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Tuberculosis imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218770/the-prevalence-and-radiological-findings-of-pulmonary-embolism-in-hiv-positive-patients-referred-for-computed-tomography-pulmonary-angiography-in-the-western-cape-of-south-africa
#1
Raksha Ramlakhan, Savvas Andronikou, Ashmitha Rajkumar
AIM: To provide imaging data and report associations between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in a South African population that underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for suspected PE. METHODS: A validated Qanadli severity scoring system for PE was used for 164 CTPA scans, and parenchymal, pleural and cardiovascular complications were reported. Serological confirmation of HIV testing and microbiological confirmation of TB were recorded...
February 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217237/-caught-by-the-eye-of-sound-epigastric-swelling-due-to-xiphisternal-tuberculosis
#2
Shabnam Bhandari Grover, Sumit Arora, Amit Kumar, Hemal Grover, Amit Katyan, Deepthi Mohan Nair
BACKGROUND: Common causes of an epigastric mass include hepatomegaly, pancreatic pseudocyst and epigastric hernia, less common causes being carcinoma of the stomach or pancreas, whereas diseases of the sternum presenting as an epigastric swelling is extremely uncommon. We report a case of tubercular infection of the sternum located in the xiphoid process resulting in its presentation as an epigastric swelling. CASE REPORT: A 30-year-old immunocompetent woman with complaints of an epigastric swelling and undocumented pyrexia for four months was referred for sonographic evaluation with a clinical suspicion of an incompletely treated liver abscess...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203396/a-rare-case-of-tuberculous-salpingitis
#3
REVIEW
Anatolii Romaniuk, Nataliya Gyryavenko, Mykola Lyndin, Sofiia Romaniuk, Miroslav Starkiv, Galina Slobodyan
The objective of this study was to give an overview of a rare case of tuberculosis of the left fallopian tube in postmenopausal women. It is known that the isolated tuberculous salpingitis without spreading to the endometrium is extremely rare case. In our case, it simulated a cancer of appendages at the late stages that were proved by the increased level of CA-125. This fact as well as the macroscopic image of the left fallopian tube was incorrectly considered by the clinicians as a malignant neoplasm of fallopian tube...
September 2016: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203178/a-patient-with-supraclavicular-lymphadenopathy-and-anterior-mediastinal-mass-presenting-as-a-rare-case-of-composite-lymphoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Alex Raufi, James Jerkins, Yung Lyou, Deepa Jeyakumar
Composite lymphoma (CL) is a rare disease with 2 distinct lymphomas concurrently arising in a single patient with an estimated incidence of 1-4.7% of newly diagnosed lymphomas per year. CL most commonly involves 2 B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) or a B-cell NHL with a Hodgkin lymphoma. Our case is unique in that it was a bilineage CL with both a T-cell and B-cell NHL, which has only been reported in a few case reports. A 49-year-old woman presented with several months of progressive cough, weight loss, dyspnea, and supraclavicular lymphadenopathy...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194086/silicosis-in-the-form-of-progressive-massive-fibrosis-a-diagnostic-challenge
#5
Somnath Bhattacharya, Atin Dey, Amitava Pal, Saurav Kar, Sayantan Saha
Silicosis is a major occupational lung disease with a relatively fatal and irreversible outcome. Early diagnosis for shifting the potential candidates to safe modes of workplace as well as for prevention of further progression is the cornerstone of management. Here, we present a complicated case of silicosis in the form of progressive massive fibrosis, which was initially interpreted as tuberculosis; radiological images had resemblance with tuberculosis and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. Radiology-guided trucut biopsy was imperative to confirm the diagnosis...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192578/when-the-great-masquerader-reveals-itself-tuberculosis
#6
Brittany Hodgson, Benjamin D Kornfeld, Bridget M Wild
Pneumonia is a clinical diagnosis often treated empirically and successfully on an outpatient basis. When a patient fails to improve, the clinician is left to revisit the differential of pathogens and reconsider the host. Admission, imaging, and invasive and noninvasive testing are part of the toolkit for the severe or atypical case of pneumonia. For fastidious organisms, achieving a culture-proven diagnosis can be quite difficult. This article discusses the screening and testing for tuberculosis, reviews the utility of computed tomography imaging and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage in severe or atypical pneumonia, and highlights the barriers to definitive diagnosis even when the causative microbe is on the differential diagnosis when a patient is admitted...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166918/the-concomitant-occurrence-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-with-bronchial-anthracofibrosis
#7
Shekhar Kunal, Ashok Shah
BACKGROUND: Bronchial anthracofibrosis (BAF), diagnosed bronchoscopically, is a clinical entity which is now beginning to emerge from obscurity. This is commonly encountered in elderly females with history of long-standing exposure to biomass fuel smoke in poorly ventilated kitchens. As awareness of BAF has increased in recent times, distinct clinicoradiological and bronchoscopic features of the disease have emerged. Diagnosis is achieved by visualisation of bluish-black mucosal hyperpigmentation along with narrowing/distortion of the affected bronchus on fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FOB)...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166721/early-interventions-for-diabetes-related-tuberculosis-associate-with-hastened-sputum-microbiological-clearance-in-virginia-usa
#8
Yosra Alkabab, Suzanne Keller, Denise Dodge, Eric Houpt, Deborah Staley, Scott Heysell
BACKGROUND: Diabetes complicates tuberculosis (TB) treatment including a prolonged time of sputum culture conversion to negative growth. Since 2013 in Virginia, interventions early in the treatment course have used therapeutic drug monitoring and dose correction for isoniazid and rifampin after 2 weeks of TB treatment in patients with diabetes along with nurse manager initiated diabetes education and linkage to care. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of the state TB registry was performed for patients initiating drug-susceptible pulmonary TB treatment that were matched for age, gender, chest imaging and sputum smear status to compare time to sputum culture conversion and other clinical outcomes in the pre-and post-intervention groups...
February 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163438/a-rare-case-of-cardiac-tumor-in-a-child
#9
Mallar Mukharjee, Jigna N Bathia, Apurba Ghosh, Anil Kumar Singhi
Pediatric cardiac tumors are rare and usually benign. An infectious etiology like tuberculosis invading myocardium and presenting as infiltrative mass is extremely rare. We present a case of a 15 month old girl with clinical feature of cardiac failure who had infiltrative multiple myocardial masses in echocardiogram. Advanced cardiac imaging by Cardiac Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) helped in tissue delineation. Therapeutic trial of anti-tubercular drugs in view clinical suspicion of Tuberculosis resulted in complete remission of symptom and disappearance of the cardiac mass...
January 2017: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162875/diagnosis-of-spinal-lesions-using-heuristic-and-pharmacokinetic-parameters-measured-by-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri
#10
Ning Lang, Huishu Yuan, Hon J Yu, Min-Ying Su
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in differentiation of four spinal lesions by using heuristic and pharmacokinetic parameters analyzed from DCE signal intensity time course. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DCE-MRI of 62 subjects with confirmed myeloma (n = 9), metastatic cancer (n = 22), lymphoma (n = 7), and inflammatory tuberculosis (TB) (n = 24) in the spine were analyzed retrospectively...
February 2, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159010/disseminated-nocardiosis-in-renal-transplant-recipient-under-therapy-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-case-report
#11
Priyatam Khadka, Ramesh Bahadur Basnet, Pratap Khadka, Dibya Singh Shah, Bharat Mani Pokhrel, Basista Parsad Rijal, Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand
BACKGROUND: Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection in a patient with underlying immune suppression and organ transplant. Clinical syndromes are varied and ranges from pulmonary, disseminated, cutaneous along with central nervous system involvement. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we report a rare case of disseminated pulmonary nocardiosis with cerebral manifestation in a 66 year-old-Nepali farmer; with a history of renal transplantation and undergoing therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis...
February 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154988/computer-aided-reporting-of-chest-radiographs-efficient-and-effective-screening-in-the-value-based-imaging-era
#12
Michael Morris, Babak Saboury, Niketh Bandla, Christopher Toland, Christopher Meenan, Eliot Siegel, Jean Jeudy
In the post-PACS era, mammography is unique in adopting specialized ergonomic interfaces to improve efficiency in a high volume setting. Chest radiography is also a high volume area of radiology. The authors hypothesize that applying a novel interface for chest radiography interpretation and reporting could create high productivity while maintaining quality. A custom version of the ClearCanvas open source software, EzRad, was created with a workflow re-designed specifically for tuberculosis screening chest radiographs, which utilized standardized computer generated reports...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153574/low-yield-of-chest-radiography-in-general-inpatients-and-outpatients-with-positive-ppd-results-in-a-country-with-low-prevalence-of-tb
#13
Ronald L Eisenberg, Benedikt H Heidinger
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and spectrum of abnormalities on routine screening chest radiographs among inpatients and outpatients with "positive purified protein derivative (PPD)" in a large tertiary care academic medical center in a country with low prevalence of tuberculosis (TB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The reports of all chest radiographs of general inpatients and outpatients referred for positive PPD (2010-2014) were evaluated for the frequency of evidence of active or latent TB and the spectrum of imaging findings...
January 30, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151985/the-biodistribution-of-5-18f-fluoropyrazinamide-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infected-mice-determined-by-positron-emission-tomography
#14
Zhuo Zhang, Alvaro A Ordonez, Peter Smith-Jones, Hui Wang, Kayla R Gogarty, Fereidoon Daryaee, Lauren E Bambarger, Yong S Chang, Sanjay K Jain, Peter J Tonge
5-[18F]F-pyrazinamide (5-[18F]F-PZA), a radiotracer analog of the first-line tuberculosis drug pyrazinamide (PZA), was employed to determine the biodistribution of PZA using PET imaging and ex vivo analysis. 5-[18F]F-PZA was synthesized in 60 min using a halide exchange reaction. The overall decay-corrected yield of the reaction was 25% and average specific activity was 2.6 × 106 kBq (70 mCi)/μmol. The biodistribution of 5-[18F]F-PZA was examined in a pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis mouse model, where rapid distribution of the tracer to the lung, heart, liver, kidney, muscle, and brain was observed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149976/worsening-of-longstanding-headaches-dizziness-visual-symptoms-%C3%A2-dx
#15
Amy Williams, Debra Howenstine
The clinical presentation and imaging studies of central nervous system tuberculosis are often indistinguishable from those of patients with malignant neoplasms or metastatic disease. Biopsies may be necessary to distinguish tuberculomas from other intracranial lesions such as pyogenic abscesses or necrotic tumors.
December 2016: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149582/tracheobronchial-tuberculosis
#16
REVIEW
Vikas Pathak, Ray W Shepherd, Samira Shojaee
Tracheobronchial tuberculosis (TBTB) is reported in approximately 10% to 39% of the patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. It is defined as the tubercle infection of the trachea and or bronchi. Due to its non-specific presentation, insidious onset and normal chest radiography in about 10-20% of the patients, the diagnosis is delayed. Bronchoscopy is the most definite method of diagnosis which provides adequate specimens for microbiological and histopathological diagnosis. Tracheobronchial stenosis is one of the most common long term complications of TBTB resulting in significant morbidity...
December 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144071/multislice-computed-tomography-and-virtual-bronchoscopy-diagnosis-of-interbronchial-fistula
#17
Venkatraman Indiran
Although tuberculosis is a rather common disease in the Indian subcontinent, tracheobronchial involvement in tuberculosis is still rare. Fistula formation between bronchi is very rare considering that only four cases have been published in the English literature. We present a case of multislice computed tomography (CT) and virtual bronchoscopy diagnosis of interbronchial fistula in a patient with tuberculosis along with a review of literature of the same. This happens to be the smallest of the interbronchial fistula identified on imaging so far and the first case from the Indian subcontinent...
January 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139030/endosonographic-features-of-esophageal-tuberculosis-presenting-as-a-subepithelial-lesion
#18
Jong Hun Seo, Gwang Ha Kim, Joon Hyung Jhi, Young Joo Park, Yae Su Jang, Bong Eun Lee, Geun Am Song
Esophageal tuberculosis is rare, even in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis. It usually presents as an ulcerative lesion on conventional endoscopy. Due to its rarity, when esophageal tuberculosis presents as a subepithelial lesion (SEL), conventional endoscopy and other imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) are often insufficient to distinguish it from other diseases. From January 2007 to December 2014, 1094 patients who underwent endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) were retrospectively analyzed...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138411/granulomatous-prostatitis-after-intravesical-immunotherapy-mimicking-prostate-cancer
#19
Waldemar Białek, Sławomir Rudzki, Paweł Iberszer, Lech Wronecki
Intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis is a widely used therapeutic option in patients with non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A rare complication of intravesical therapy with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is granulomatous prostatitis, which due to increasing levels of prostate-specific antigen and abnormalities found in transrectal examination of the prostate may suggest concomitant prostate cancer. A case of extensive granulomatous prostatitis in a 61-year-old patient which occurred after the first course of a well-tolerated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy is presented...
December 2016: Journal of Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134985/fast-and-effective-quantification-of-symmetry-in-medical-images-for-pathology-detection-application-to-chest-radiography
#20
Laurens Hogeweg, Clara I Sánchez, Pragnya Maduskar, Rick H H M Philipsen, Bram van Ginneken
PURPOSE: Symmetry is an important feature of human anatomy and the absence of symmetry in medical images can indicate the presence of pathology. Quantification of image symmetry can then be used to improve the automatic analysis of medical images. METHODS: A method is presented that computes both local and global symmetry in 2D medical images. A symmetry axis is determined to define for each position p in the image a mirrored position p' on the contralateral side of the axis...
January 30, 2017: Medical Physics
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