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Tuberculosis imaging

Yi-Yi Wang, Bing-di Xie
Central nervous system (CNS) disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is highly devastating. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most common form of CNS tuberculosis (TB). Rapid, sensitive, and affordable diagnostic tests are not available. Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain has a very low sensitivity in cases of TBM, the sensitivity rates is of about 10-20%.The detection rate can be improved by taking large volume CSF samples (>6 ml) and prolonged slide examination (30 min). Culture of MTB from the CSF is slow and insufficiently sensitive...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
D Yao, L Zhang, P L Wu, X L Gu, Y F Chen, L X Wang, X Y Huang
BACKGROUND: The primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL), with a low incidence, was highly misdiagnosed in clinic. The present study analyzes the clinical features, laboratory and imaging data, pathologic characteristics, and summarizes misdiagnosis reasons of PPL cases, aims to provide a better understanding and increase the accuracy of early diagnosis and minimize the misdiagnosis of PPL. METHODS: The clinical data of 19 cases were collected from the first affiliated hospital of Wenzhou medical university (PRC) from April 2010 to May 2016...
March 12, 2018: BMC Cancer
Ghazwan Abdulla Hasan, Saif Mohammed Kani, Ahmed Alqatub
INTRODUCTION: Spinal Epidural abscess (SEA) is an uncommon pathology that needs an urgent intervention to decompress the pressure on the spinal epidural sac, cord, and roots. The authors report a rare case of a young adult with lumbar spinal epidural tuberculous abscess occupying the spinal canal from L2-L5 vertebrae with extesion to the posterior paraspinal muscles and presenting with bilateral progressive lower limb weakness.   Case report: A 42 years old male teacher presented with a 15-day history of progressive difficulty to walking and bilateral lower limb weakness associated with fever, malaise and later on urinary incontinence...
2018: SICOT-J
Shuwei Zheng, Humaira Shafi
Paradoxical reactions during tuberculosis (TB) treatment are well-described in the HIV seropositive population but less so in the HIV seronegative group. Abdominal TB rarely presents as spontaneous perforation; cases occurring during anti-TB therapy are even rarer. We describe the clinical progress of a case of an HIV-negative patient who developed acute peritonitis while on anti-TB treatment for peritoneal TB through a series of clinical, radiological and histological images. Visceral perforation can occur as a complication of TB treatment...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Xin-Bo Ai, Zhen-Jiang Wang, Qi-Chao Dong, Xu Lin, Yu-Ping Chen, Fei-Yue Gong, Hui Liang
Gastrointestinal histoplasmosis (GIH) without pulmonary and bone marrow involvement is very rare worldwide. It can be misdiagnosed as intestinal tuberculosis or Crohn's disease. There are just few case reports of GIH in patients with a positive HIV antibody test. Here, we report a patient who presented to our hospital with repeated intestinal obstruction. The suspicious diagnosis was intestinal tuberculosis or Crohn's disease due to unspecific clinical manifestations and radiologic images. Our patient's HIV antibody test was negative...
January 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Yujie Qiao, Jessica H Hayward, Ronald Balassanian, Kimberly M Ray, Bonnie N Joe, Amie Y Lee
Tuberculosis mastitis can be a challenging diagnosis, often presenting with clinical and imaging findings that are suspicious for malignancy. We present a case of a 49-year-old female with a breast mass initially diagnosed as idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Failure to respond to standard treatments, development of new breast masses, and discovery of a concurrent ulcerating thigh rash with similar histologic findings as the breast masses prompted further investigation, which ultimately lead to the diagnosis of tuberculosis mastitis...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Imaging
H Ooms, H U De Schepper, T G Moreels
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Small bowel ulceration poses a limited, but difficult differential diagnosis. The most common causes are Crohn's disease (CD), NSAID-associated enteritis, lymphoma, cytomegaly virus infection and tuberculosis. A less known and relatively novel differential diagnosis is cryptogenic multifocal ulcerative stenosing enteritis (CMUSE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: ive patients referred for balloon-assisted enteroscopy for various reasons showed endoscopic features of CMUSE...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Minhao Wu, Jiajia Su, Feifei Yan, Lin Cai, Zhouming Deng
RATIONALE: Skipped multifocal extensive spinal tuberculosis (TB) involving the whole spine is very rare. So far, only 3 cases have been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a rare case of skipped multifocal extensive TB involving the whole spine of a 33-year-old Chinese male. The patient had been asymptomatic until his symptom was significantly aggravated, which caused him to have difficulty in walking and sleeping. The whole spinal computed tomography (CT) scan showed multifocal worm-eaten and osteolytic bony destruction spread over noncontiguous multilevel vertebral involvement in cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yu Zhang, Mingqin Zhu, Lifang Wang, Miao Shi, Hui Deng
RATIONALE: Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) is characterized by contiguous inflammatory lesions of spinal cord extending to ≥3 vertebral segments. The etiology of LETM is complicated, including various infection, autoimmune disease, and so on. Neuromyelitis optic spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is the most common cause of LETM. Several case reports have suggested the associations between NMOSD and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). PATIENT CONCERNS: Patient 1, a 20-year-old woman who had a past history of PTB, presented with weakness, numbness, and pain in the limbs...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Esther Lee Kim, Damien C Rodger, Narsing A Rao
Purpose: While there are many known etiologies of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), tuberculosis is not a well-known causative agent. In this case series, we highlight CNV occurring secondary to tuberculous chorioretinitis, its presentation, and its management. Observations: We retrospectively reviewed the charts and imaging of four patients who presented with presumed tuberculous chorioretinitis and CNV. Three of these patients had signs of intraocular inflammation and were also found to have active macular CNV...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Tinsae Alemayehu, Wondwossen Ergete, Workeabeba Abebe
Background: Pediatric nervous system tuberculomas are usually infra-tentorial and multiple. A frontal lobe location is rare. Case Details: We report a 10 year-old boy who presented with a chronic headache and episodes of loss of consciousness. He had no signs of primary pulmonary tuberculosis and a diagnosis of frontal tuberculoma was made upon a post-operative biopsy. He improved following treatment with anti-tubercular drugs. Conclusion: Tuberculosis should be considered in children with a chronic headache or focal neurologic deficit and a supra-tentorial intracranial mass in endemic countries like Ethiopia...
November 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Nguyen Th Mai, Nicholas Dobbs, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Romain A Colas, Le Tp Thao, Nguyen Tt Thuong, Ho Dt Nghia, Nguyen Hh Hanh, Nguyen T Hang, A Dorothee Heemskerk, Jeremy N Day, Lucy Ly, Do DA Thu, Laura Merson, Evelyne Kestelyn, Marcel Wolbers, Ronald Geskus, David Summers, Nguyen Vv Chau, Jesmond Dalli, Guy E Thwaites
Background Adjunctive dexamethasone reduces mortality from tuberculous meningitis (TBM) but not disability, which is associated with brain infarction. We hypothesised that aspirin prevents TBM-related brain infarction through its anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, and pro-resolution properties. Methods We conducted a randomised controlled trial in HIV-uninfected adults with TBM of daily aspirin 81mg or 1000mg, or placebo, added to the first 60 days of anti-tuberculosis drugs and dexamethasone (NCT02237365)...
February 27, 2018: ELife
Sally A Sharpe, Donna Smyth, Anthony McIntyre, Fergus Gleeson, Mike J Dennis
Until validated correlates of protection are identified, animal models remain the only way to test the efficacy of the new vaccines and drugs urgently needed to fight the global epidemic caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Non-human primates (NHP) offer the most relevant models of human tuberculosis (TB) and are central to the development process for new interventions. Efficacy evaluations are dependent on the capability of the test model to discriminate improved outcomes between treated groups after experimental exposure to M...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
A S Becker, C Blüthgen, V D Phi van, C Sekaggya-Wiltshire, B Castelnuovo, A Kambugu, J Fehr, T Frauenfelder
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of Deep Learning-based detection and classification of pathological patterns in a set of digital photographs of chest X-ray (CXR) images of tuberculosis (TB) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, patients with previously diagnosed TB were enrolled. Photographs of their CXRs were taken using a consumer-grade digital still camera. The images were stratified by pathological patterns into classes: cavity, consolidation, effusion, interstitial changes, miliary pattern or normal examination...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Tao Wang, Gang Zhao, Yong-Jun Rui, Jing-Yi Mi
RATIONALE: Primary tuberculous infection in hand and wrist is a rare disease. Few articles reported on hand primary tuberculous synovitis. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 68-year-old Chinese male, without history of tuberculosis (TB), had complained of pain and swelling in right palm and little finger for 3 months. Patient came to our hospital on 9th Oct 2016. X-ray just showed soft tissue swelling in little finger. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed synovitis around flexor tendon of little finger, volar palm, and carpal tunnel...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Libin Huang, Zhiyin Huang, Yang Tai, Pu Wang, Bing Hu, Chengwei Tang
Chronic abdominal pain (CAP) remains a particular challenge because of its complicated causes, especially when the disorders involve the small bowel, where it is quite difficult to intubate the flexible endoscopes. This study was to investigate the small bowel diseases detected by capsule endoscopy (CE) in CAP patients to evaluate the role of CE on CAP, and analyzed the relationship among the clinical characteristics of CAP patients and the positive rates of CE findings to search for the indications of CE for CAP patients...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ahmed H Qavi, Tasnim F Imran, Zachariah Hasan, Fariha Ilyas
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) meninges that carries high morbidity and mortality. It is important to recognize, as patients may present with atypical symptoms. We describe the case of a 31-year-old man with a history of diabetes who presented with a sub-acute onset of right-sided facial weakness and right gaze difficulty with diplopia. History revealed low-grade fever, right-sided headache, fatigue and moderate weight loss for the past several weeks. The patient did not report neck stiffness, rigidity, fever, chills or cough...
December 7, 2017: Curēus
Konrad Pawlewicz, Zbigniew Szutkowski, Andrzej Kawecki
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the trachea is a relatively rare tumor among thoracic diseases. The present study reports the case of a 23-year-old woman with ACC of the trachea who underwent surgical resection of the tumor in The National Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (Warsaw, Poland). Histopathological examination revealed that the tumor was not completely resected (R2 resection) and strict observation of the patient was therefore prescribed. After ~9 years of follow-up, clinical and histopathological tumor progression was confirmed and the patient was referred to the Centre of Oncology in Warsaw...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Aziza Ghanie Icksan, Martin Raja Sonang Napitupulu, Mohamad Arifin Nawas, Fariz Nurwidya
Background: Imaging has a big role in tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and chest X-ray is preferable because it is available in primary health care and can point out the location, area, and morphology of lesions, such as cavity, consolidation, pleural effusions, and fibrosis. We aimed to compare the chest X-ray findings in multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) and in drug-sensitive TB (DS-TB) cases. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study which compares chest X-ray findings of two groups of patients, involving 183 DS-TB patients and 183 MDR-TB patients...
January 2018: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
Bin Lin, Li-Lin Dai, Zhi-da Chen, Yong Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of surgical operation by posterior or anterior approach only for thoracolumbar tuberculosis. METHODS: The clinical data of 97 patients with thoracolumbar tuberculosis underwent debridement and internal fixation from January 2005 to December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The study included 59 males and 38 females, with a mean age of 53.7 years ranged from 20 to 68 years. The course of disease was from 1 to 13 months with an average of (6...
September 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
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