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Game changers

John W M Bastiaansen, Henk Bovenhuis, Martien A M Groenen, Hendrik-Jan Megens, Han A Mulder
BACKGROUND: Genome editing technologies provide new tools for genetic improvement and have the potential to become the next game changer in animal and plant breeding. The aim of this study was to investigate how genome editing in combination with genomic selection can accelerate the introduction of a monogenic trait in a livestock population as compared to genomic selection alone. METHODS: A breeding population was simulated under genomic selection for a polygenic trait...
April 16, 2018: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Sriparna Basu, Manish Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
Marco Lupidi, Alessio Cerquaglia, Jay Chhablani, Tito Fiore, Sumit Randhir Singh, Felice Cardillo Piccolino, Roberta Corbucci, Florence Coscas, Gabriel Coscas, Carlo Cagini
Optical coherence tomography angiography is one of the biggest advances in ophthalmic imaging. It enables a depth-resolved assessment of the retinal and choroidal blood flow, far exceeding the levels of detail commonly obtained with dye angiographies. One of the first applications of optical coherence tomography angiography was in detecting the presence of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration and establishing its position in relation to the retinal pigmented epithelium and Bruch's membrane, and thereby classifying the CNV as type 1, type 2, type 3, or mixed lesions...
April 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Faezeh Behzadi, Sheyda Darouie, Seyed Mehdi Alavi, Parvin Shariati, Gurvinder Singh, Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Ayyoob Arpanaei
Antimicrobial agents, such as nisin are used extensively in the food industry. Here, we investigated various approaches to load nisin onto mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs, 92 ± 10 nm in diameter), so as to enhance its stability and sustained release. Nisin was either physically adsorbed or covalently attached to the variously functionalized MSNs, with high loading capacities (>600 mg nisin g-1 nanoparticles). Antibacterial activities of the nisin-loaded MSNs were evaluated by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration of nisin against Staphylococcus aureus...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
David A Rochefort
Often described in such terms as a "revolution" and a "game-changer" for the behavioral health sector in the United States, the Affordable Care Act has helped to enhance coverage for mental health and substance use disorders while encouraging service system innovations at the organizational level. However, tens of millions of Americans still lack health insurance, insurance companies are resisting the implementation of parity coverage rules, and inequalities in the financing and organization of care continue to worsen in key respects...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
Jennifer Ronholm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Asaf Ta-Shma, Simon Edvardson, Orly Elpeleg, Polina Stepensky
Thirteen years after the completion of the human genome project, the determination of the genomic sequence of the coding parts of the DNA (the exones, hence the exome), has turned into a primary diagnostic tool in daily use in clinical practice. The Department of Genetics at Hadassah was the first in Israel to introduce exome analysis as a robust diagnostic tool into the pediatric departments. Till now 2600 exomes were analyzed at Hadassah, 850 of them in 2016 alone. Exome analysis is cheap and fast, enabling precise and non-invasive diagnosis for a vast array of genetic disorders and congenital malformations...
March 2018: Harefuah
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2018: British Dental Journal
Federica Scaletti, Joseph Hardie, Yi-Wei Lee, David C Luther, Moumita Ray, Vincent M Rotello
The delivery of proteins into cells is a potential game changer for a wide array of therapeutic purposes, including cancer therapy, immunomodulation and treatment of inherited diseases. In this review, we present recently developed nanoassemblies for protein delivery that utilize strategies that range from direct assembly, encapsulation and composite formation. We will discuss factors that affect the efficacy of nanoassemblies for delivery from the perspective of both nanoparticles and proteins. Challenges in the field, particularly achieving effective cytosolar protein delivery through endosomal escape or evasion are discussed...
March 14, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Marielle Walraven, Boris Hinz
Organ fibrosis is characterized by the accumulation of disorganized and stiff extracellular matrix (ECM) and represents the final stage of several life-threatening diseases. The progressive replacement of normal tissue by fibrotic ECM impedes organ functionality to the point of failure. Fibrosis affects millions of people worldwide with no effective cure for various reasons: (a) Due to the lack of clinical biomarkers and non-invasive detection methods fibrosis is often diagnosed too late, when organs are already destroyed beyond repair...
February 27, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Jacob Shapira, Yaniv Keren, Nadav Rinott, Yaron Berkovich
We are now standing four decades after the 'running revolution' which occurred during the 70's of the previous century. Despite the developments that have occurred in medicine and the large budgets invested in the development of the sport's equipment, the runner's morbidity has not changed. In this article, we would like to review the changes in running that occurred throughout the years, as well as the common risk factors for running injuries. Furthermore, we would like to examine the scientific point of view regarding running shoes and running technique as risk factors for running injuries...
February 2018: Harefuah
Thanthima Suwanthawornkul, Naiyana Praditsitthikorn, Wantanee Kulpeng, Manuel Alexander Haasis, Anna Melissa Guerrero, Yot Teerawattananon
Background: Many economic evaluations ignore economies of scale in their cost estimation, which means that cost parameters are assumed to have a linear relationship with the level of production. Economies of scale is the situation when the average total cost of producing a product decreases with increasing volume caused by reducing the variable costs due to more efficient operation. This study investigates the significance of applying the economies of scale concept: the saving in costs gained by an increased level of production in economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Victoria Ponce Hardy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Kandarp Priyakant Parikh, Ravi Jineshkumar Jain, Aditya Parikh Kandarp
Introduction: Success of any modality for stone disease needs to be evaluated in terms of Stone Free Rates (SFR), auxiliary procedures needed; complications and follow up. SFR in RIRS is subject to parameters like stone burden, location, number, hardness, composition; calyceal and ureter anatomy; use of ureteric access sheath (UAS); surgeon experience etc. Methods: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of RIRS for managing upper tract stones...
January 2018: Urology Annals
David Tuller
Initially billed as a game changer, Truvada has faced multiple obstacles to widespread adoption.
February 2018: Health Affairs
Hiroshi Doi, Naohito Beppu, Kazuhiro Kitajima, Kozo Kuribayashi
Surgical resection is the standard therapy for solitary primary or metastatic liver tumors. However, liver tumors are often unresectable at diagnosis and hepatectomy is invasive. Local therapies, such as radiofrequency ablation, are used instead, which can be challenging. Recent advances in modern radiotherapy, including stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), have increased the use of radiotherapy as a curative modality. SBRT delivers ablative high doses of irradiation in small volumes. SBRT for liver tumors provided local control with potential survival benefits in patients with inoperable status...
February 2018: Anticancer Research
Matilde Inglese, Lazar Fleysher, Niels Oesingmann, Maria Petracca
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is of paramount importance for the early diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and MRI findings are part of the MS diagnostic criteria. There is a growing interest in the use of ultra-high-field strength -7 Tesla- (7T) MRI to investigate, in vivo, the pathological substrate of the disease. Areas covered: An overview of 7T MRI applications in MS focusing on increased sensitivity for lesion detection, specificity of the central vein sign and better understanding of MS pathophysiology and discuss the implications for disease diagnosis, monitoring and treatment planning...
January 25, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Tony R Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2018: Nature
Angela U Pathmanathan, Nicholas J van As, Linda G W Kerkmeijer, John Christodouleas, Colleen A F Lawton, Danny Vesprini, Uulke A van der Heide, Steven J Frank, Simeon Nill, Uwe Oelfke, Marcel van Herk, X Allen Li, Kathryn Mittauer, Mark Ritter, Ananya Choudhury, Alison C Tree
Radiation therapy to the prostate involves increasingly sophisticated delivery techniques and changing fractionation schedules. With a low estimated α/β ratio, a larger dose per fraction would be beneficial, with moderate fractionation schedules rapidly becoming a standard of care. The integration of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner and linear accelerator allows for accurate soft tissue tracking with the capacity to replan for the anatomy of the day. Extreme hypofractionation schedules become a possibility using the potentially automated steps of autosegmentation, MRI-only workflow, and real-time adaptive planning...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Daniel Markl, Alexa Strobel, Rüdiger Schlossnikl, Johan Bøtker, Prince Bawuah, Cathy Ridgway, Jukka Rantanen, Thomas Rades, Patrick Gane, Kai-Erik Peiponen, J Axel Zeitler
Traditionally, the development of a new solid dosage form is formulation-driven and less focus is put on the design of a specific microstructure for the drug delivery system. However, the compaction process particularly impacts the microstructure, or more precisely, the pore architecture in a pharmaceutical tablet. Besides the formulation, the pore structure is a major contributor to the overall performance of oral solid dosage forms as it directly affects the liquid uptake rate, which is the very first step of the dissolution process...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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