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Game changers

E Latif, M Nair
The unregulated market for e-cigarettes continues to grow, with debates on their efficacy and impact on global public health. E-cigarettes, or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDs), are marketed as a 'safe' alternative to tobacco products and a tool for 'harm reduction'. Some public health experts are calling it a 'game changer' and favour the 'harm reduction' strategy, while others dispute this claim. In our opinion, the debate needs to be broadened to encompass other related concerns and effects on non-users and affected stakeholders...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Sandra Demaria, C Norman Coleman, Silvia C Formenti
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are effective in cancer treatment. A pre-existing immune response demonstrated by significant pretreatment tumor lymphocytic infiltration is a pre-requisite for response. Within such infiltrated tumors, referred as "hot", immune checkpoint inhibitors rescue anti-tumor T cells activity. In contrast, "cold" tumors lack lymphocytic infiltration and are refractory to immunotherapy. Preclinical data show that radiotherapy sensitizes refractory tumors to immune checkpoint inhibitors by recruiting anti-tumor T cells...
June 2016: Trends in Cancer
Iryna Zablotska, Andrew E Grulich, Nittaya Phanuphak, Tarandeep Anand, Surang Janyam, Midnight Poonkasetwattana, Rachel Baggaley, Frits van Griensven, Ying-Ru Lo
INTRODUCTION: HIV epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region are concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and other key populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention intervention and could be a potential game changer in the region. We discuss the progress towards PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region, including opportunities and barriers. DISCUSSION: Awareness about PrEP in the Asia-Pacific is still low and so are its levels of use...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Till Bärnighausen, David E Bloom, Salal Humair
Shortages of human resources for treating HIV/AIDS (HRHA) are a fundamental barrier to reaching universal antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage in developing countries. Previous studies suggest that recruiting HRHA to attain universal ART coverage poses an insurmountable challenge as ART significantly increases survival among HIV-infected individuals. While new evidence about ART's prevention benefits suggests fewer infections may mitigate the challenge, new policies such as treatment-as-prevention (TasP) will exacerbate it...
2016: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Ulster Medical Journal
Mohamed Abu-Farha, Ashraf Al Madhoun, Jehad Abubaker
Diabetes is a global health problem that is caused by impaired insulin production from pancreatic β-cells. Efforts to regenerate β-cells have been advancing rapidly in the past two decades with progress made towards identifying new agents that induce β-cells regeneration. ANGPTL8, also named betatrophin, has been recently identified as a hormone capable of inducing β-cells proliferation and increasing β-cells mass in rodents. Its discovery has been cherished as a breakthrough and a game changer in the field of β-cells regeneration...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
A M Mohamed Thoufic Ali, S Vino
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory, multi-systemic autoimmune disease unremitted by genetic and environmental factors. The factors are crucial but inadequate in the development of disease; however, these factors can be representative of potential therapeutic targets and response to clinical therapy. Insights into the contribution of genetic risk factors are currently in progress with studies querying the genetic variation, their role in gene expression of coding and non-coding genes and other mechanisms of disease...
November 2016: Rheumatology International
Jonathan Berman, Tanya Radhakrishna
The neglected tropical disease priority review voucher (PRV) program ("tropical disease voucher," "voucher") is a U.S. government program intended to enlarge the number of products approved for tropical diseases in the United States. Ridley and others noted that "Infectious and parasitic diseases create enormous health burdens, but because most of the people suffering from these diseases are poor, little is invested in developing treatments." In 2006, these academicians proposed, and in 2007, the U.S. Congress enacted a new section 524 to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U...
August 29, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Melvin L K Chua, Anthony T C Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: Lancet
Ouzi Nissim, Roberto Spiegelmann
The article by Dr. Cohen-Inbar published in this issue of Harefuah is a timely review that brings to the general medical community the recent important developments in the field of radiosurgery--the evolution of multi-session radiosurgery [or "FSR", standing for Fractionated Stereotactic Radiation]. Radiosurgery and FSR continue to have a tremendous impact on modern neurosurgery. Sharing sub-millimetric accuracy in radiation delivery made possible by real-time-imaging positioning, frameless single and multisession radiosurgery have become two faces of a therapeutic technique with wide application in the field of intracranial pathology...
May 2016: Harefuah
S S C Rao
Faecal incontinence (FI) is common and its pathophysiology and treatments continue to evolve. However, a standard measure(s) for assessing its clinical outcome has been elusive. Consequently, over 100 measures and scoring systems, each with intrinsic biases have been reported. These include adequate relief or global satisfaction, ≥50% reduction in episodes or days without FI, quality of life (QOL), FI severity scales and composite indices. Earlier scales relied on the frequency and type of solid, liquid or flatus incontinence and effects on life style whereas newer scales have incorporated urgency, use of pads, antidiarrhoeals and amount of leakage, using prospective daily stool diaries or retrospective weekly or single point assessments...
August 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Lukas Weiss, Florian Huemer, Brigitte Mlineritsch, Richard Greil
Increased numbers of tumour infiltrating T‑cells have long been associated with a better prognosis in ovarian cancer, which has led to the general assumption of a relevant impact of T‑cellular anti-tumour immunity in this disease. As a consequence of this knowledge, a multitude of immunologic therapies has emerged over the past years. Although some reports could evidence a successful induction of anti-tumour T‑cells, in general, these attempts did not translate into clinically significant activity...
2016: Memo
Shabari Sarang, Chandra Viswanathan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder resulting out of T cell mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells may help to regenerate beta cells and/or prevent further destruction of remnant, unaffected beta cells in diabetes. We have assessed the ability of umbilical cord derived MSCs (UCMSCs) to differentiate into functional islet cells in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have isolated UCMSCs and allowed sequential exposure of various inducing agents and growth factors...
May 30, 2016: International Journal of Stem Cells
Igor Kissin
The annual number of US deaths from prescription-opioid overdose quadrupled between 1999 and 2010 and in 2010 alone reached 16,651. Deaths from opioid overdose have now surpassed the historic death toll from another drug-related epidemic - anesthesia mortality. In 1954, Beecher and Todd published reliable data on anesthesia-related mortality in the US, estimating the annual number of deaths to be nearly 5,000. Presently anesthesia/anesthetics are reported as the underlying cause in approximately 34 deaths in the US annually...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
W A Leber
The introduction of fractional flow reserve computed tomography (FFR-CT) that is performed from static coronary CT angiography datasets may open new horizons in the diagnostic management of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. FFR-CT has a high sensitivity and moderate specificity in identifying ischemia in intermediate coronary stenoses. It has been demonstrated that this technology has the potential to significantly reduce the number of invasive coronary angiograms and the rate of normal coronary angiograms that are not followed by an intervention...
August 2016: Herz
Hamid Reza Mirzaei, Hamed Mirzaei, Sang Yun Lee, Jamshid Hadjati, Brian G Till
Excitement is growing for therapies that harness the power of patients' immune systems to combat their diseases. One approach to immunotherapy involves engineering patients' own T cells to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to treat advanced cancers, particularly those refractory to conventional therapeutic agents. Although these engineered immune cells have made remarkable strides in the treatment of patients with certain hematologic malignancies, success with solid tumors has been limited, probably due to immunosuppressive mechanisms in the tumor niche...
October 1, 2016: Cancer Letters
Majed Chergui
The past 3-5 years have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of time-resolved X-ray spectroscopic studies, mainly driven by novel technical and methodological developments. The latter include (i) the high repetition rate optical pump/X-ray probe studies, which have greatly boosted the signal-to-noise ratio for picosecond (ps) X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies, while enabling ps X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) at synchrotrons; (ii) the X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are a game changer and have allowed the first femtosecond (fs) XES and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering experiments to be carried out; (iii) XFELs are also opening the road to the development of non-linear X-ray methods...
May 2016: Structural Dynamics (Melville, N.Y.)
L A Berchtold, M Prause, J Størling, T Mandrup-Poulsen
The discovery 30 years ago that inflammatory cytokines cause a concentration, activity, and time-dependent bimodal response in pancreatic β-cell function and viability has been a game-changer in the fields of research directed at understanding inflammatory regulation of β-cell function and survival and the causes of β-cell failure and destruction in diabetes. Having until then been confined to the use of pathophysiologically irrelevant β-cell toxic chemicals as a model of β-cell death, researchers could now mimic endocrine and paracrine effects of the cytokine response in vitro by titrating concentrations in the low to the high picomolar-femtomolar range and vary exposure time for up to 14-16h to reproduce the acute regulatory effects of systemic inflammation on β-cell secretory responses, with a shift to inhibition at high picomolar concentrations or more than 16h of exposure to illustrate adverse effects of local, chronic islet inflammation...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Fredy Altpeter, Nathan M Springer, Laura E Bartley, Ann E Blechl, Thomas P Brutnell, Vitaly Citovsky, Liza J Conrad, Stanton B Gelvin, David P Jackson, Albert P Kausch, Peggy G Lemaux, June I Medford, Martha L Orozco-Cárdenas, David M Tricoli, Joyce Van Eck, Daniel F Voytas, Virginia Walbot, Kan Wang, Zhanyuan J Zhang, C Neal Stewart
Plant transformation has enabled fundamental insights into plant biology and revolutionized commercial agriculture. Unfortunately, for most crops, transformation and regeneration remain arduous even after more than 30 years of technological advances. Genome editing provides novel opportunities to enhance crop productivity but relies on genetic transformation and plant regeneration, which are bottlenecks in the process. Here, we review the state of plant transformation and point to innovations needed to enable genome editing in crops...
July 2016: Plant Cell
Sabriya Rice
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2016: Modern Healthcare
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