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Tuberculosis imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345954/chest-radiographic-screening-for-sarcoidosis-in-the-diagnosis-of-patients-with-active-uveitis
#1
Fahriye Groen, Jan A M van Laar, Aniki Rothova
RATIONALE: Although chest radiography is currently recommended for the initial evaluation of patients with new onset uveitis, the efficacy of this diagnostic screening modality is not known. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic value of chest radiographs in patients with active uveitis of recent onset in a tertiary center in Western Europe. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing all chest imaging for adults with new onset (<1 year) uveitis of unknown origin undergoing initial evaluation in the Department of Ophthalmology at Erasmus University Medical Center (Rotterdam, the Netherlands)...
March 27, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344684/splenic-vein-thrombosis-as-a-rare-complication-of-disseminated-tuberculosis-imaging-diagnosis-and-case-report
#2
Satarupa Roy, Shuchi Bhatt, Rajesh Rawal, Anupama Tandon, Neha Meena
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism is a known but rare complication associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The reported incidence of venous thromboembolism is 1.5-3.4% of infected patients, and it occurs due to a hypercoagulable state induced by the associated inflammation. CASE REPORT: A young woman with pulmonary tuberculosis was found to have disseminated tuberculosis and a clinically unsuspected partial thrombus in the splenic vein on imaging...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343213/gross-hematuria-is-more-common-in-male-and-older-patients-with-renal-tuberculosis-in-china-a-single-center-15-year-clinical-experience
#3
Yudong Cao, Yu Fan, Yuke Chen, Zheng Zhao, Yi Song, Cheng Shen, Xin Li, Haichao Huang, Wei Yu, Jie Jin
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of renal tuberculosis and identify the age- and gender-related differences. METHODS: A total of 419 patients at the Peking University First Hospital from January 2000 to July 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Data on demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, complications, laboratory results, radiologic imaging, surgical procedures, and pathology features were collected and compared between genders and 3 different age groups (under 40 years, 41-60, years and over 60 years)...
March 25, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340240/osteonecrosis-splenic-calcification-sickle-cell-disease
#4
A K Pannu, A Lakshman, V Damaraju, S Jain, S C Varma
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a major public health problem. Approximately 300,000 children born annually with the disease. SCD is a chronic condition, and spleen and bone are two commonly affected organs. We recently had the opportunity of observing a girl with deformed femoral head and calcified lesions in spleen, who was initially diagnosed as disseminated tuberculosis, but later a diagnosis of SCD was made on detailed hematological investigations and advanced imaging techniques.
March 11, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337426/pathogen-identification-in-suspected-cases-of-pyogenic-spondylodiscitis
#5
Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh, Azar D Khosravi, Hamed Goodarzi, Roohangiz Nashibi, Alireaza Teimouri, Azim Motamedfar, Reza Ranjbar, Sara Afzalzadeh, Mehrandokht Cyrus, Mohammad Hashemzadeh
Pyogenic spinal infection continues to represent a worldwide problem. In approximately one-third of patients with pyogenic spondylodiscitis, the infectious agent is never identified. Of the cases that lead to organismal identification, bacteria are more commonly isolated from the spine rather than fungi and parasites. This study applied universal prokaryotic 16S rRNA PCR as a rapid diagnostic tool for the detection of bacterial agents in specimens from patients suspected of pyogenic spondylodiscitis. Gram and Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used as a preliminary screening measure for microbiologic evaluation of patient samples...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318196/-paradoxical-reaction-to-antituberculosis-treatment-in-an-immunocompetent-girl-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#6
Ignacio Ruiz Del Olmo Izuzquiza, Claudia Orden Rueda, Laura Ochoa Gómez, Nuria Clavero Montañés, Enrique Berdún Chéliz, Carmelo Guerrero Laleona
Paradoxical reaction to antituberculosis treatment is rare in paediatric population. We report a 9-year-old girl with high fever and productive cough for the last three weeks. Tuberculine test and Quantiferon were positive, erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 64 mm/h, culture and polymerase chain reaction for M. tuberculosis negative, and chest X ray showed a widened right mediastinum. Tuberculosis was diagnosed, therefore treatment with standard doses of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol was started...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302234/tuberculous-dactylitis-with-concomitant-thyroid-involvement-a-rare-presentation-of-childhood-tuberculosis
#7
Sobia Qamar, Farrah Naz, Samia Naz, Iftikhar Ejaz
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis rarely presents as thyroid involvement along with other manifestations, and poses a diagnostic challenge on account of paucibacillary nature of disease. In general, the diagnosis of tuberculosis is based on epidemiological risk factors, clinical features, imaging studies, in addition to a positive skin testing or Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA). A 14-year boy presented with history of fever and weight loss for one year. On examination, he had painful swelling of fingers and toes along with a painless thyroid nodule and squint...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287534/rapid-one-step-enzymatic-synthesis-and-all-aqueous-purification-of-trehalose-analogues
#8
Lisa M Meints, Anne W Poston, Brent F Piligian, Claire D Olson, Katherine S Badger, Peter J Woodruff, Benjamin M Swarts
Chemically modified versions of trehalose, or trehalose analogues, have applications in biology, biotechnology, and pharmaceutical science, among other fields. For instance, trehalose analogues bearing detectable tags have been used to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and may have applications as tuberculosis diagnostic imaging agents. Hydrolytically stable versions of trehalose are also being pursued due to their potential for use as non-caloric sweeteners and bioprotective agents. Despite the appeal of this class of compounds for various applications, their potential remains unfulfilled due to the lack of a robust route for their production...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283299/central-nervous-system-tuberculosis-an-imaging-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Vikas Chaudhary, Shahina Bano, Umesh Chandra Garga
The increasing prevalence of tuberculosis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals in recent years makes the disease a topic of universal concern. It has insidious onset and can affect virtually any organ system in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS). CNS tuberculosis (TB) is becoming more and more complex and atypical with onset of multidrug-resistant TB. Routine diagnostic techniques using serology and body tissue are time consuming and may delay the definitive management...
March 7, 2017: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282998/non-traumatic-vertebral-lesions-incremental-utility-of-pet-ct-over-mri-and-fnac-in-a-suggested-diagnostic-algorithm
#10
Rajesh Meena, Ashish Aggarwal, Anish Bhattacharya, Vivek Gupta, Sivashanmugam Dhandapani, Rajesh Chhabra
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively compare positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FNAC for diagnosis of non- traumatic vertebral lesions fracture in countries like India where tuberculosis is endemic. METHODS: Fifty four patients with non-traumatic spontaneous vertebral lesions were prospectively studied. All patients underwent CEMRI focusing on the spinal lesions, whole-body PET-CT and FNAC.Results were then analysed and compared with final diagnosis obtained either by FNAC or clinical follow up...
March 10, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281441/miliary-tuberculosis
#11
Surendra K Sharma, Alladi Mohan
Miliary tuberculosis (TB) results from a massive lymphohematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and is characterized by tiny tubercles evident on gross pathology resembling millet seeds in size and appearance. The global HIV/AIDS pandemic and widespread use of immunosuppressive drugs and biologicals have altered the epidemiology of miliary TB. Considered to be predominantly a disease of infants and children in the pre-antibiotic era, miliary TB is increasingly being encountered in adults as well...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275493/differential-diagnosis-of-acute-miliary-pulmonary-tuberculosis-from-widespread-metastatic-cancer-for-postoperative-lung-cancer-patients-two-cases
#12
Wei Zhao, Yuke Tian, Feng Peng, Jianlin Long, Lan Liu, Meijuan Huang, You Lu
Pulmonary infections and lung cancer can resemble each other on radiographic images, which makes it difficult to diagnosis accurately and apply an appropriate therapy. Here we report two cases that two postoperative patients with lung adenocarcinoma developed diffuse nodules in bilateral lungs in a month which needed to be distinguished between metastatic malignancies and infectious diseases. Although there are much similarities in disease characteristics of two cases, patient in case one was diagnosed as acute miliary pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) while patient in case two was diagnosed as metastatic disease...
February 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274020/role-of-cross-sectional-imaging-in-isolated-chest-wall-tuberculosis
#13
Deb Kumar Boruah, Shantiranjan Sanyal, Barun K Sharma, Arjun Prakash, Dhabal D Dhingani, Karobi Bora
INTRODUCTION: Isolated chest wall tuberculosis though a rare entity, the incidence of it has been on rise among immunocompromised population making it an important challenging diagnosis for the physicians. Its clinical presentation may resemble pyogenic chest wall abscess or chest wall soft tissue tumour. Sometimes it is difficult to detect clinically or on plain radiograph. AIM: The present study was conducted with an aim to evaluate the common sites and varying appearances of isolated chest wall tuberculosis...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273087/an-aerosol-challenge-model-of-tuberculosis-in-mauritian-cynomolgus-macaques
#14
S A Sharpe, A D White, L Sibley, F Gleeson, G A Hall, R J Basaraba, A McIntyre, S O Clark, K Gooch, P D Marsh, A Williams, M J Dennis
BACKGROUND: New interventions for tuberculosis are urgently needed. Non-human primate (NHP) models provide the most relevant pre-clinical models of human disease and play a critical role in vaccine development. Models utilising Asian cynomolgus macaque populations are well established but the restricted genetic diversity of the Mauritian cynomolgus macaques may be of added value. METHODS: Mauritian cynomolgus macaques were exposed to a range of doses of M. tuberculosis delivered by aerosol, and the outcome was assessed using clinical, imaging and pathology-based measures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271046/tuberculosis-presenting-as-bronchoesophageal-fistula
#15
Santhosh Narayanan, Shiji P V, Abdul Majeed K A, Udayabhaskaran V
We report a case of bronchoesophageal fistula associated with tuberculosis. A 25 year old woman presented to us with 3 month history of cough worsening with deglutition. Radiological examination revealed mediastinal lymphadenopathy and bronchoscopy with esophagoscopy confirmed the presence of fistulous communication with features of endobronchial tuberculosis. Histological examination of bronchial biopsy specimen showed non necrotic granuloma with the PCR positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in her bronchial secretions...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268128/mr-imaging-of-adult-acute-infectious-encephalitis
#16
REVIEW
A Bertrand, D Leclercq, L Martinez-Almoyna, N Girard, J-P Stahl, T De-Broucker
BACKGROUND: Imaging is a key tool for the diagnosis of acute encephalitis. Brain CT scan must be urgently performed to rule out a brain lesion with mass effect that would contraindicate lumbar puncture. Brain MRI is less accessible than CT scan, but can provide crucial information with patients presenting with acute encephalitis. METHOD: We performed a literature review on PubMed on April 1, 2015 with the search terms "MRI" and "encephalitis". RESULTS: We first described the various brain MRI abnormalities associated with each pathogen of acute encephalitis (HSV, VZV, other viral agents targeting immunocompromised patients or travelers; tuberculosis, listeriosis, other less frequent bacterial agents)...
March 3, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265884/d%C3%A3-bridement-and-reconstruction-improve-postoperative-sagittal-alignment-in-kyphotic-cervical-spinal-tuberculosis
#17
Zhimin Pan, Jiaquan Luo, Limin Yu, Yiwei Chen, Junlong Zhong, Zhiyun Li, Zhaoxun Zeng, Pingguo Duan, Yoon Ha, Kai Cao
BACKGROUND: Cervical spinal tuberculosis is relatively common in some developing countries. It erodes vertebrae and discs, which sometimes results in cervical kyphosis and myelopathy. However, to our knowledge, no studies have evaluated improvements to patient-reported outcomes among patients who undergo surgical cervical sagittal realignment after kyphotic cervical spinal tuberculosis has been treated by débridement and reconstruction. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Can a spine with kyphotic cervical spinal tuberculosis be returned to normal alignment and fused successfully? (2) Will patient-reported outcomes be improved with this intervention? (3) Are patient-reported outcomes correlated with realignment? METHODS: Forty-six patients with kyphotic cervical spinal tuberculosis were evaluated in this retrospective study...
March 6, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260482/late-diagnosis-of-e148q-mutation-positive-familial-mediterranean-fever-in-a-kidney-transplant-patient-with-fever-of-unknown-origin-a-case-report
#18
Erhan Tatar, Adam Uslu, Cenk Simsek, Ahmet Aykas, Giray Bozkaya, Cetin Imamoglu
Fever of unknown origin is a rare condition after solid organ transplant and is generally associated with atypical infections (eg, tuberculosis, fungal infections) and/or lymphoproliferative disorders. Here, we present a kidney transplant patient with a late diagnosis of E148Q mutation-positive familial Mediterranean fever as the cause of fever of unknown origin. A 22-year-old female patient with a previous history of 4 years of hemodialysis and unknown primary renal disease received a deceased-donor kidney transplant at our center 5 years previously...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260424/posttransplant-tuberculosis
#19
Erol Demir, Mehmet Sukru Sever
Tuberculosis is a major problem in the posttransplantation period, because of its high incidence and prevalence, difficulty in diagnosis as well as high risk of morbidity and mortality. In solid-organ transplant recipients, the diagnosis of tuberculosis is complex because it is paucisymptomatic. Tuberculin skin testing results may be negative, and interferon-gamma release assays may be insufficiently sensitive. Furthermore, imaging technique findings are mostly atypical, and sputum smear results can be negative despite the presence of active disease...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254396/new-insights-on-tuberculous-aortitis
#20
Laure Delaval, Tiphaine Goulenok, Paul Achouh, David Saadoun, Julien Gaudric, Quentin Pellenc, Jean-Emmanuel Kahn, Nicoletta Pasi, Damien van Gysel, Patrick Bruneval, Thomas Papo, Karim Sacre
OBJECTIVE: Aortitis is an exceedingly rare manifestation of tuberculosis. We describe 11 patients with tuberculous aortitis (TA). METHODS: Multicenter medical charts of patients hospitalized between 2003 and 2015 with TA in Paris, France, were reviewed. Demographic, medical history, laboratory, imaging, pathologic findings, treatment, and follow-up data were extracted from medical records. TA was considered when aortitis was diagnosed in a patient with active tuberculosis...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
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