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apis mellifera

Anete Pedro Lourenço, Mônica Mazzei Florecki, Zilá Luz Paulino Simões, Jay Daniel Evans
Like all other insects, two key signaling pathways (Toll and Imd) regulate the induction of honey bee immune effectors that target microbial pathogens. Among these effectors are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are presumed to be produced by the NF-κB factors Dorsal and Relish from the Toll and Imd pathways, respectively. Using in silico analysis, we previously proposed that the honey bee AMP defensin-1 was regulated by the Toll pathway, while hymenoptaecin was regulated by Imd and abaecin by both the Toll and Imd pathways...
April 17, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Beatrice T Nganso, Ayuka T Fombong, Abdullahi A Yusuf, Christian W W Pirk, Charles Stuhl, Baldwyn Torto
Although Varroa destructor is the most serious ecto-parasite to the honeybee, Apis mellifera L., some honeybee populations such as Apis mellifera scutellata in Kenya can survive mite infestations without treatment. Previously, we reported that grooming behaviour could be a potential tolerant mechanism expressed by this honeybee subspecies towards mite infestation. However, both hygienic and grooming behaviours could not explain the lower mite-infestation levels recorded in these colonies. Here, we investigated the involvement of other potential resistant mechanisms including suppression of mite reproduction in worker brood cells of A...
April 17, 2018: Parasitology
Diah Savitri Ernawati, Ade Puspa
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Apis mellifera propolis extract gel on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in the traumatic ulcers of rats afflicted with diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 24 male Wistar rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) induced with DM by injecting 50 mg/kg of Streptozotocin, intraperitoneally, and a traumatic ulcer on their lower lip mucosa...
March 2018: Veterinary World
David Baracchi, Elisa Rigosi, Gabriela de Brito Sanchez, Martin Giurfa
Lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain that affects perceptual, motor, and cognitive processes. It is now acknowledged that left-right laterality is widespread across vertebrates and even some invertebrates such as fruit flies and bees. Honeybees, which learn to associate an odorant (the conditioned stimulus, CS) with sucrose solution (the unconditioned stimulus, US), recall this association better when trained using their right antenna than they do when using their left antenna. Correspondingly, olfactory sensilla are more abundant on the right antenna and odor encoding by projection neurons of the right antennal lobe results in better odor differentiation than those of the left one...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Carolina Mengoni Goñalons, Walter M Farina
Neonicotinoids are the most widespread insecticides in agriculture, preferred for their low toxicity to mammals and their systemic nature. Nevertheless, there have been increasing concerns regarding their impact on non-target organisms. Glyphosate is also widely used in crops and, therefore, traces of this pesticide are likely to be found together with neonicotinoids. Although glyphosate is considered a herbicide, adverse effects have been found on animal species, including honey bees. Apis mellifera is one of the most important pollinators in agroecosystems and is exposed to both these pesticides...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Fabio Fernando Flores, Norma Inés Hilgert, Liliana Concepción Lupo
BACKGROUND: The order Hymenoptera comprises melliferous insects (bees, wasps and bumblebees); among them, stingless bees comprise a diverse group of eusocial insects present in tropical and subtropical areas. Of a total of approximately 500 species, 400 are found in the Neotropics. On the continent of America, before the introduction of Apis mellifera, these insects represented the main source of honey and wax. In Argentina, ethnobiological investigations had been carried out on this group of insects, principally in the Atlantic Forest and Chaco regions...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Jane Ludvigsen, Davide Porcellato, Gro V Amdam, Knut Rudi
The gut microbiota of honeybees (Apis) and bumblebees (Bombus) include the symbiotic bacterial genus Gilliamella. This genus shows a high degree of functional and genomic diversity and separates into distinct lineages. Gilliamella apicola wkB1T , which was isolated from Apis, was the first species to be described. Recently four new species, isolated from Bombus, were identified. In this paper, we compare several genomes/strains from previous studies spanning this diversity, which gives insight into the phylogenetic relationship among different Gilliamella species...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
M Fatima C Ilagan-Cruzada, Albert Remus R Rosana, Andrew D Montecillo, Noel G Sabino, Ida F Dalmacio
Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum strain LB1-2, isolated from the hindgut of European honeybees in the Philippines, is active against Paenibacillus larvae and has broad activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The complete genome sequence reported herein contains gene clusters for multiple bacteriocins and extensive gene inventories for carbohydrate metabolism.
April 5, 2018: Genome Announcements
Hee Geun Park, Kwang Sik Lee, Bo Yeon Kim, Hyung Joo Yoon, Yong Soo Choi, Kyung Yong Lee, Hu Wan, Jianhong Li, Byung Rae Jin
Honeybee (Apis mellifera) egg-yolk protein vitellogenin (Vg) plays roles in immunity, antioxidation, and life span beyond reproduction, but it also acts as an allergen Api m 12 in venom. Here we established antimicrobial and antioxidant roles of honeybee Vg in the body and venom. Using the cDNA encoding Vg identified from Asiatic honeybee (A. cerana) workers, recombinant A. cerana Vg (AcVg) protein of approximately 180 kDa was produced in baculovirus-infected insect cells. In A. cerana worker bees, AcVg was expressed in the fat body and venom gland and was present in the secreted venom...
April 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Pingli Dai, Cameron J Jack, Ashley N Mortensen, Tomas A Bustamante, James D Ellis
The effects of chronic exposure to common acaricides on Apis mellifera survival, developmental rate and larval weight were tested in the laboratory. Larvae were reared in vitro and fed a diet containing amitraz: 1.5, 11, 25 and 46 mg/L; coumaphos: 1.8, 6, 8 and 25 mg/L; or fluvalinate: 0.1, 1, 2.4 and 6 mg/L. The dependent variables were compared for groups feeding on treated diets and control diets: positive control, 45 mg/L dimethoate; solvent control; and negative control. Bee survival decreased in the 46 mg/L amitraz and 25 mg/L coumaphos treatments but not in any fluvalinate treatment...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chian Jones Ritten, Dannele Peck, Mariah Ehmke, M A Buddhika Patalee
While the demand for pollination services have been increasing, continued declines in honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), colonies have put the cropping sector and the broader health of agro-ecosystems at risk. Economic factors may play a role in dwindling honey bee colony supply in the United States, but have not been extensively studied. Using data envelopment analysis (DEA), we measure technical efficiency, returns to scale, and factors influencing the efficiency of those apiaries in the northern Rocky Mountain region participating in the pollination services market...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
D C Gilley, T J Courtright, C Thom
Departure of swarms from honey bee (Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae)) nests is an important reproductive event for wild honey bee colonies and economically costly in managed bee colonies. The seasonal timing of swarm departure varies regionally and annually, creating challenges for honey bee management and emphasizing the potential for swarming behavior to be affected by plant-pollinator phenological mismatch. In this study, we first document variability in the timing of swarm departure across the large and heterogeneous geographical area of New Jersey over 4 years using 689 swarm-cluster observations...
March 31, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Carolina Bartolomé, María Buendía, María Benito, Pilar De la Rúa, Concepción Ornosa, Raquel Martín-Hernández, Mariano Higes, Xulio Maside
Trypanosomatids are highly prevalent pathogens of Hymenoptera; however, most molecular methods used to detect them in Apis and Bombus spp. do not allow the identification of the infecting species, which then becomes expensive and time consuming. To overcome this drawback, we developed a multiplex PCR protocol to readily identify in a single reaction the main trypanosomatids present in these hymenopterans (Lotmaria passim, Crithidia mellificae and Crithidia bombi), which will facilitate the study of their epidemiology and transmission dynamics...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Sean P Leonard, Jiri Perutka, J Elijah Powell, Peng Geng, Darby Richhart, Michelle Byrom, Shaunak Kar, Bryan W Davies, Andrew D Ellington, Nancy Moran, Jeffrey E Barrick
Engineering the bacteria present in animal microbiomes promises to lead to breakthroughs in medicine and agriculture, but progress is hampered by a dearth of tools for genetically modifying the diverse species that comprise these communities. Here we present a toolkit of genetic parts for the modular construction of broad-host-range plasmids built around the RSF1010 replicon. Golden Gate assembly of parts in this toolkit can be used to rapidly test various antibiotic resistance markers, promoters, fluorescent reporters and other coding sequences in newly isolated bacteria...
April 2, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Madeleine Beekman, Benjamin P Oldroyd
During reproductive swarming, a honeybee swarm needs to decide on a new nest site and then move to the chosen site collectively. Most studies of swarming and nest-site selection are based on one species, Apis mellifera Natural colonies of A. mellifera live in tree cavities. The quality of the cavity is critical to the survival of a swarm. Other honeybee species nest in the open, and have less strict nest-site requirements, such as the open-nesting dwarf honeybee Apis florea Apis florea builds a nest comprised of a single comb suspended from a twig...
May 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Brigitta Zana, Gábor Kemenesi, Péter Urbán, Fanni Földes, Tamás Görföl, Péter Estók, Sándor Boldogh, Kornélia Kurucz, Ferenc Jakab
The predominance of dietary viruses in bat guano samples had been described recently, suggesting a new opportunity to survey the prevalence and to detect new viruses of arthropods or even plant-infecting viruses circulating locally in the ecosystem. Here we describe the diversity of viruses belonging to the order Picornavirales in Hungarian insectivorous bat guano samples. The metagenomic analysis conducted on our samples has revealed the significant predominance of aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV) and Big Sioux River virus (BSRV) in Hungary for the first time...
March 2018: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Sasiprapa Krongdang, Jay D Evans, Yanping Chen, Wannapha Mookhploy, Panuwan Chantawannakul
American foulbrood (AFB) disease is caused by Paenibacillus larvae. Currently, this pathogen is widespread in the European honey bee; Apis mellifera. However, little is known about infectivity and pathogenicity of P. larvae in the Asiatic cavity-nesting honey bees, Apis cerana. Moreover, comparative knowledge of P. larvae infectivity and pathogenicity between both honey bee species is scarce. In this study, we examined susceptibility, larval mortality, survival rate and expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) including defensin, apidaecin, abaecin and hymenoptaecin in A...
March 26, 2018: Insect Science
Benjamin H Conlon, Eva Frey, Peter Rosenkranz, Barbara Locke, Robin F A Moritz, Jarkko Routtu
The Red Queen Hypothesis predicts that host-parasite coevolutionary dynamics can select for host resistance through increased genetic diversity, recombination and evolutionary rates. However, in haplodiploid organisms such as the honey bee (Apis mellifera), models suggest the selective pressure is weaker than in diploids. Haplodiploid sex-determination, found in A. mellifera, can allow deleterious recessive alleles to persist in the population through the diploid sex with negative effects predominantly expressed in the haploid sex...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Raquel Martín-Hernández, Carolina Bartolomé, Nor Chejanovsky, Yves Le Conte, Anne Dalmon, Claudia Dussaubat, Pilar García-Palencia, Aranzazu Meana, M Alice Pinto, Victoria Soroker, Mariano Higes
Nosema ceranae is a hot topic in honey bee health as reflected by numerous papers published every year. This review presents an update of the knowledge generated in the last 12 years in the field of N. ceranae research, addressing the routes of transmission, population structure and genetic diversity. This includes description of how the infection modifies the honey bee's metabolism, the immune response and other vital functions. The effects on individual honey bees will have a direct impact on the colony by leading to losses in the adult's population...
March 24, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Agustín Sáez, Juan M Morales, Carolina L Morales, Lawrence D Harder, Marcelo A Aizen
Globally, agriculture increasingly depends on pollinators to produce many seed and fruit crops. However, what constitutes optimal pollination service for pollinator-dependent crops remains unanswered. We developed a simulation model to identify the optimal pollination service that maximizes fruit quality in crops. The model depicts the pollination (i.e. autonomous self-fertilization, pollen deposition) and post-pollination (i.e. pollen germination, and time from germination to ovule fertilization) processes leading to fruit and seed set and allows for negative flower-pollinator interactions, specifically pistil damage...
March 24, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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