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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723708/subclinical-herpesvirus-shedding-among-hiv-1-infected-men-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Arcadio Agudelo-Hernandez, Yue Chen, Arlene Bullotta, William G Buchanan, Cynthia R Klamar-Blain, Luann Borowski, Sharon A Riddler, Charles R Rinaldo, Bernard Jc Macatangay
DESIGN: We evaluated the subclinical shedding of 6 different herpesviruses in antiretroviral drug-treated HIV(+) men who have sex with men (MSM), and determined how this is associated with markers of inflammation and immune activation. METHODS: We obtained blood, semen, throat washing, urine, and stool from 15 antiretroviral-treated HIV-1-infected MSM with CD4 T cell reconstitution, and 12 age-matched HIV(-) MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at 4 timepoints over 24 weeks to measure DNA levels of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6), and HHV8...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723706/oral-shedding-of-herpesviruses-in-hiv-patients-with-varying-degrees-of-immune-status
#2
Dirk P Dittmer, Kristen Tamburro, Huichao Chen, Anthony Lee, Marcia K Sanders, Tischan A Wade, Sonia Napravnik, Jennifer Webster-Cyriaque, Mahmoud Ghannoum, Caroline H Shiboski, Judith A Aberg
OBJECTIVE: Herpesvirus shedding in the oral cavity was analyzed to determine if presence in the oral compartment correlates with systemic changes in HIV-associated immune deficiency as measured by CD4+ counts, plasma HIV viral load (VL) and presence of AIDS-defining events. DESIGN: A5254 is a multicenter, cross-sectional, single-visit study to evaluate oral complications of HIV/AIDS and determine the association between clinical appearance, herpesvirus shedding and immune status as ascertained by CD4 count and HIV viral load...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720115/expression-pattern-of-cd11c-on-lung-immune-cells-after-disseminated-murine-cytomegalovirus-infection
#3
Yi Liao, Xinglou Liu, Yuan Huang, Heyu Huang, Yuanyuan Lu, Yanan Zhang, Sainan Shu, Feng Fang
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurs frequently and is widespread globally. Numerous studies have shown that various types of immune cells play roles in mediating the response to CMV infection. CD11c, a commonly used dendritic cell (DC) marker, is expressed by other immune cells as well, such as T cells. This study analyzed the immune cells that express CD11c and monitored the expression level of their specific cell surface markers in the lung following a disseminated murine (M)CMV infection...
July 18, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719361/effectiveness-of-valganciclovir-900mg-versus-450mg-for-cytomegalovirus-prophylaxis-in-renal-transplantation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Wang Xin, Yang Hui, Zhang Xiaodong, Cui Xiangli, Wang Shihui, Liu Lihong
OBJECTIVES: Valganciclovir 900 mg/day is approved for cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis, but 450 mg/day is seems also effective. We systematically reviewed the efficacy and safety of low-dose versus high-dose valganciclovir prophylaxis in renal transplantation recipients. METHODS: An electronic search was conducted up to November 29, 2016. The primary outcomes were incidences of CMV, CMV disease, mortality and opportunistic infection. The second outcomes were acute rejection, allograft loss, adverse drug reaction (ADR)...
2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719295/regional-differences-in-the-prevalence-of-major-opportunistic-infections-among-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patients-in-japan-northern-thailand-northern-vietnam-and-the-philippines
#5
Louie Mar A Gangcuangco, Ikumi Sawada, Naho Tsuchiya, Cuong D Do, Thanh Thuy T Pham, Archawin Rojanawiwat, Marissa Alejandria, Katerina Leyritana, Yoshiyuki Yokomaku, Panita Pathipvanich, Koya Ariyoshi
To identify regional differences in the distribution of opportunistic infections (OIs) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Asia, the medical records of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients who attended the following tertiary hospitals from 2003 to 2011 were reviewed: Nagoya Medical Center (NMC, Nagoya, Japan), Lampang Hospital (LPH, Lampang, northern Thailand), Bach Mai Hospital (BMH, Hanoi, northern Vietnam), and Philippine General Hospital (PGH, Manila, Philippines). Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify associations between country of origin and risk of major OIs...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716805/sensing-of-viral-and-endogenous-rna-by-zbp1-dai-induces-necroptosis
#6
Jonathan Maelfait, Layal Liverpool, Anne Bridgeman, Katherine B Ragan, Jason W Upton, Jan Rehwinkel
Nucleic acids are potent triggers for innate immunity. Double-stranded DNA and RNA adopt different helical conformations, including the unusual Z-conformation. Z-DNA/RNA is recognised by Z-binding domains (ZBDs), which are present in proteins implicated in antiviral immunity. These include ZBP1 (also known as DAI or DLM-1), which induces necroptosis, an inflammatory form of cell death. Using reconstitution and knock-in models, we report that mutation of key amino acids involved in Z-DNA/RNA binding in ZBP1's ZBDs prevented necroptosis upon infection with mouse cytomegalovirus...
July 17, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716628/transduction-of-a-neospora-caninum-antigen-gene-into-mammalian-cells-using-a-modified-bombyx-mori-nucleopolyhedrovirus-for-antibody-production
#7
Tatsuya Kato, Kohei Itagaki, Mai Yoshimoto, Rikito Hiramatsu, Hamizah Suhaimi, Tetsuya Kohsaka, Enoch Y Park
Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) can easily enter and transduce foreign genes into mammalian cells, but these functions are difficult for Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). In this study, we investigated the induction of antibody production in mice immunized with an engineered BmNPV. The GP64 of BmNPV (BmGP64) was replaced with the GP64 of AcMNPV (AcGP64); this construct, designated BmNPVΔbgp/AcGP64, displays AcGP64 on the surface of BmNPV. The Neospora caninum antigen (NcSRS2) expression cassette, consisting of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter and NcSRS2 from N...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716027/cytomegalovirus-viraemia-and-mortality-in-renal-transplant-recipients-in-the-era-of-antiviral-prophylaxis-lessons-from-the-western-australian-experience
#8
Linda A Selvey, Wai H Lim, Peter Boan, Ramyasuda Swaminathan, Claudia Slimings, Amy E Harrison, Aron Chakera
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) establishes a lifelong infection that is efficiently controlled by the immune system; this infection can be reactivated in case of immunosuppression such as following solid organ transplantation. CMV viraemia has been associated with CMV disease, as well as increased mortality and allograft failure. Prophylactic antiviral medication is routinely given to renal transplant recipients, but reactivation during and following cessation of antiviral prophylaxis is known to occur...
July 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713922/selection-of-an-optimal-promoter-for-gene-transfer-in-normal-b-cells
#9
Magdalena Winiarska, Dominika Nowis, Malgorzata Firczuk, Agnieszka Zagozdzon, Magdalena Gabrysiak, Radoslaw Sadowski, Joanna Barankiewicz, Michal Dwojak, Jakub Golab
Gene transfer into normal quiescent human B cells is a challenging procedure. The present study aimed to investigate whether it is possible to increase the levels of transgene expression by using various types of promoters to drive the expression of selected genes‑of‑interest. To produce lentiviral particles, the present study used the 2nd generation psPAX2 packaging vector and the vesicular stomatitis virus ‑expressing envelope vector pMD2.G. Subsequently, lentiviral vectors were generated containing various promoters, including cytomegalovirus (CMV), elongation factor‑1 alpha (EF1α) and spleen focus‑forming virus (SFFV)...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710491/ageing-and-latent-cmv-infection-impact-on-maturation-differentiation-and-exhaustion-profiles-of-t-cell-receptor-gammadelta-t-cells
#10
Martine J Kallemeijn, Anne Mieke H Boots, Michèle Y van der Klift, Elisabeth Brouwer, Wayel H Abdulahad, Jan A N Verhaar, Jacques J M van Dongen, Anton W Langerak
Ageing is a broad cellular process, largely affecting the immune system, especially T-lymphocytes. Additionally to immunosenescence alone, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is thought to have major impacts on T-cell subset composition and exhaustion. These impacts have been studied extensively in TCRαβ+ T-cells, with reduction in naive, increase in effector (memory) subsets and shifts in CD4/CD8-ratios, in conjunction with morbidity and mortality in elderly. Effects of both ageing and CMV on the TCRγδ+ T-cell compartment remain largely elusive...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708863/negative-modulation-of-suppressive-hiv-specific-regulatory-t-cells-by-il-2-adjuvanted-therapeutic-vaccine
#11
Vedran Brezar, Lylia Hani, Mathieu Surenaud, Audrey Hubert, Christine Lacabaratz, Jean-Daniel Lelièvre, Yves Levy, Nabila Seddiki
The potential benefit in using IL-2 in immunotherapy for cancer and autoimmunity has been linked to the modulation of immune responses, which partly relies on a direct effect on Tregs populations. Here, we revisited the role of IL-2 in HIV infection and investigated whether its use as an adjuvant with therapeutic vaccination, impacts on HIV-specific responses. Antiretroviral therapy treated-patients were randomized to receive 4 boosts of vaccination (ALVACHIV/Lipo-6T, weeks 0/4/8/12) followed by 3 cycles of IL-2 (weeks 16/24/32) before treatment interruption (TI) at week40...
July 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708333/conversion-from-calcineurin-inhibitors-to-mtor-inhibitors-as-primary-immunosuppressive-drugs-in-pediatric-heart-transplantation
#12
Alfred Asante-Korang, Jennifer Carapellucci, Diane Krasnopero, Abigail Doyle, Brian Brown, Ernest Amankwah
There are only a few reports of successful use of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORI) as primary immunosuppression in pediatric heart transplantation. Compared to calcineurin inhibitors, mTORI have less side effects, especially nephrotoxicity, infections and malignancies. A retrospective study was conducted at our institution of all 170 heart transplants from 1995-2015. Nineteen patients were switched from tacrolimus(n=15) or cyclosporin(n=4) to everolimus(n=4) or sirolimus(n=15) due to nephrotoxicity(n=5), malignancy(n=8), EBV viremia/reactive plasmacytic changes(n=5) and immune hemolytic anemia(n=1)...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707002/epigenetic-regulation-of-cellular-and-cytomegalovirus-genes-during-myeloid-cell-development
#13
Xue-Feng Liu, Mary Hummel, Michael Abecassis
Myeloid cells are important cell types that carry human cytomegalovirus. Latent viral DNA is present in CD34+ progenitor cells and their derived monocytes. However, differentiation of latently infected monocytes to mature macrophages or dendritic cells causes reactivation of latent viruses. During hematopoietic development, pluripotent genes are repressed, and lineage specific genes are activated in a step-wise manner. This process is governed by cell-type specific chromatin states. Enhancers in the hematopoietic system are highly dynamic and established by pioneer (first tier) transcription factors (TFs), which set the stage for second and third tier TF binding...
March 2017: Internal Medicine Review (Washington, D.C.: Online)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705467/sarcoidosis-with-fever-and-a-splenic-infarct-due-to-cmv-or-lymphoma
#14
REVIEW
Burke A Cunha, Thulashie Sivarajah, Ismail Jimada
We present a case of an adult female with a past history of pulmonary sarcoidosis who presented with fever, night sweats, profound fatigue, and LUQ abdominal pain. Sarcoidosis is an afebrile disorder (excluding Lofgren's syndrome, Heerfordt's syndrome or neurosarcoidosis). Therefore, the presence of fever with sarcoidosis should suggest infection, usually viral, or lymphoma. Sarcoidosis-lymphoma syndrome describes the evolution of a lymphoma in long standing sarcoidosis. Fever aside, possible lymphoma is suggested by otherwise unexplained fever, pleural unilateral effusion, highly elevated ESR or ferritin levels...
July 10, 2017: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702856/dynamics-of-torque-teno-virus-viremia-could-predict-risk-of-complications-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#15
Ramona Gilles, Marco Herling, Udo Holtick, Eva Heger, Sabine Awerkiew, Irina Fish, Konstantin Höller, Saleta Sierra, Elena Knops, Rolf Kaiser, Christof Scheid, Veronica Di Cristanziano
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is an established treatment option for several hematological diseases. However, the first year post-transplantation is often complicated by infections and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Improvements in immunological monitoring could reduce such post-transplant complications. Torque Teno virus (TTV), a chronically persisting DNA virus, is reported to be a marker for immune function in immunocompromised patients. In the present study, the TTV kinetics were analyzed to investigate the potential role of TTV viremia as immune-competence read-out after allo-HSCT...
July 12, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701399/selective-expression-of-ccr10-and-cxcr3-by-circulating-human-hsv-specific-cd8-t-cells
#16
Michael T Hensel, Tao Peng, Anqi Cheng, Stephen C De Rosa, Anna Wald, Kerry J Laing, Lichen Jing, Lichun Dong, Amalia S Magaret, David M Koelle
Herpes simplex virus type (HSV) infection is restricted to epithelial cells and neurons and is controlled by CD8 T-cells. These cells both traffic to epithelial sites of recurrent lytic infection and to ganglia, and persist at the dermal-epidermal junction for up to 12 weeks after lesion resolution. We previously showed that cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA), a functional E-selectin ligand (ESL), is selectively expressed on circulating HSV-2-specific CD8 T-cells. CLA/ESL mediates adhesion of T-cells to inflamed vascular endothelium...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700913/impact-of-zygosity-on-bimodal-phenotype-distributions
#17
Thomas Holst-Hansen, Elena Abad, Aura Muntasell, Miguel López-Botet, Mogens H Jensen, Ala Trusina, Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo
Allele number, or zygosity, is a clear determinant of gene expression in diploid cells. However, the relationship between the number of copies of a gene and its expression can be hard to anticipate, especially when the gene in question is embedded in a regulatory circuit that contains feedback. Here, we study this question making use of the natural genetic variability of human populations, which allows us to compare the expression profiles of a receptor protein in natural killer cells among donors infected with human cytomegalovirus with one or two copies of the allele...
July 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700679/aged-associated-cytomegalovirus-and-epstein-barr-virus-reactivation-and-cytomegalovirus-relationship-with-the-frailty-syndrome-in-older-women
#18
Ronaldo Luis Thomasini, Daniele Sirineu Pereira, Fabiana Souza Máximo Pereira, Elvis Cueva Mateo, Thamires Nader Mota, Gabrielle Gontijo Guimarães, Leani Souza Máximo Pereira, Cristiano Xavier Lima, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira
Immunosenescence is an age-related reduction of immune system activity that can be associated with frailty. This study aimed to compare cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivations (based on viremias) between young and elderly women who had a chronic CMV and/or EBV infection (i.e., an IgG+ serostatus) without an acute infection (i.e., an IgM- serostatus), and among the elderly group categorized according to frailty status. DNA was extracted from plasma using standard protocols and serostatus was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700465/alemtuzumab-versus-antithymocyte-globulin-induction-therapies-in-kidney-transplantation-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#19
Jianming Zheng, Wenli Song
Alemtuzumab (ALEM) is widely used as an induction therapy for organ transplantation, and numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been published to evaluate its efficacy and safety in kidney transplantation as compared with antithymocyte globulin (ATG). The purpose of this study was to compare the benefits and safety of ALEM with those of ATG for induction therapy.A systematic literature search in three electronic databases, including PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Library, since inception through October 2016, was conducted to identify potential RCTs for inclusion...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699311/ganciclovir-resistant-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-abdominal-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
K E Rolling, M R Jorgenson, J L Fose, D A Mandelbrot, R R Redfield, J A Smith
Ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus (GR-CMV) is emerging as a significant infection in the abdominal transplant population. GR-CMV is difficult to manage, and treatment options are limited. We report a descriptive case series of 15 patients who had documented GR-CMV at our center and review the literature on treatment of GR-CMV. The first case in this series was detected in 2012; the majority of cases occurred after January 1, 2014, with approximately 50% occurring in 2015. UL97 and UL54 viral genome mutations were present in 100% and 40% of CMV-infected patients, respectively...
July 12, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
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