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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903867/in-situ-developmental-responses-of-tropical-sea-urchin-larvae-to-ocean-acidification-conditions-at-naturally-elevated-pco2-vent-sites
#1
Miles D Lamare, Michelle Liddy, Sven Uthicke
Laboratory experiments suggest that calcifying developmental stages of marine invertebrates may be the most ocean acidification (OA)-sensitive life-history stage and represent a life-history bottleneck. To better extrapolate laboratory findings to future OA conditions, developmental responses in sea urchin embryos/larvae were compared under ecologically relevant in situ exposures on vent-elevated pCO2 and ambient pCO2 coral reefs in Papua New Guinea. Echinometra embryos/larvae were reared in meshed chambers moored in arrays on either venting reefs or adjacent non-vent reefs...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903075/australian-taipan-oxyuranus-spp-envenoming-clinical-effects-and-potential-benefits-of-early-antivenom-therapy-australian-snakebite-project-asp-25
#2
Christopher I Johnston, Nicole M Ryan, Margaret A O'Leary, Simon G A Brown, Geoffrey K Isbister
CONTEXT: Taipans (Oxyuranus spp.) are medically important venomous snakes from Australia and Papua New Guinea. The objective of this study was to describe taipan envenoming in Australian and its response to antivenom. METHODS: Confirmed taipan bites were recruited from the Australian Snakebite Project. Data were collected prospectively on all snakebites, including patient demographics, bite circumstances, clinical effects, laboratory results, complications and treatment...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893297/population-based-trachoma-mapping-in-six-evaluation-units-of-papua-new-guinea
#3
Robert Ko, Colin Macleod, David Pahau, Oliver Sokana, Drew Keys, Anthea Burnett, Rebecca Willis, Geoffrey Wabulembo, Jambi Garap, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: We sought to determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF) in children aged 1-9 years, and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in those aged ≥15 years, in suspected trachoma-endemic areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG). METHODS: We carried out six population-based prevalence surveys using the protocol developed as part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project. RESULTS: A total of 19,013 individuals were sampled for inclusion, with 15,641 (82...
November 28, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890043/epidemic-host-community-contribution-to-mosquito-borne-disease-transmission-ross-river-virus
#4
I S Koolhof, S Carver
Most vector-borne diseases infect multiple host species, but disentangling the relative importance of different host species to transmission can be complex. Here we study how host species' abundance and competence (duration and titre of parasitaemia) influence host importance during epidemic scenarios. We evaluate this theory using Ross River virus (RRV, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), a multi-host mosquito-borne disease with significant human health impacts across Australia and Papua New Guinea. We used host contribution models to find the importance of key hosts (possums, wallabies, kangaroos, horses, humans) in typical mammal communities around five Australian epidemic centres...
November 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868284/speciation-in-a-keystone-plant-genus-is-driven-by-elevation-a-case-study-in-new-guinean-ficus
#5
Simon T Segar, Martin Volf, Jan Zima, Brus Isua, Mentap Sisol, Legi Sam, Katerina Sam, Daniel Souto-Vilarós, Vojtech Novotny
Much of the world's insect and plant biodiversity is found in tropical and subtropical 'hotspots', which often include long elevational gradients. These gradients may function as 'diversity pumps' and contribute to both regional and local species richness. Climactic conditions on such gradients often change rapidly along short vertical distances, and may result in local adaptation and high levels of population genetic structure in plants and insects. We investigated the population genetic structure of two species of Ficus (Moraceae) along a continuously forested elevational gradient in Papua New Guinea...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864912/inferring-contemporary-and-historical-genetic-connectivity-from-juveniles
#6
Pierre Feutry, Oliver Berry, Peter M Kyne, Richard D Pillans, Rich Hillary, Peter M Grewe, James R Marthick, Grant Johnson, Rasanthi M Gunasekera, Nicholas J Bax, Mark Bravington
Measuring population connectivity is a critical task in conservation biology. While genetic markers can provide reliable long-term historical estimates of population connectivity, scientists are still limited in their ability to determine contemporary patterns of gene flow, the most practical time frame for management. Here, we tackled this issue by developing a new approach that only requires juvenile sampling at a single time period. To demonstrate the usefulness of our method, we used the Speartooth shark (Glyphis glyphis), a critically endangered species of river sharks found only in tropical northern Australia and southern Papua New Guinea...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859014/cord-blood-streptococcus-pneumoniae-specific-cellular-immune-responses-predict-early-pneumococcal-carriage-in-high-risk-infants-in-papua-new-guinea
#7
Jacinta P Francis, Peter C Richmond, Deborah Strickland, Susan L Prescott, William S Pomat, Audrey Michael, Marie A Nadal-Sims, Catherine J Edwards-Devitt, Patrick G Holt, Deborah Lehmann, Anita H J van den Biggelaar
Background In areas where Streptococcus pneumoniae is highly endemic, infants experience very early pneumococcal colonization of the upper respiratory tract with carriage often persisting into adulthood. We aimed to explore whether newborns in high risk areas have pre-existing pneumococcal-specific cellular immune responses that may affect early pneumococcal acquisition. Methods Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) of 84 Papua New Guinean (PNG; high endemic) and 33 Australian (AUS; low endemic) newborns were stimulated in vitro with detoxified pneumolysin (dPly) or pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA; families 1 and 2) and compared for cytokine responses...
November 18, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852802/enhanced-macroboring-and-depressed-calcification-drive-net-dissolution-at-high-co2-coral-reefs
#8
Ian C Enochs, Derek P Manzello, Graham Kolodziej, Sam H C Noonan, Lauren Valentino, Katharina E Fabricius
Ocean acidification (OA) impacts the physiology of diverse marine taxa; among them corals that create complex reef framework structures. Biological processes operating on coral reef frameworks remain largely unknown from naturally high-carbon-dioxide (CO2) ecosystems. For the first time, we independently quantified the response of multiple functional groups instrumental in the construction and erosion of these frameworks (accretion, macroboring, microboring, and grazing) along natural OA gradients. We deployed blocks of dead coral skeleton for roughly 2 years at two reefs in Papua New Guinea, each experiencing volcanically enriched CO2, and employed high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to create three-dimensional models of changing skeletal structure...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833616/coconut-lethal-yellowing-diseases-a-phytoplasma-threat-to-palms-of-global-economic-and-social-significance
#9
REVIEW
Geoff M Gurr, Anne C Johnson, Gavin J Ash, Bree A L Wilson, Mark M Ero, Carmel A Pilotti, Charles F Dewhurst, Minsheng S You
The recent discovery of Bogia coconut syndrome in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is the first report of a lethal yellowing disease (LYD) in Oceania. Numerous outbreaks of LYDs of coconut have been recorded in the Caribbean and Africa since the late Nineteenth century and have caused the death of millions of palms across several continents during the Twentieth century. Despite the severity of economic losses, it was only in the 1970s that the causes of LYDs were identified as phytoplasmas, a group of insect-transmitted bacteria associated with diseases in many other economically important crop species...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833418/the-identity-of-the-tropical-african-polichne-mukonja-griffini-1908-orthoptera-tettigoniidae-phaneropterinae
#10
Bruno Massa
Polichne mukonja Griffini, 1908 from Cameroon was hitherto known only from the holotype preserved at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels. This was probably due to the fact that the genus Polichne Stål, 1874 distributed only in Australia and Papua New Guinea. In view of this distribution, the tropical African species was therefore overlooked in the African literature. The recent discovery of two specimens at the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, now provides us with a better understanding of the identity of this taxon, which is related to the African genus Catoptropteryx Karsch, 1890...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811742/rhinobatos-manai-sp-nov-a-new-species-of-guitarfish-rhinopristiformes-%C3%A2-rhinobatidae-from-new-ireland-papua-new-guinea
#11
William T White, Peter R Last, Gavin J P Naylor
A new species of guitarfish (Rhinobatos) is described based on a single specimen collected in 2014 from off New Ireland in Papua New Guinea. This specimen represents the first record of the family Rhinobatidae in Papua New Guinean waters. Based on molecular data, the new species appears to be most similar to Rhinobatos whitei (Philippines) and Rhinobatos sainsburyi (northern Australia), but is distinguished based on its coloration, morphology and certain meristic characters.
October 18, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806529/ethics-of-biological-sampling-research-with-aboriginal-communities-in-canada
#12
Behdin Nowrouzi, Lorrilee McGregor, Alicia McDougall, Donna Debassige, Jennifer Casole, Christine Nguyen, Behnam Nowrouzi-Kia, Deborah McGregor
BACKGROUND: The objective of this paper is to identify key ethical issues associated with biological sampling in Aboriginal populations in Canada and to recommend approaches that can be taken to address these issues. METHODS: Our work included the review of notable biological sampling cases and issues. We examined several significant cases (Nuu-chah-nult people of British Columbia, Hagahai peoples of Papua New Guinea and the Havasupai tribe of Arizona) on the inappropriate use of biological samples and secondary research in Aboriginal populations by researchers...
August 4, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799530/first-genealogy-for-a-wild-marine-fish-population-reveals-multigenerational-philopatry
#13
Océane C Salles, Benoit Pujol, Jeffrey A Maynard, Glenn R Almany, Michael L Berumen, Geoffrey P Jones, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Maya Srinivasan, Simon R Thorrold, Serge Planes
Natal philopatry, the return of individuals to their natal area for reproduction, has advantages and disadvantages for animal populations. Natal philopatry may generate local genetic adaptation, but it may also increase the probability of inbreeding that can compromise persistence. Although natal philopatry is well documented in anadromous fishes, marine fish may also return to their birth site to spawn. How philopatry shapes wild fish populations is, however, unclear because it requires constructing multigenerational pedigrees that are currently lacking for marine fishes...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791137/the-fear-gasping-face-as-a-threat-display-in-a-melanesian-society
#14
Carlos Crivelli, James A Russell, Sergio Jarillo, José-Miguel Fernández-Dols
Theory and research show that humans attribute both emotions and intentions to others on the basis of facial behavior: A gasping face can be seen as showing "fear" and intent to submit. The assumption that such interpretations are pancultural derives largely from Western societies. Here, we report two studies conducted in an indigenous, small-scale Melanesian society with considerable cultural and visual isolation from the West: the Trobrianders of Papua New Guinea. Our multidisciplinary research team spoke the vernacular and had extensive prior fieldwork experience...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787220/redescription-of-rhabdochona-papuanensis-nematoda-thelazioidea-a-parasite-of-rainbow-fishes-melanotaenia-spp-the-first-record-of-the-species-of-rhabdochona-in-australia
#15
František Moravec, Robert Adlard
Numerous specimens of the parasitic nematode Rhabdochona papuanensis Moravec, Riha et Kuchta, 2008 (Spirurida: Rhabdochonidae) were collected from the intestines of the Australian endemic freshwater fish (eastern rainbow fish) Melanotaenia splendida (Peters) (Melanotaeniidae, Atheriniformes) in the Behana Creek, North Queesland during November of 2015. Although many species of Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916 are known to be common parasites of fishes in other continents, the present finding of R. papuanensis represents the first record of the species belonging to this genus from the Australian mainland...
December 1, 2016: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786249/determining-putative-vectors-of-the-bogia-coconut-syndrome-phytoplasma-using-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-of-single-insect-feeding-media
#16
Hengyu Lu, Bree A L Wilson, Gavin J Ash, Sharon B Woruba, Murray J Fletcher, Minsheng You, Guang Yang, Geoff M Gurr
Phytoplasmas are insect vectored mollicutes responsible for disease in many economically important crops. Determining which insect species are vectors of a given phytoplasma is important for managing disease but is methodologically challenging because disease-free plants need to be exposed to large numbers of insects, often over many months. A relatively new method to detect likely transmission involves molecular testing for phytoplasma DNA in sucrose solution that insects have fed upon. In this study we combined this feeding medium method with a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to study 627 insect specimens of 11 Hemiptera taxa sampled from sites in Papua New Guinea affected by Bogia coconut syndrome (BCS)...
October 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764950/experiences-of-vision-impairment-in-papua-new-guinea-implications-for-blindness-prevention-programs
#17
Anthea Burnett, Aryati Yashadhana, Maria Cabrera Aguas, Yvonne Hanni, Mitasha Yu
INTRODUCTION: A person's capability to access services and achieve good eye health is influenced by their behaviours, perceptions, beliefs and experiences. As evidence from Papua New Guinea (PNG) about people's lived experience with vision impairment is limited, the purpose of the present study was to better understand the beliefs, perceptions and emotional responses to vision impairment in PNG. METHODS: A qualitative study, using both purposive and convenience sampling, was undertaken to explore common beliefs and perceptions about vision impairment, as well as the emotional responses to vision impairment...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764175/analysis-of-arbovirus-isolates-from-australia-identifies-novel-bunyaviruses-including-a-mapputta-group-virus-from-western-australia-that-links-gan-gan-and-maprik-viruses
#18
Thomas Briese, David T Williams, Vishal Kapoor, Sinead M Diviney, Andrea Certoma, Jianning Wang, Cheryl A Johansen, Rashmi Chowdhary, John S Mackenzie, W Ian Lipkin
The Mapputta group comprises antigenically related viruses indigenous to Australia and Papua New Guinea that are included in the family Bunyaviridae but not currently assigned to a specific genus. We determined and analyzed the genome sequences of five Australian viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during routine arbovirus surveillance in Western Australia (K10441, SW27571, K13190, and K42904) and New South Wales (12005). Based on matching sequences of all three genome segments to prototype MRM3630 of Trubanaman virus (TRUV), NB6057 of Gan Gan virus (GGV), and MK7532 of Maprik virus (MPKV), isolates K13190 and SW27571 were identified as TRUV, 12005 as GGV, and K42904 as a Mapputta group virus from Western Australia linking GGV and MPKV...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760151/new-species-of-the-fern-genus-lindsaea-lindsaeaceae-from-new-guinea-with-notes-on-the-phylogeny-of-l-sect-synaphlebium
#19
Shi-Yong Dong, Zheng-Yu Zuo, Yi-Shan Chao, Kipiro Damas, Bernard Sule
To determine the taxonomic identities and the systematic positions of some collections of Lindsaea sect. Synaphlebium (Lindsaeaceae) from Papua New Guinea, we conducted morphological comparisons and phylogenetic analyses on the whole section. A total of 22 morphological characters were selected and coded for each of all known taxa in L. sect. Synaphlebium, and were analyzed using maximum parsimony. The datasets containing either of or combined two plastid DNA sequences (trnL-trnF spacer and trnH-psbA spacer) of 37 taxa were analyzed using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754773/four-new-species-of-eimeria-apicomplexa-eimeriidae-from-emoia-spp-skinks-sauria-scincidae-from-insular-pacific-with-a-summary-of-coccidia-from-skinks-of-papua-new-guinea
#20
Chris T McAllister, Donald W Duszynski, Christopher C Austin, Robert N Fisher
Between September and November 1991, 54 adult skinks from 15 species including 5 seaside skinks (Emoia atrocostata), 1 Pacific blue-tailed skink (Emoia caeroleocauda), 2 Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor), 15 white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), 1 Bulolo River forest skink (Emoia guttata), 6 dark-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia impar), 5 Papua five-striped skinks (Emoia jakati), 2 Papua slender treeskinks (Emoia kordoana), 3 Papua robust treeskinks (Emoia longicauda), 1 brown-backed forest skink (Emoia loveridgei), 3 Papua black-sided skinks (Emoia pallidiceps), 2 Papua white- spotted skinks (Emoia physicae), 2 Papua yellow-head skinks (Emoia popei), 1 Papua brown forest skink (Emoia submetallica), and 5 Fiji barred treeskinks (Emoia trossula) were collected by hand or blowpipe from several localities on Rarotonga, Cook Islands, Ovalau Island, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and their feces examined for coccidians...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
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