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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538165/the-complexity-in-herpesvirus-entry
#1
REVIEW
Karthik Sathiyamoorthy, Jia Chen, Richard Longnecker, Theodore S Jardetzky
Enveloped viruses have evolved diverse transmembrane proteins and protein complexes to enable host cell entry by regulating and activating membrane fusion in a target cell-specific manner. In general terms, the entry process requires a receptor binding step, an activation step and a membrane fusion step, which can be encoded within a single viral protein or distributed among multiple viral proteins. HIV and influenza virus, for example, encode all of these functions in a single trimeric glycoprotein, HIV env or influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA)...
May 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534856/manipulation-of-viral-micrornas-as-a-potential-antiviral-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-cytomegalovirus-infection
#2
Jiang Deng, Jun Xiao, Ping Ma, Bo Gao, Feng Gong, Liping Lv, Yanyu Zhang, Jinbo Xu
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection leads to notable morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed patients. Current antiviral drugs are effective but seriously limited in their long-term use due to their relatively high toxicity. In the present study, we characterized the expression of murine CMV microRNAs (MCMV miRNAs) both in vitro and in vivo. Although 29 miRNAs were detectable during in vitro infection, only 11 miRNAs (classified as Group 1) were detectable during in vivo infection, and as many as 18 viral miRNAs (classified as Group 2) were less detectable (<50% of animals) in both the liver and lungs...
May 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534034/clinical-and-mucosal-immune-correlates-of-hiv-1-semen-levels-in-antiretroviral-naive-men
#3
Brendan J W Osborne, Angie K Marsh, Sanja Huibner, Kamnoosh Shahabi, Cindy Liu, Tania Contente, Nico J D Nagelkerke, Colin Kovacs, Erika Benko, Lance Price, Kelly S MacDonald, Rupert Kaul
BACKGROUND: This study was done to characterize parameters associated with semen human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) viral load (VL) variability in HIV-infected, therapy-naive men. METHODS: Paired blood and semen samples were collected from 30 HIV-infected, therapy-naive men who have sex with men, and 13 participants were observed longitudinally for up to 1 year. Human immunodeficiency virus RNA, bacterial load by 16S RNA, herpesvirus (Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus [CMV]) shedding, and semen cytokines/chemokines were quantified, and semen T-cell subsets were assessed by multiparameter flow cytometry...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533779/cytomegalovirus-driven-adaptive-like-natural-killer-cell-expansions-are-unaffected-by-concurrent-chronic-hepatitis-virus-infections
#4
David F G Malone, Sebastian Lunemann, Julia Hengst, Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren, Michael P Manns, Johan K Sandberg, Markus Cornberg, Heiner Wedemeyer, Niklas K Björkström
Adaptive-like expansions of natural killer (NK) cell subsets are known to occur in response to human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. These expansions are typically made up of NKG2C(+) NK cells with particular killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) expression patterns. Such NK cell expansion patterns are also seen in patients with viral hepatitis infection. Yet, it is not known if the viral hepatitis infection promotes the appearance of such expansions or if effects are solely attributed to underlying CMV infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533400/the-pentameric-complex-drives-immunologically-covert-cell-cell-transmission-of-wild-type-human-cytomegalovirus
#5
Isa Murrell, Carmen Bedford, Kristin Ladell, Kelly L Miners, David A Price, Peter Tomasec, Gavin W G Wilkinson, Richard J Stanton
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strains that have been passaged in vitro rapidly acquire mutations that impact viral growth. These laboratory-adapted strains of HCMV generally exhibit restricted tropism, produce high levels of cell-free virus, and develop susceptibility to natural killer cells. To permit experimentation with a virus that retained a clinically relevant phenotype, we reconstructed a wild-type (WT) HCMV genome using bacterial artificial chromosome technology. Like clinical virus, this genome proved to be unstable in cell culture; however, propagation of intact virus was achieved by placing the RL13 and UL128 genes under conditional expression...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532528/hepatic-calcifications-in-fetal-population-studied-by-autopsies-in-bogota-colombia
#6
M Olaya-C, S Aldana-M, M Maya-G, F Gil
Fetal hepatic calcifications can be caused by infections, chromosomal disorders, thrombotic events, ischemic hepatic necrosis and subcapsular hematomas among others events. Its features and clinical significance are still not well known. We performed an observational study to describe fetal hepatic calcifications and its association with main clinical and histopathological findings from the fetal autopsy database, between 2007 and 2014. Raw odds ratio analysis was performed. We reviewed 591 fetal autopsies: 14 cases with hepatic calcifications, 102 fetuses with chromosomal disorders; 13 with diagnosis of TORSCH (toxoplasma, rubella, syphilis, cytomegalovirus, herpes virus 1 and 2, and others) and 207 with any abnormality in the umbilical cord (UC)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529540/the-potential-role-of-infectious-agents-and-pelvic-inflammatory-disease-in-ovarian-carcinogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Kasper Ingerslev, Estrid Hogdall, Tine Henrichsen Schnack, Wojciech Skovrider-Ruminski, Claus Hogdall, Jan Blaakaer
BACKGROUND: The etiological cause of ovarian cancer is poorly understood. It has been theorized that bacterial or viral infection as well as pelvic inflammatory disease could play a role in ovarian carcinogenesis. AIM: To review the literature on studies examining the association between ovarian cancer and bacterial or viral infection or pelvic inflammatory disease. METHODS: Database search through MEDLINE, applying the medical subject headings: "Ovarian neoplasms", AND "Chlamydia infections", "Neisseria gonorrhoeae", "Mycoplasma genitalium", "Papillomaviridae", or "pelvic inflammatory disease"...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527970/frequency-of-respiratory-viruses-among-patients-admitted-to-26-intensive-care-units-in-seven-consecutive-winter-spring-seasons-2009-2016-in-northern-italy
#8
Antonio Piralla, Bianca Mariani, Francesca Rovida, Fausto Baldanti
BACKGROUND: The role of respiratory viruses in the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still debated. The advent of molecular assays has improved the identification of viruses in patients with CAP and according to published studies, viruses account for 11-55% of adult CAP cases. OBJECTIVES AND STUDY DESIGN: In the present study, the frequency of respiratory viruses was evaluated in respiratory samples collected from 414 patients with CAP admitted to 26 ICUs in the Lombardy Region (10 million inhabitants) during seven winter-spring seasons (2009-2016)...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526937/molecular-confirmation-of-intraspecific-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-hybrids-and-their-evaluation-against-late-blight-and-cucumber-mosaic-virus
#9
Amjad Hameed, Muhammad Yussouf Saleem, Khalid Pervaiz Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib, Qumer Iqbal, Muhammad Asghar
Tomato is one of the most consumed vegetables in the world. Diseases are the number one concern in the development of high-yield and disease-resistant tomato hybrids which is the foremost priority of breeders. Present study was conducted (1) to develop DNA-based markers for genetic confirmation of tomato F1 hybrids, (2) to utilize sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker linked to the Ph-3 gene for Phytophthora infestans resistance in tomato and (3) to evaluate male and female parental genotypes and their F1 hybrids against late blight (LB) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524216/-update-on-congenital-and-neonatal-herpes-infections-infection-due-to-cytomegalovirus-and-herpes-simplex
#10
F Baquero-Artigao
Newborn infants are a population which is especially susceptible to viral infections that frequently affect the central nervous system. Herpes infections can be transmitted to the foetus and to the newborn infant, and give rise to severe clinical conditions with long-term sensory and cognitive deficits. Two thirds of newborn infants with encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus and half of the children with symptomatic congenital infection by cytomegalovirus develop sequelae, which results in high community health costs in the long term...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523518/decreased-human-leukocyte-antigen-a-02-01-frequency-is-associated-with-risk-of-glioma-and-existence-of-human-cytomegalovirus-a-case-control-study-in-northern-china
#11
Sheng Han, Jian Deng, Zixun Wang, Huan Liu, Wen Cheng, Anhua Wu
BACKGROUND: Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) play an important role in host defense against viral infection and tumorigenesis. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been linked to glioma development. This study investigated the relationship between HLA distribution, presence of HCMV, and glioma development in a Han Chinese population. METHODS: The study population included 150 glioma patients and 150 tumor-free brain injury control subjects (control-A) matched according to geography, ethnicity, age, and gender...
May 18, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523231/association-of-anti-gangliosides-antibodies-and-anti-cmv-antibodies-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#12
Lijuan Wang, Chunqing Shao, Chunjiao Yang, Xixiong Kang, Guojun Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Numerous types of infection were closely related to GBS, mainly including Campylobacter jejuni, Cytomegalovirus, which may lead to the production of anti-gangliosides antibodies (AGA). Currently, although there are increased studies on the AGA and a few studies of anti-CMV antibodies in GBS, the association between them remains poorly documented. Therefore, our research aims to analyze the correlation of anti-CMV antibodies and AGA in GBS. METHODS: A total of 29 patients with GBS were enrolled in this study...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522662/apparent-diffusion-coefficient-value-changes-and-clinical-correlation-in-90-cases-of-cytomegalovirus-infected-fetuses-with-unremarkable-fetal-mri-results
#13
D Kotovich, J S B Guedalia, C Hoffmann, G Sze, A Eisenkraft, G Yaniv
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cytomegalovirus is the leading intrauterine infection. Fetal MR imaging is an accepted tool for fetal brain evaluation, yet it still lacks the ability to accurately predict the extent of the neurodevelopmental impairment, especially in fetal MR imaging scans with unremarkable findings. Our hypothesis was that intrauterine cytomegalovirus infection causes diffusional changes in fetal brains and that those changes may correlate with the severity of neurodevelopmental deficiencies...
May 18, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515602/respiratory-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-an-important-diagnostic-tool-in-immunocompromised-patients
#14
Amarjeet Kaur, Navin Kumar, Sharmila Sengupta, Yatin Mehta
BACKGROUND: Viruses and atypical pathogens can cause significant respiratory illness in immunocompromised patients. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) has improved the diagnostic yield of pathogens, and it is easier to identify the co-infections also. The present study was done to evaluate the performance of MPCR on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples in immunocompromised patients. METHODS: Atotal of 177 BAL specimens collected over a 19 months period from immunocompromised patients with respiratory illness were analyzed with the MPCR and aerobic culture...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515356/licensing-delineates-helper-and-effector-nk-cell-subsets-during-viral-infection
#15
Anthony E Zamora, Ethan G Aguilar, Can M Sungur, Lam T Khuat, Cordelia Dunai, G Raymond Lochhead, Juan Du, Claire Pomeroy, Bruce R Blazar, Dan L Longo, Jeffrey M Venstrom, Nicole Baumgarth, William J Murphy
Natural killer (NK) cells can be divided into phenotypic subsets based on expression of receptors that bind self-MHC-I molecules, a concept termed licensing or education. Here we show NK cell subsets with different migratory, effector, and immunoregulatory functions in dendritic cell and antigen (ag)-specific CD8+ T cell responses during influenza and murine cytomegalovirus infections. Shortly after infection, unlicensed NK cells localized in draining lymph nodes and produced GM-CSF, which correlated with the expansion and activation of dendritic cells, and resulted in greater and sustained ag-specific T cell responses...
May 18, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514919/periconceptional-cmv-infection-prevention-in-portugal-population-subgroup-study-in-a-tertiary-perinatal-care-center
#16
Patrícia Sousa, Gabriel Madureira, Marina Moucho, Ana Lídia Sampaio-Dias, Nuno Montenegro
Currently in Portugal, universal screening of pregnant women for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is not performed. However, it is recommended to screen all women attending preconception care. We aimed to assess women's attendance to preconception care and if their serologic status regarding CMV was known and/or investigated in that consultation. In this cross-sectional study, we interviewed 240 women admitted to the obstetrical ward of a hospital in the Metropolitan Area of Porto (Portugal) about their adherence to preconception care and collected data regarding their CMV serologic status and its investigation...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514666/a-temporal-proteomic-map-of-epstein-barr-virus-lytic-replication-in-b-cells
#17
Ina Ersing, Luis Nobre, Liang Wei Wang, Lior Soday, Yijie Ma, Joao A Paulo, Yohei Narita, Camille W Ashbaugh, Chang Jiang, Nicholas E Grayson, Elliott Kieff, Steven P Gygi, Michael P Weekes, Benjamin E Gewurz
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication contributes to multiple human diseases, including infectious mononucleosis, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, B cell lymphomas, and oral hairy leukoplakia. We performed systematic quantitative analyses of temporal changes in host and EBV proteins during lytic replication to gain insights into virus-host interactions, using conditional Burkitt lymphoma models of type I and II EBV infection. We quantified profiles of >8,000 cellular and 69 EBV proteins, including >500 plasma membrane proteins, providing temporal views of the lytic B cell proteome and EBV virome...
May 16, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513970/cytomegalovirus-infection-and-atherosclerosis-risk-a-meta-analysis
#18
Yang-Jie Jia, Jun Liu, Fei-Fei Han, Zi-Rui Wan, Li-Li Gong, He Liu, Wen Zhang, Thomas Wardell, Ya-Li Lv, Li-Hong Liu
BACKGROUND: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis (AS). Numerous studies have been conducted to analyze the association between HCMV infection and risk of AS, but no clear consensus has been reached. So the objective of this paper was aimed to demonstrate the relationship between HCMV and AS by doing a meta-analysis. METHODS: Relative literature was searched through the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, and CNKI...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512755/evaluation-of-safety-of-concomitant-splenectomy-in-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#19
Amr Badawy, Yuhei Hamaguchi, Satoru Seo, Tochimi Kaido, Hideaki Okajima, Shinji Uemoto
In Asian countries, concomitant splenectomy in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is indicated to modulate the portal vein pressure in the small sized graft to protect against small for size syndrome. While concomitant splenectomy in deceased donor liver transplantation is almost contraindicated based on western reports of increased mortality and morbidity rate due to septic complications, there are few studies about that in LDLT. So, we retrospectively investigated the clinical outcome of adult LDLT at Kyoto University Hospital from July 2010 to July 2016...
May 17, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511386/assessment-of-disease-severity-and-role-of-cytomegalo-virus-infection-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis
#20
Nobin Babu Kalappurayil, Jino Thomas, Baburajan Mankuni, Varghese Thomas
INTRODUCTION: Course of Ulcerative Colitis is characterized by intermittent flares interposed between variable periods of remission. Identification of exacerbating factors and appropriate assessment of disease activity are crucial in deciding the choice of treatment. AIM: To evaluate various clinical, endoscopic and histological parameters in assessing disease activity and to find out various risk factors involved in the exacerbation of ulcerative colitis especially the role of Cytomegalo Virus (CMV) infection...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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