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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081026/the-effect-of-nebulized-glycopyrrolate-on-posterior-drooling-in-patients-with-brain-injury-two-cases-of-different-brain-lesions
#1
Zee-Ihn Lee, Kwang Jae Yu, Dae Hee Lee, Seong Kyung Hong, Seung Beom Woo, Jong Min Kim, Donghwi Park
Posterior drooling, which can lead to substantial respiratory morbidity, including unexplained lung diseases and recurrent pneumonia, is an important issue in the rehabilitation unit. There are various treatment options for posterior drooling, including pharmacologic therapy, oral motor or behavioral therapy, biofeedback, local glandular injection of botulinum toxin, irradiation, and surgery. Among them, nebulized glycopyrrolate has the following advantages: It is noninvasive and is relatively free of central adverse effects because it does not cross the blood-brain barrier unlike other anticholinergics...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081025/transdermal-scopolamine-withdrawal-syndrome-case-report-in-the-pediatric-cerebral-palsy-population
#2
Nasim A Chowdhury, Mary Laura Sewatsky, Heakyung Kim
Sialorrhea in children with cerebral palsy (CP) results in aspiration, decreased social integration, and poor quality of life. Management options include transdermal anticholinergics such as the scopolamine patch. A controlled clinical trial has proven botulinum toxin (BTX) injections into the salivary glands are an effective alternative to transdermal anticholinergics with a safer side effect profile. Multiple studies of the injections in diverse populations demonstrate reduction in saliva production with improvement in quality of life and decrease in hospitalization-associated costs...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079266/risk-of-mortality-in-elderly-nursing-home-patients-with-depression-using-paroxetine
#3
Vishal Bali, Satabdi Chatterjee, Michael L Johnson, Hua Chen, Ryan M Carnahan, Rajender R Aparasu
OBJECTIVE: Among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), paroxetine is strongly anticholinergic and might lead to higher risk of adverse outcomes such as mortality. This study examined the risk of mortality in depressed elderly nursing home patients using paroxetine and other SSRIs. METHODS: This study used 2007-2010 Minimum Data Set - linked Medicare data and propensity score-matched retrospective cohort study design to achieve the study objective. New users of paroxetine and other SSRIs were followed until they reached the end of the follow-up period (one year), switched to a different antidepressant class, used psychotherapy, or had a gap of more than 15 days in the use of index antidepressant class, whichever occurred earlier...
January 12, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076656/combined-inhaled-beta-agonist-and-anticholinergic-agents-for-emergency-management-in-adults-with-asthma
#4
REVIEW
Scott W Kirkland, Christine Vandenberghe, Britt Voaklander, Taylor Nikel, Sandra Campbell, Brian H Rowe
BACKGROUND: Inhaled short-acting anticholinergics (SAAC) and short-acting beta₂-agonists (SABA) are effective therapies for adult patients with acute asthma who present to the emergency department (ED). It is unclear, however, whether the combination of SAAC and SABA treatment is more effective in reducing hospitalisations compared to treatment with SABA alone. OBJECTIVES: To conduct an up-to-date systematic search and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of combined inhaled therapy (SAAC + SABA agents) vs...
January 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073038/persistence-in-the-treatment-of-overactive-bladder-syndrome-oab-with-mirabegron-in-a-multicenter-clinical-study
#5
Alois Martan, Jaromir Masata, Jan Krhut, Roman Zachoval, Tomas Hanus, Kamil Svabik
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this project was to evaluate treatment persistence in patients being treated for overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) with mirabegron, employing clinical follow-up in a prospective, multicenter study. STUDY DESIGN: This is an analysis of patients who started treatment with mirabegron between May and September 2014 and were evaluated 1year after treatment commenced. During this evaluation we determined how many patients stopped treatment and established their reasons for discontinuation...
December 23, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072862/efficacy-and-safety-of-initial-combination-treatment-of-an-alpha-blocker-with-an-anticholinergic-medication-in-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-patients-with-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-updated-meta-analysis
#6
Hyun Jung Kim, Hwa Yeon Sun, Hoon Choi, Jae Young Park, Jae Hyun Bae, Seung Whan Doo, Won Jae Yang, Yun Seob Song, Young Myoung Ko, Jae Heon Kim
BACKGROUND: There is still controversy as to whether initial combination treatment is superior to serial addition of anticholinergics after maintenance or induction of alpha blockers in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)/lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the benefits and safety of initial combination treatment of an alpha blocker with anticholinergic medication in BPH/LUTS through a systematic review and meta-analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064049/anti-diarrhoeal-therapeutic-potential-and-safety-assessment-of-sulphated-polysaccharide-fraction-from-gracilaria-intermedia-seaweed-in-mice
#7
Ana Carolina M Leódido, Luis E C Costa, Thiago S L Araújo, Douglas S Costa, Nayara A Sousa, Luan K M Souza, Francisca B M Sousa, Manoel D S Filho, Daniel F P Vasconcelos, Felipe R P Silva, Kerolayne M Nogueira, Alyne R Araújo, Francisco Clark N Barros, Ana Lúcia P Freitas, Jand Venes R Medeiros
Sulphated polysaccharides extracted from algae have been extensively studied for their diverse biological activities. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, the anti-diarrhoeal effect and acute toxicity of a sulphated polysaccharide fraction obtained from Gracilaria intermedia (SP-Gi). Initially, the FT-IR of SP-Gi revealed to be an agaran with sulphation at C-6 of the l-galactosyl residues. The anti-diarrhoeal activity of SP-Gi was evaluated in a castor oil-induced diarrhoea model...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062949/can-cyclic-nucleotide-phosphodiesterase-inhibitors-be-drugs-for-parkinson-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Dominic Ngima Nthenge-Ngumbau, Kochupurackal P Mohanakumar
Parkinson's disease (PD) has no known cure; available therapies are only capable of offering temporary, symptomatic relief to the patients. Varied therapeutic strategies that are clinically used for PD are pharmacological therapies including dopamine replacement therapies (with or without adjuvant), postsynaptic dopamine receptor stimulation, dopamine catabolism inhibitors and also anticholinergics. Surgical therapies like deep brain stimulation and ablative surgical techniques are also employed. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes that degrade the phosphodiester bond in the second messenger molecules, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)...
January 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057843/diphenhydramine-for-acute-extrapyramidal-symptoms-after-propofol-administration
#9
James Sherer, Tomas Salazar, Kevin B Schesing, Shannon McPartland, Jeffrey Kornitzer
Extrapyramidal symptoms are an uncommon but well-recognized side effect after the administration of general anesthesia in patients without a significant neurologic history. Several case reports implicate propofol as the likely causative agent producing these symptoms, which include ballismus, dystonia, choreoathetosis, and opisthotonus. Currently, there is no clear consensus on first-line treatment of these symptoms. In each of the published cases, anticholinergic medications and benzodiazepines were central to initial management, although the speed and extent of symptom resolution were variable...
January 5, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056068/the-association-between-polypharmacy-and-dementia-a-nested-case-control-study-based-on-a-12-year-longitudinal-cohort-database-in-south-korea
#10
Hae-Young Park, Ji-Won Park, Hong Ji Song, Hyun Soon Sohn, Jin-Won Kwon
Dementia is a major concern among growing chronic diseases in the aging society and its association with polypharmacy has not been adequately assessed. The objective of this study was to determine the association between polypharmacy and dementia through multiple statistical approaches. We conducted a nested case-control study for newly diagnosed dementia cases using the South Korean National Health Insurance Service sample cohort database (2002-2013, n = 1,025,340). Interactions between polypharmacy (an average use of ≥5 prescription drugs daily) and comorbidities or potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) were tested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040533/tacrine-in-vivo-veritas
#11
Bevyn Jarrott
Tacrine was initially synthesised in 1945 as part of a project seeking antibacterial drugs to treat infected wounds in soldiers. However, it was inactive in vitro against common strains of bacteria. Serendipitously, it was injected in vivo into dogs anaesthetised with chloroform and morphine and noted to immediately counter the respiratory rate depression caused by morphine but not block analgesia. Subsequent studies showed that tacrine was an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. When combined with morphine in ampoules it was possible to inject larger doses of morphine without causing respiratory depression and it was marketed for 10 years in Australia...
December 28, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035933/frontal-lobe-function-correlates-with%C3%A2-one-year-incidence-of-urinary-incontinence-in-elderly-with-alzheimer-disease
#12
Taiki Sugimoto, Masaki Yoshida, Rei Ono, Shunsuke Murata, Naoki Saji, Shumpei Niida, Kenji Toba, Takashi Sakurai
BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) is frequently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although previous works highlight the association between frontal lobe-related function and UI, causal relationship is unclear. OBJECTS: To clarify the longitudinal association between frontal lobe function and the incidence of UI at 1 year in patients with AD. METHODS: The subjects were 215 continent AD patients who attended the Memory Clinic of the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology of Japan during the period from March 2011 to December 2014...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033505/transgenerational-transmission-of-an-anticholinergic-endophenotype-with-memory-dysfunction
#13
Wolfram Doehner, Lieselotte Praße, James Wolpers, Martina K Brückner, Uwe Ueberham, Thomas Arendt
Impaired cholinergic neurotransmission associated with cognitive dysfunction occurs in various mental disorders of different etiologies including Alzheimer's disease and postalcoholic dementia and others. To address the question whether there exists a common endophenotype with a defined genetic and/or epigenetic signature causing mental dysfunction in these disorders, we investigated 2 generations of offspring born to alcohol-treated mothers. Here, we show that memory impairment and reduced synthesis of acetylcholine occurs in both F1 (exposed to ethanol in utero) and F2 generation (never been exposed to ethanol)...
December 5, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026898/factors-associated-with-changes-in-exposure-to-anticholinergic-and-sedative-medications-in-elderly-hospitalized-patients-multicentre-longitudinal-study
#14
V Dauphinot, R Faure, L Bourguignon, S Goutelle, P Krolak-Salmon, C Mouchoux
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Elderly patients exposed to drugs with anticholinergic or sedative properties may have an increased risk of adverse events. This study aimed to assess the relationship between patient characteristics and changes of exposure to anticholinergic and sedative medications during their hospital stay. METHODS: A multicentre longitudinal study was set up on hospitalized patients (aged ≥65 years) using at least one drug at admission. The primary outcome was change of exposure to anticholinergic and sedative drugs between admission and discharge...
December 27, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025939/serotonin-selective-reuptake-inhibitors-ssris-and-female-sexual-dysfunction-fsd-hypothesis-on-its-association-and-options-of-treatment
#15
Nurul Azmi Mahamad Rappek, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Sazlina Kamarazaman, Srijit Das, Ruziana Masiran, Najwa Baharudin, Muhammad Hatta
Sexual dysfunctions are commonly seen in women on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The complexities of female sexual functioning are reflected through modulation of inter-playing factors like the neuropsychophysiological factors, inter-personal and relationship issue, psychiatric co-morbidities and physical disorder. The incidence of SSRIs-induced FSD is difficult to estimate because of the potentially confounding effects of SSRIs, presence of polypharmacy, marital effect, socio-cultural factors and due to the design and assessment problems in majority of the studies...
December 27, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012773/onabotulinumtoxina-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-overactive-bladder-and-urinary-incontinence-results-of-a-phase-3-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#16
Victor W Nitti, Roger Dmochowski, Sender Herschorn, Peter Sand, Catherine Thompson, Christopher Nardo, Xiaohong Yan, Cornelia Haag-Molkenteller
PURPOSE: Overactive bladder affects 12% to 17% of the general population and almost a third experience urinary incontinence, which may severely impact health related quality of life. Oral anticholinergics are the mainstay of pharmacological treatment but they are limited by inadequate efficacy or side effects, leading to a high discontinuation rate. We report the results of the first large (557 patients), phase 3, placebo controlled trial of onabotulinumtoxinA in patients with overactive bladder and urinary incontinence inadequately managed with anticholinergics...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009752/exposure-to-anticholinergic-and-sedative-drugs-risk-of-falls-and-mortality-an-elderly-inpatient-multicenter-cohort-erratum
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009338/atrial-arrhythmia-after-newborn-eye-exam-to-caffeine-or-not-to-caffeine
#18
A Ahmad, T Mondal, B Klein
Mydriatic drops are routinely administered to premature neonates to screen for retinopathy of prematurity. Adverse anticholinergic side effects, particularly convulsions and tachycardia have been reported in the pediatric age group following instillation of mydriatics for diagnostic fundus examination [1, 2]. Caffeine is frequently used for apnea of prematurity. In the neonatal intensive care unit, the combined use of caffeine and mydriatic drops is a common practice. Here we report two cases of atrial arrhythmias after neonatal eye exam that improved with conservative management...
2016: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008590/the-effectiveness-of-anticholinergic-therapy-for-overactive-bladders-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Andrea Moura Rodrigues Maciel da Fonseca, Mariana Furtado Meinberg, Marilene Vale de Castro Monteiro, Matheus Roque, Jorge Milhen Haddad, Rodrigo Aquino Castro
The overactive bladder (OAB) has a significant negative impact on the quality of life of patients. Antimuscarinics have become the pharmacological treatment of choice for this condition. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the evidence from randomized clinical trials about the outcomes of the antimuscarinic drugs available in Brazil on OABs. We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from the inception of these databases through to September 2015...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005831/bronchoscopy-safety-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-lung-disease
#20
Christina R Bellinger, Irtaza Khan, Arjun B Chatterjee, Edward F Haponik
BACKGROUND: Flexible bronchoscopy is a safe and minimally invasive diagnostic tool used by pulmonologists, but few studies have prospectively compared outcomes in patients with objectively defined obstructive lung disease to those without obstruction. METHODS: We determined whether complications in patients undergoing moderate sedation bronchoscopy differ in those without obstruction compared with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We prospectively followed all patients undergoing moderate sedation bronchoscopy in an inpatient or outpatient setting...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
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