution-of-new-genetic-lineages
#7
Peter R Moore, Andrew F van den Hurk, John S Mackenzie, Alyssa T Pyke
Dengue is the most common cause of mosquito-borne viral disease in humans, and is endemic in more than 100 tropical and subtropical countries. Periodic outbreaks of dengue have been reported in Papua New Guinea (PNG), but there is only limited knowledge of its endemicity and disease burden. To help elucidate the status of the dengue viruses (DENVs) in PNG, we performed envelope (E) gene sequencing of DENV serotypes 1-4 (DENV 1-4) obtained from infected patients who traveled to Australia or from patients diagnosed during local DENV transmission events between 2001 and 2016...
December 20, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245414/-i-cherax-acherontis-i-decapoda-parastacidae-the-first-cave-crayfish-from-the-southern-hemisphere-papua-province-indonesia
#8
Jiří Patoka, Martin Bláha, Antonín Kouba
Cherax acherontis n. sp., is a crayfish endemic to the submerged river Yumugima in Hagepma/Jugurama cave in the New Guinea Highlands, Jayawijaya Regency, Papua Province, Indonesia. This species is the first cave crayfish from the Southern Hemisphere. The new species is most similar to Cherax monticola. Both species can be easily distinguished by certain morphological characteristics, which easily demonstrate C. acherontis n. sp. is a valid species.
December 8, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245400/description-of-five-new-coral-associated-barnacles-of-the-genus-i-trevathana%C3%A2-i-balanomorpha-pyrgomatidae-in-pacific-waters
#9
Benny Kwok Kan Chan, Yi-Yang Chen, Yair Achituv, Hsiu-Chin Lin
Five new species of coral inhabiting barnacles of the genus Trevathana (Balanomorpha: Pyrgomatidae), T. dongshaensis sp. nov., T. conica sp. nov., T. doni sp. nov., T. longidonta sp. nov. and T. taiwanus sp. nov., are described. These species are found in West Pacific waters including Japan, Taiwan (mainland and adjacent outlying islands including Dongsha Atoll) and Papua New Guinea. The species exhibit morphological differences in the scutum, the tergum, and cirri II and III, and form distinct clades in a phylogenetic tree based on DNA sequences of two genes, 12S rDNA and cytochrome C oxidase subunit I...
December 10, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242751/prevalence-of-non-communicable-disease-risk-factors-in-three-sites-across-papua-new-guinea-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Patricia Rarau, Gwendalyn Vengiau, Hebe Gouda, Suparat Phuanukoonon, Isi H Kevau, Chris Bullen, Robert Scragg, Ian Riley, Geoffrey Marks, Masahiro Umezaki, Ayako Morita, Brian Oldenburg, Barbara McPake, Justin Pulford
Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a culturally, environmentally and ethnically diverse country of 7.3 million people experiencing rapid economic development and social change. Such development is typically associated with an increase in non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors. Aim: To establish the prevalence of NCD risk factors in three different regions across PNG in order to guide appropriate prevention and control measures. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with randomly selected adults (15-65 years), stratified by age and sex recruited from the general population of integrated Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites in West Hiri (periurban), Asaro (rural highland) and Karkar Island (rural island), PNG...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237322/global-variation-in-diurnal-cortisol-rhythms-evidence-from-garisakangforager-horticulturalists-of-lowland-papua-new-guinea
#11
Samuel S Urlacher, Melissa A Liebert, Martina Konečná
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis represents an important and evolutionarily ancient biological pathway linking physical and psychological stressors with human health. Despite considerable research exploring the physiological stress response among developed populations, few studies have examined HPA activity in non-industrialized contexts, restricting understanding of variation in human stress reactivity across global socio-ecological diversity. The present study addresses this shortcoming by investigating diurnal cortisol rhythms among Garisakang forager-horticulturalists of remote, lowland Papua New Guinea...
December 13, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237065/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-papua-new-guinea-a-community-nasal-colonization-prevalence-study
#12
Moses Laman, Andrew Greenhill, Geoffrey W Coombs, Owen Robinson, Julie Pearson, Timothy M E Davis, Laurens Manning
Background: There are few epidemiological data available to inform a national response to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Methods: We performed a cross-sectional survey to determine the pattern of MRSA nasal colonization and the diversity of circulating MRSA clones among adults and adolescents in Madang Province, PNG. Results: S. aureus nasal colonization was confirmed in 44 (17...
December 11, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229499/molecular-diagnosis-of-suspected-tuberculosis-from-archived-smear-slides-from-the-balimo-region-papua-new-guinea
#13
Vanina Guernier, Tanya Diefenbach-Elstob, Daniel Pelowa, Sandra Pollard, Graham Burgess, Emma S McBryde, Jeffrey Warner
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious health problem in Papua New Guinea (PNG) with an estimated 30,000 new cases and 3,800 deaths each year. In the Balimo region of the Western Province, the diagnosis relies on clinical manifestations and on the microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli in sputum smears, a technique with limited sensitivity. METHODS: We carried out a molecular diagnosis assay targeting DNA extracted from archived sputum smear slides collected from the Balimo region (2012-2014), without the need for a viable culture...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228220/the-burden-of-presumed-tuberculosis-in-hospitalized-children-in-a-resource-limited-setting-in-papua-new-guinea-a-prospective-observational-study
#14
Villa Watch, Jimmy Aipit, Tina Kote-Yarong, Allanie Rero, John W Bolnga, Elvin Lufele, Moses Laman
Background: In Papua New Guinea, TB is considered to be a major public health problem, but little is known about the prevalence and prognosis of presumed TB in children. Methods: As part of a prospective hospital-based surveillance on the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, the authors investigated the admission prevalence and case fatality rate associated with presumed TB over a 6-year period (2011-2016). All children admitted who were diagnosed with TB were followed-up until discharge or death...
December 8, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225948/collecting-data-for-global-surgical-indicators-a-collaborative-approach-in-the-pacific-region
#15
REVIEW
Glenn Douglas Guest, Elizabeth McLeod, William R G Perry, Vilami Tangi, Joao Pedro, Ponifasio Ponifasio, Johnny Hedson, Jemesa Tudravu, Douglas Pikacha, Eric Vreede, Basil Leodoro, Noah Tapaua, James Kong, Bwabwa Oten, Deacon Teapa, Stephanie Korin, Leona Wilson, Samson Mesol, Kabiri Tuneti, John G Meara, David A Watters
In 2015, the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery (LCoGS) recommended six surgical metrics to enable countries to measure their surgical and anaesthesia care delivery. These indicators have subsequently been accepted by the World Bank for inclusion in the World Development Indicators. With support from the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and the Pacific Islands Surgical Association, 14 South Pacific countries collaborated to collect the first four of six LCoGS indicators. Thirteen countries collected all four indicators over a 6-month period from October 2015 to April 2016...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222877/critical-examination-of-evidence-for-the-nutritional-status-of-children-in-papua-new-guinea-a-systematic-review
#16
Peter J McGlynn, Andre μΝ Renzaho, Minh D Pham, Mike Toole, Jane Fisher, Stanley Luchters
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Undernutrition remains a significant cause of childhood illness, poor growth, development, and death in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Studies on child nutritional outcomes in PNG vary by design, measurement protocols and quality. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for the prevalence of child undernutrition across different study populations, geographical locations and time periods. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Six electronic databases and additional grey literature were searched for articles describing the nutritional status by wasting, stunting and underweight, of PNG children under five years of age, published between 1990 and April 2015...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215087/mitochondrial-dna-variations-in-austronesian-speaking-populations-living-in-the-new-georgia-islands-the-western-province-of-the-solomon-islands
#17
Mariko Issiki, Izumi Naka, Ryosuke Kimura, Takuro Furusawa, Kazumi Natsuhara, Taro Yamauchi, Minato Nakazawa, Takafumi Ishida, Ryutaro Ohtsuka, Jun Ohashi
Modern Austronesian (AN)-speaking Melanesians are considered to be derived from the admixture of indigenous non-Austronesian (NAN)-speaking people and AN-speaking people from Southeast Asia. In this study, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations in the D-loop region for two AN-speaking Melanesian populations (Munda and Kusaghe) and an AN-speaking Micronesian population (Rawaki) in the New Georgia Islands, the Western Province of the Solomon Islands to examine their genetic similarities to AN-speaking Polynesians in Tonga and NAN-speaking Melanesians, Gidra, in Papua New Guinea...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201654/increasing-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-uptake-in-an-hiv-program-in-rural-papua-new-guinea
#18
A Carmone, C A Rodriguez, T D Frank, M Kiromat, P W Bongi, R G Kuno, T Palou, M F Franke
Setting: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in Papua New Guinea. Despite a policy for isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among PLHIV, implementation has been slow. Objective: We prospectively evaluated a standardized guided screening process, including TB diagnostic support, to increase IPT initiation in adult PLHIV on antiretro-viral treatment. Design: The guided process included a paper-based IPT screening tool that prompted review of patient history and TB symptoms and sputum analysis by smear microscopy and Xpert® MTB/RIF...
September 21, 2017: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189278/reducing-maternal-mortality-in-papua-new-guinea-contextualizing-access-to-safe-surgery-and-anesthesia
#19
Alicia T Dennis
Papua New Guinea has one of the world's highest maternal mortality rates with approximately 215 women dying per 100,000 live births. The sustainable development goals outline key priority areas for achieving a reduction in maternal mortality including a focus on universal health coverage with safe surgery and anesthesia for all pregnant women. This narrative review addresses the issue of reducing maternal mortality in Papua New Guinea by contextualizing the need for safe obstetric surgery and anesthesia within a structure of enabling environments at key times in a woman's life...
January 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169390/genomic-analysis-of-bluetongue-virus-episystems-in-australia-and-indonesia
#20
Cadhla Firth, Kim R Blasdell, Rachel Amos-Ritchie, Indrawati Sendow, Kalpana Agnihotri, David B Boyle, Peter Daniels, Peter D Kirkland, Peter J Walker
The distribution of bluetongue viruses (BTV) in Australia is represented by two distinct and interconnected epidemiological systems (episystems)-one distributed primarily in the north and one in the east. The northern episystem is characterised by substantially greater antigenic diversity than the eastern episystem; yet the forces that act to limit the diversity present in the east remain unclear. Previous work has indicated that the northern episystem is linked to that of island South East Asia and Melanesia, and that BTV present in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and East Timor, may act as source populations for new serotypes and genotypes of BTV to enter Australia's north...
November 23, 2017: Veterinary Research
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