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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751237/current-anti-diabetic-agents-and-their-molecular-targets-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Nagaraju Kerru, Ashona Singh-Pillay, Paul Awolade, Parvesh Singh
Diabetes mellitus is a medical condition characterized by the body's loss of control over blood sugar. The frequency of diagnosed cases and consequential increases in medical costs makes it a rapidly growing chronic disease that threatens human health worldwide. In addition, its unnerving statistical projections are perilous to both the economy of the nation and man's life expectancy. Type-I and type-II diabetes are the two clinical forms of diabetes mellitus. Type-II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is illustrated by the abnormality of glucose homeostasis in the body, resulting in hyperglycemia...
May 3, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737015/therapeutic-agents-targeting-cardiometabolic-risk-for-preventing-and-treating-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-diseases
#2
Benoit J Arsenault, Nicolas Perrot, Rishi Puri
Targeting atherogenic lipoprotein levels with statins remains the current cornerstone of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) management. In patients at high ACVD risk who cannot achieve the desired low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol target, the addition of compounds such as ezetimibe and proprotein subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9) inhibitors incrementally lowers cardiovascular risk. New glucose-lowering drugs such as glucacon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) agonists and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors were also shown to improve cardiometabolic risk factors and provide cardiovascular benefits in patients with type 2 diabetes...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696037/pharmacological-treatment-in-diabetes-mellitus-type-1-insulin-and-what-else
#3
REVIEW
Ewa Otto-Buczkowska, Natalia Jainta
The basis of treatment in autoimmune diabetes is insulin therapy; however, many clinical cases have proven that this method does not solve all problems. Trials of causal treatment including blocking the autoimmune processes and insulin-producing cells transplants were carried out. Those methods require more research to be concerned as efficient and safe ways of treatment in type 1 diabetes. The use of non-insulin adjunct treatment is a new trend. It has been successfully used in laboratories as well as clinical trials...
January 2018: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667921/glycemic-control-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-across-stages-of-renal-impairment-information-for-primary-care-providers
#4
Lili Tong, Sharon Adler
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a frequent complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and elevates individuals' risk for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in T2DM. Achieving and maintaining tight glycemic control is key to preventing development or progression of CKD; however, improving glycemic control may be limited by effects of renal impairment on the efficacy and safety of T2DM treatments, necessitating dosing adjustments and careful evaluation of contraindications...
April 18, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651202/a-narrative-review-of-potential-future-antidiabetic-drugs-should-we-expect-more
#5
REVIEW
Gaurav Chikara, Pramod Kumar Sharma, Pradeep Dwivedi, Jaykaran Charan, Sneha Ambwani, Surjit Singh
Prevalence of diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, is growing worldwide. The majority of the cases belong to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Globally, India ranks second in terms of diabetes prevalence among adults. Currently available classes of therapeutic agents are used alone or in combinations but seldom achieve treatment targets. Diverse pathophysiology and the need of therapeutic agents with more favourable pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamics profile make newer drug discoveries in the field of T2DM essential...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623594/combination-treatment-of-sglt2-inhibitors-and-glp-1-receptor-agonists-symbiotic-effects-on-metabolism-and-cardiorenal-risk
#6
REVIEW
Edison Goncalves, David S H Bell
INTRODUCTION: When treating type 2 diabetes, drugs that cause hypoglycemia and weight gain should, if possible, be avoided. In addition, due to the increased incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease, cardiac events and heart failure, as well as the accelerated renal decompensation that may occur with type 2 diabetes, hypoglycemic agents that have the potential to lower cardiac and renal risk should be utilized as early as possible in the course of the disease. METHODS: This is a literature review of the efficacy of combined treatment with a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonist and a sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor in lowering glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, cardiac risk, cardiac events and renal decompensation...
April 5, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579035/diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease-from-new-mechanisms-to-new-therapies
#7
Grzegorz Gajos
Diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, which are the leading cause of mortality among diabetic patients. Although hyperglycemia is a major determinant of macrovascular and microvascular complications in diabetes, hypoglycemia and glycemic variability have also a strong influence on the cardiovascular system. This overview presents the current state of knowledge on the impact of type 2 diabetes on the cardiovascular system and new therapeutic strategies that have been recently developed to correct gluco-metabolic disturbances in patients with high cardiovascular risk, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors...
March 29, 2018: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547706/clinical-implications-of-current-cardiovascular-outcome-trials-with-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibitors
#8
REVIEW
Soo Lim, Robert H Eckel, Kwang Kon Koh
The final goal in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is reduction in cardiovascular (CV) complications and total mortality. Various factors including hyperglycemia contribute to these complications and mortality directly and indirectly. In recent years, large-scale CV outcome trials with new antidiabetic medications, such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) receptor agonists, and sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, have been completed...
May 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547044/hba1c-control-and-cost-effectiveness-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-initiated-on-canagliflozin-or-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-in-a-real-world-setting
#9
Carol H Wysham, Dominic Pilon, Mike Ingham, Marie-Hélène Lafeuille, Bruno Emond, Rhiannon Kamstra, Michael Pfeifer, Patrick Lefebvre
OBJECTIVE: To compare glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) control and medication costs between patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with canagliflozin 300 mg (CANA) or a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) in a real-world setting. METHODS: Adults with T2DM newly initiated on CANA or a GLP-1 RA (index date) were identified from IQVIA™ Real-World Data Electronic Medical Records U.S. database (March 29, 2012-April 30, 2016). Inverse probability of treatment weighting accounted for differences in baseline characteristics...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525327/obesity-related-heart-failure-with-a-preserved-ejection-fraction-the-mechanistic-rationale-for-combining-inhibitors-of-aldosterone-neprilysin-and-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2
#10
REVIEW
Milton Packer, Dalane W Kitzman
Obesity-related heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is an important phenotype prevalent in the community, especially in people with metabolic disorders (e.g., dyslipidemia, diabetes). These individuals exhibit a marked expansion of plasma volume, but ventricular distensibility is limited, most likely as a result of cardiac microvascular rarefaction acting in concert with myocardial and pericardial fibrosis. Consequently, the increase in plasma volume causes a disproportionate increase in cardiac filling pressures, leading to heart failure, even though systolic ejection is not impaired...
March 7, 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520964/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-heart-failure-a-position-statement-from-the-heart-failure-association-of-the-european-society-of-cardiology
#11
REVIEW
Petar M Seferović, Mark C Petrie, Gerasimos S Filippatos, Stefan D Anker, Giuseppe Rosano, Johann Bauersachs, Walter J Paulus, Michel Komajda, Francesco Cosentino, Rudolf A de Boer, Dimitrios Farmakis, Wolfram Doehner, Ekaterini Lambrinou, Yuri Lopatin, Massimo F Piepoli, Michael J Theodorakis, Henrik Wiggers, John Lekakis, Alexandre Mebazaa, Mamas A Mamas, Carsten Tschöpe, Arno W Hoes, Jelena P Seferović, Jennifer Logue, Theresa McDonagh, Jillian P Riley, Ivan Milinković, Marija Polovina, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Mitja Lainscak, Aldo P Maggioni, Frank Ruschitzka, John J V McMurray
The coexistence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and heart failure (HF), either with reduced (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), is frequent (30-40% of patients) and associated with a higher risk of HF hospitalization, all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. The most important causes of HF in T2DM are coronary artery disease, arterial hypertension and a direct detrimental effect of T2DM on the myocardium. T2DM is often unrecognized in HF patients, and vice versa, which emphasizes the importance of an active search for both disorders in the clinical practice...
May 2018: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518749/sglt2-inhibition-reduces-atherosclerosis-by-enhancing-lipoprotein-clearance-in-ldlr-type-1-diabetic-mice
#12
Annas Al-Sharea, Andrew J Murphy, L A Huggins, Y Hu, Ira J Goldberg, Prabhakara R Nagareddy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Leukocytosis, particularly monocytosis, has been shown to promote atherosclerosis in both diabetic and non-diabetic mouse models. We previously showed that hyperglycemia independently promotes monocytosis and impairs the resolution of atherosclerosis. Since patients with chronic diabetes often develop dyslipidemia and also have increased risk for atherosclerosis, we sought to examine how controlling blood glucose affects atherosclerosis development in the presence of severe hyperlipidemia...
April 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483060/dulaglutide-as-add-on-therapy-to-sglt2-inhibitors-in-patients-with-inadequately-controlled-type-2-diabetes-award-10-a-24-week-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
Bernhard Ludvik, Juan P Frías, Francisco J Tinahones, Julio Wainstein, Honghua Jiang, Kenneth E Robertson, Luis-Emilio García-Pérez, D Bradley Woodward, Zvonko Milicevic
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve glycaemic control and reduce bodyweight in patients with type 2 diabetes through different mechanisms. We assessed the safety and efficacy of the addition of the once-weekly GLP-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide to the ongoing treatment regimen in patients whose diabetes is inadequately controlled with SGLT2 inhibitors, with or without metformin. METHODS: AWARD-10 was a phase 3b, double-blind, parallel-arm, placebo-controlled, 24-week study done at 40 clinical sites in Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Israel, Mexico, Spain, and the USA...
May 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483059/sglt2-inhibitors-and-glp-1-receptor-agonists-a-sound-combination
#14
Christophe De Block
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473709/efficacy-and-safety-of-canagliflozin-as-add-on-therapy-to-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-52-week-open-label-phase-iv-study
#15
Shin-Ichi Harashima, Nobuya Inagaki, Kazuoki Kondo, Nobuko Maruyama, Makiko Otsuka, Yutaka Kawaguchi, Yumi Watanabe
Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are antihyperglycaemic agents with weight-lowering effects. The efficacy and safety of the SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin as add-on therapy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and inadequate glycaemic control with a GLP-1RA (≥12 weeks) were evaluated in this phase IV study. Patients received canagliflozin 100 mg once daily for 52 weeks. Efficacy endpoints included change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and HDL cholesterol from baseline to week 52...
February 23, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461566/nya-glukoss%C3%A3-nkande-l%C3%A3-kemedel-%C3%A3-r-kardiovaskul%C3%A3-rt-s%C3%A3-kra-enstaka-diabetesl%C3%A3-kemedel-har-%C3%A3-ven-visats-skydda-mot-kardiovaskul%C3%A3-ra-och-renala-komplikationer
#16
Eva Toft, Mikael Rydén
Do novel therapies in type 2 diabetes have protective effects on cardiovascular and renal complications? A number of new antidiabetic drug classes have been introduced on the market in the last decade. Regulatory authorities have required that their safety in type 2 diabetes populations with high cardiovascular risk must be assessed. Consequently, a large number of outcome studies have been initiated, several of which have been published in recent years. Overall, this has so far shown that long-acting insulin analogues, DPP4-inhibitors, GLP1-receptor agonists and SGLT2-inhibitors are safe...
February 20, 2018: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403151/new-insights-into-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-pediatric-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#17
Tatsuhiko Urakami
The principal treatment for children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes is dietary and exercise management. However, the blood glucose levels of some patients receiving this treatment fail to improve; thus, pharmacological treatment is eventually required. The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in pediatric patients appears to be similar to that in adults; thus, the range of antidiabetic drugs used in adults is likely to be effective in pediatric patients as well. However, in the majority of countries, including Japan, only metformin, glimepiride, and insulin have been approved for use in pediatric patients...
2018: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402981/clinical-features-and-therapeutic-perspectives-on-hypertension-in-diabetics
#18
REVIEW
Shigehiro Katayama, Masako Hatano, Masashi Issiki
Over 50% of patients with diabetes mellitus, either type 1 or 2, ultimately develop hypertension as a complication. In diabetics, this further increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by 2- to 3-fold and accelerates the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Arteriosclerosis, a clinical feature of hypertension in diabetics, develops and advances from a young age. Therefore, in providing treatment, it is necessary to evaluate the degree of arteriosclerosis. Diabetic patients are encouraged to strictly control their blood glucose levels...
April 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402900/canagliflozin-an-sglt2-inhibitor-attenuates-the-development-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-a-mouse-model-of-human-nash
#19
Kumiko Shiba, Kyoichiro Tsuchiya, Chikara Komiya, Yasutaka Miyachi, Kentaro Mori, Noriko Shimazu, Shinobu Yamaguchi, Naomi Ogasawara, Makoto Katoh, Michiko Itoh, Takayoshi Suganami, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, an antidiabetic drug, promotes urinary excretion of glucose by blocking its reabsorption in the renal proximal tubules. It is unclear whether SGLT2 inhibition could attenuate nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and NASH-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. We examined the preventive effects of an SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin (CANA) in Western diet (WD)-fed melanocortin 4 receptor-deficient (MC4R-KO) mice, a mouse model of human NASH. An eight-week CANA treatment attenuated hepatic steatosis in WD-fed MC4R-KO mice, with increased epididymal fat mass without inflammatory changes...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388411/-sglt2-inhibitor-or-glp-1-receptor-agonist-in-a-patient-with-type-2-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease
#20
A J Scheen, N Paquot
Two classes of antidiabetic agents have shown a cardiovascular and renal protection in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, and liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, were granted a reduction of major cardiovascular events and mortality after the positive results of EMPA-REG OUTCOME and LEADER outcome trials, respectively. Protection mechanisms most probably differ between the two pharmacological classes and are perhaps complementary...
January 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
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