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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453966/gamma-irradiation-inactivates-honey-bee-fungal-microsporidian-and-viral-pathogens-and-parasites
#1
Michael Simone-Finstrom, Kate Aronstein, Michael Goblirsch, Frank Rinkevich, Lilia de Guzman
Managed honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations are currently facing unsustainable losses due to a variety of factors. Colonies are challenged with brood pathogens, such as the fungal agent of chalkbrood disease, the microsporidian gut parasite Nosema sp., and several viruses. These pathogens may be transmitted horizontally from worker to worker, vertically from queen to egg and via vectors like the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor. Despite the fact that these pathogens are widespread and often harbored in wax comb that is reused from year to year and transferred across beekeeping operations, few, if any, universal treatments exist for their control...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452084/successful-reproduction-of-unmated-tropilaelaps-mercedesae-and-its-implication-on-mite-population-growth-in-apis-mellifera-colonies
#2
Lilia I de Guzman, Patcharin Phokasem, Kitiphong Khongphinitbunjong, Amanda M Frake, Panuwan Chantawannakul
Successful reproduction by unmated Tropilaelaps mercedesae is reported here for the first time. Of the eight mature daughters that did not have male mates within their natal cells, four produced both mature sons and daughters, and four produced mature daughters only. Overall, 78% of the new daughters that had no egg-laying experience, and 84% of the foundresses that had or had not laid previously reproduced. Both inoculum daughter and foundress mites were collected from tan-bodied pupae and inoculated immediately...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452081/chronic-nosema-ceranae-infection-inflicts-comprehensive-and-persistent-immunosuppression-and-accelerated-lipid-loss-in-host-apis-mellifera-honey-bees
#3
Wenfeng Li, Yanping Chen, Steven C Cook
Nosema ceranae is an intracellular microsporidian parasite of the Asian honey bee Apis cerana and the European honey bee Apis mellifera. Until relatively recently, A. mellifera honey bees were naïve to N. ceranae infection. Symptoms of nosemosis, or Nosema disease, in the infected hosts include immunosuppression, damage to gut epithelium, nutrient and energetic stress, precocious foraging and reduced longevity of infected bees. Links remain unclear between immunosuppression, the symptoms of nutrient and energetic stress, and precocious foraging behavior of hosts...
February 13, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449804/an-early-sensitive-period-induces-long-lasting-plasticity-in-the-honeybee-nervous-system
#4
Juan P Grosso, Jesica A Barneto, Rodrigo A Velarde, Eduardo A Pagano, Jorge A Zavala, Walter M Farina
The effect of early experiences on the brain during a sensitive period exerts a long-lasting influence on the mature individual. Despite behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early experiences having been reported in the honeybee Apis mellifera , the presence of a sensitive period in which associative experiences lead to pronounced modifications in the adult nervous system is still unclear. Laboratory-reared bees were fed with scented food within specific temporal windows and were assessed for memory retention, in the regulation of gene expression related to the synaptic formation and in the olfactory perception of their antennae at 17 days of age...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447197/shotgun-proteomics-deciphered-age-division-of-labor-related-functional-specification-of-three-honeybee-apis-mellifera-l-exocrine-glands
#5
Toshiyuki Fujita, Hiroko Kozuka-Hata, Yutaro Hori, Jun Takeuchi, Takeo Kubo, Masaaki Oyama
The honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) uses various chemical signals produced by the worker exocrine glands to maintain the functioning of its colony. The roles of worker postcerebral glands (PcGs), thoracic glands (TGs), and mandibular glands (MGs) and the functional changes they undergo according to the division of labor from nursing to foraging are not as well studied. To comprehensively characterize the molecular roles of these glands in workers and their changes according to the division of labor of workers, we analyzed the proteomes of PcGs, TGs, and MGs from nurse bees and foragers using shotgun proteomics technology...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444244/acute-toxicity-of-permethrin-deltamethrin-and-etofenprox-to-the-alfalfa-leafcutting-bee
#6
Alyssa M Piccolomini, Shavonn R Whiten, Michelle L Flenniken, Kevin M O'Neill, Robert K D Peterson
Current regulatory requirements for insecticide toxicity to nontarget insects focus on the honey bee, Apis mellifera (L.; Hymenoptera: Apidae), but this species cannot represent all insect pollinator species in terms of response to insecticides. Therefore, we characterized the toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides used for adult mosquito management (permethrin, deltamethrin, and etofenprox) on a nontarget insect, the adult alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.; Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in two separate studies...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435718/varroa-destructor-parasitism-reduces-hemocyte-concentrations-and-prophenol-oxidase-gene-expression-in-bees-from-two-populations
#7
Gun Koleoglu, Paul H Goodwin, Mariana Reyes-Quintana, Mollah Md Hamiduzzaman, Ernesto Guzman-Novoa
Circulating hemocytes are responsible for defensive and healing mechanisms in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Parasitism by the mite Varroa destructor and injection of V. destructor homogenate in buffer, but not buffer injection, showed similar reductions in total hemocyte concentrations in both Africanized and European adult honey bees. This indicated that compounds in V. destructor homogenate can have similar effects as V. destructor parasitism and that the response is not solely due to wounding. Samples from honey bees with different hemocyte concentrations were compared for the expression patterns of hemolectin (AmHml), prophenol oxidase (AmPpo), and class C scavenger receptor (AmSRC-C)...
February 12, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433263/novel-diagnostic-tools-for-asian-apis-cerana-and-european-apis-mellifera-honey-authentication
#8
Sónia Soares, Liliana Grazina, Isabel Mafra, Joana Costa, M Alice Pinto, Hanh Pham Duc, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Joana S Amaral
Honey can be produced by different species of honeybees, with two being of economic importance due to their use in apiculture, namely Apis mellifera (known as European honeybee) and Apis cerana (known as Asian honeybee). Due to the decline of the wild populations of the Asian honeybee, this honey generally attains much higher market value, being prone to adulteration. This work aims at proposing new tools, based on the use of molecular markers, for the entomological authentication of honey. To this end, new species-specific primers were designed targeting the tRNAleu-cox2 intergenic region and allowing the detection of A...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432764/seasonality-of-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-micronutrient-supplementation-and-environmental-limitation
#9
Rachael E Bonoan, Luke D O'Connor, Philip T Starks
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) obtain micronutrients from floral resources and "dirty", or turbid, water. Past research suggests that honey bees drink dirty water to supplement the micronutrients in their floral diet, however, there is no research that directly investigates how floral micronutrient content varies with water preferences, or how micronutrients in honey bees themselves vary seasonally. In this study, we used chemical analyses (ICP-OES) to investigate seasonal variation of micronutrients in honey bee workers and floral resources in the field...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427347/from-robinia-pseudoacacia-l-nectar-to-acacia-monofloral-honey-biochemical-changes-and-variation-of-biological-properties
#10
Angelo Gismondi, Silvia De Rossi, Lorena Canuti, Silvia Novelli, Gabriele Di Marco, Laura Fattorini, Antonella Canini
BACKGROUND: Robinia pseudoacacia L. nectar and its derivative monofloral honey were systematically compared in this study, to understand how much the starting solution reflected the final product, after re-elaboration by Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola. RESULTS: Subjected to dehydration in the hive, nectar changed its water and sugar content when transformed in honey, as physicochemical and GC-MS analyses revealed. Spectrophotometrical measurements and HPLC-DAD characterization of 18 plant molecules demonstrated honey to be richer than nectar in secondary metabolites...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423537/short-term-exposure-to-lambda-cyhalothrin-negatively-affects-the-survival-and-memory-related-characteristics-of-worker-bees-apis-mellifera
#11
Chun-Hua Liao, Xu-Jiang He, Zi-Long Wang, Andrew B Barron, Bo Zhang, Zhi-Jiang Zeng, Xiao-Bo Wu
Pesticides are considered one of the major contemporary stressors of honey bee health. In this study, the effects of short-term exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin on lifespan, learning, and memory-related characteristics of Apis mellifera were systematically examined. Short-term exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin in worker bees reduced lifespan, affected learning and memory performance, reduced the homing ability, and influenced the expression levels of two learning and memory-related genes of A. mellifera. This research identifies the nature of the sublethal effects of lambda-cyhalothrin on bees and the level of exposure that can be harmful to bee health...
February 8, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404205/the-first-report-of-the-prevalence-of-nosema-ceranae-in-bulgaria
#12
Rositsa Shumkova, Ani Georgieva, Georgi Radoslavov, Daniela Sirakova, Gyulnas Dzhebir, Boyko Neov, Maria Bouga, Peter Hristov
Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are the two main microsporidian parasites causing nosematosis in the honey bee Apis mellifera. The aim of the present study is to investigate the presence of Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae in the area of Bulgaria. The 16S (SSU) rDNA gene region was chosen for analysis. A duplex PCR assay was performed on 108 honey bee samples from three different parts of the country (South, North and West Bulgaria). The results showed that the samples from the northern part of the country were with the highest prevalence (77...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397499/testing-the-effect-of-paraquat-exposure-on-genomic-recombination-rates-in-queens-of-the-western-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#13
Kurt Langberg, Matthew Phillips, Olav Rueppell
The rate of genomic recombination displays evolutionary plasticity and can even vary in response to environmental factors. The western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) has an extremely high genomic recombination rate but the mechanistic basis for this genome-wide upregulation is not understood. Based on the hypothesis that meiotic recombination and DNA damage repair share common mechanisms in honey bees as in other organisms, we predicted that oxidative stress leads to an increase in recombination rate in honey bees...
February 3, 2018: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397399/longitudinal-effects-of-supplemental-forage-on-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-microbiota-and-inter-and-intra-colony-variability
#14
Jason A Rothman, Mark J Carroll, William G Meikle, Kirk E Anderson, Quinn S McFrederick
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide vital pollination services for a variety of agricultural crops around the world and are known to host a consistent core bacterial microbiome. This symbiotic microbial community is essential to many facets of bee health, including likely nutrient acquisition, disease prevention and optimal physiological function. Being that the bee microbiome is likely involved in the digestion of nutrients, we either provided or excluded honey bee colonies from supplemental floral forage before being used for almond pollination...
February 3, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396863/crystal-structure-of-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-sa-in-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-apidae
#15
Yanjie Liu, Xiaomeng Zhao, Muhammad Naeem, Jiandong An
Peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA) is a key pattern recognition receptor in the insect innate immune system. PGRP-SA can bind to bacterial PGN and activate the Toll pathway, which triggers the expression and release of antimicrobial peptides to prevent bacterial infection. Here, we report the first structure of Apis mellifera PGRP-SA from Hymenoptera at 1.86 Å resolution. The overall architecture of Am-PGRP-SA was similar to the Drosophila PGRP-SA; however, the residues involved in PGN binding groove were not conserved, and the binding pocket was narrower...
February 2, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393586/population-structure-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-paenibacillus-larvae-isolates-from-american-foulbrood-cases-in-apis-mellifera-in-japan
#16
Yuichi Ueno, Emi Yoshida, Wakako Misumi, Eri Watando, Kenta Suzuki, Yuko Hirai, Masatoshi Okura, Makoto Osaki, Ken Katsuda, Daisuke Takamatsu
Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), the most destructive disease of the honey bee brood. In this study, we investigated the population structure and antimicrobial susceptibility of Japanese P. larvae using 100 isolates isolated between 1993 and 2017 in 17 prefectures. Using repetitive-element PCR and multilocus sequence typing, isolates from diverse origins were classified into six genotypes, including the novel genotype ERIC II-ST24. Among these genotypes, ERIC I-ST15 is the most common in Japan, while ERIC II-ST10 isolates were found to be increasing during the 2010s...
February 2, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392466/spermatozoa-production-in-male-varroa-destructor-and-its-impact-on-reproduction-in-worker-brood-of-apis-mellifera
#17
Claudia Katharina Häußermann, Bettina Ziegelmann, Peter Rosenkranz
Reproduction in Varroa destructor exclusively takes place within the sealed honey bee brood cell and is, therefore, limited by the duration of the postcapping period. Oogenesis, ontogenetic development and mating must be optimized to ensure the production of as many mated daughter mites as possible. One adult male mite has to mate with up to five sister mites and transfer 30-40 spermatozoa to each female. We analyzed the production and transfer of male spermatozoa during a reproductive cycle by counting all spermatozoa in the genital tracts of the male and daughter mites in 80 worker brood cells at defined times after cell capping...
February 1, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384247/effect-of-oral-exposure-to-the-acaricide-pirimicarb-a-new-varroacide-candidate-on-apis-mellifera-feeding-rate
#18
Clémence Riva, Michel Sokolowski, Julien Normand, Jana Sopkova-de Oliveira Santos, Marie-Pierre Halm-Lemeille
BACKGROUND: The ectoparasitic honey bee mite Varroa destructor is one of the main causes related to the gradual decline of honey bees Apis mellifera. Nowadays, beekeepers utilize a wide range of different synthetic acaricides, organic acids and essential oils to keep mite populations under control. A previous work had shown that pirimicarb could be a new varroacide candidate. The aim of this study was to observe the chronic effects on worker honey bees feeding activity after an oral exposure to 1...
January 31, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382313/opsin-expression-patterns-coincide-with-photoreceptor-development-during-pupal-development-in-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#19
Leonie Lichtenstein, Kornelia Grübel, Johannes Spaethe
BACKGROUND: The compound eyes of insects allow them to catch photons and convert the energy into electric signals. All compound eyes consist of numerous ommatidia, each comprising a fixed number of photoreceptors. Different ommatidial types are characterized by a specific set of photoreceptors differing in spectral sensitivity. In honey bees, males and females possess different ommatidial types forming distinct retinal mosaics. However, data are lacking on retinal ontogeny and the mechanisms by which the eyes are patterned...
January 30, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382048/a-molecular-method-for-the-identification-of-honey-bee-subspecies-used-by-beekeepers-in-russia
#20
Mikhail Y Syromyatnikov, Anatoly V Borodachev, Anastasia V Kokina, Vasily N Popov
Apis mellifera L. includes several recognized subspecies that differ in their biological properties and agricultural characteristics. Distinguishing between honey bee subspecies is complicated. We analyzed the Folmer region of the COX1 gene in honey bee subspecies cultivated at bee farms in Russia and identified subspecies-specific SNPs. DNA analysis revealed two clearly distinct haplogroups in A. melliferamellifera. The first one was characterized by multiple cytosine-thymine (thymine-cytosine) transitions, one adenine-guanine substitution, and one thymine-adenine substitution...
January 27, 2018: Insects
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