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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338019/ghrelin-facilitates-glut2-sglt1-and-sglt2-mediated-intestinal-glucose-transport-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#1
Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Naresh Ramesh, María Jesús Delgado, Ana Isabel Valenciano, Suraj Unniappan
Glucose homeostasis is an important biological process that involves a variety of regulatory mechanisms. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, modulates intestinal glucose transport in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Three intestinal glucose transporters, the facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and the sodium/glucose co-transporters 1 (SGLT1) and 2 (SGLT2), were studied. Immunostaining of intestinal sections found colocalization of ghrelin and GLUT2 and SGLT2 in mucosal cells...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276972/pharmacotherapy-of-treatment-resistant-type-2-diabetes
#2
André J Scheen
Despite type 2 diabetes (T2D) management offers a variety of pharmacological interventions targeting different defects, numerous patients remain with persistent hyperglycaemia responsible for severe complications. Unlike resistant hypertension, treatment resistant T2D is not a classical concept although it is a rather common observation in clinical practice. Areas covered: This article proposes a definition for 'treatment resistant diabetes', analyses the causes of poor glucose control despite standard therapy, briefly considers the alternative approaches to glucose-lowering pharmacotherapy and finally describes how to overcome poor glycaemic control, using innovative oral or injectable combination therapies...
March 1, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251513/intensifying-treatment-beyond-monotherapy-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-where-do-newer-therapies-fit
#3
REVIEW
Alexander Kuhn, Jean Park, Adline Ghazi, Vanita R Aroda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Guidelines for a standard second diabetes medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have yet to be established. The rapid increase in the number of newer therapies available makes the choice more difficult. Thus, we reviewed clinical trial evidence evaluating newer therapies available for treatment intensification beyond monotherapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Head-to-head studies comparing newer therapies versus traditional (i.e., sulfonylurea) approaches consistently find lower incidence of hypoglycemia and weight gain with newer therapies...
March 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151518/-type-2-diabetes-treatment-and-cardiovascular-risk-what-can-we-learn-from-trials
#4
Agostino Consoli, Fabrizio Febo
Diabetes treatment should include drugs with absolutely no adverse effects toward cardiovascular risk. Indeed, it would be advisable to use drugs with intrinsic protective effect against the risk of cardiovascular events. Intervention trials aiming at demonstrating a protective cardiovascular effect of very tight glucose control have produced controversial results. It is commonly perceived, however, that early intervention with safe treatment strategies is likely to be beneficial. In regard to safety, in the attempt to firmly establish cardiovascular safety of new drugs for diabetes, Government Authorities have mandated that cardiovascular safety trials need to be performed for all new drugs registered for diabetes treatment...
December 2016: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151517/-effects-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-the-cardiovascular-system
#5
Teresa Vanessa Fiorentino, Giorgio Sesti
The results of the cardiovascular outcome trials comparing the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide to placebo have been recently published. Interestingly, empagliflozin and liraglutide treatments significantly reduce cardiovascular events in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying the observed cardioprotective effects of empagliflozin and liraglutide are speculative and future studies are needed to better understand these results. However, since reduction in the primary outcome was evident 3 months after starting empagliflozin and 24 months after starting liraglutide, it is tempting to hypothesize that the cardiovascular benefits observed in diabetic patients treated with empagliflozin are due to its hemodynamic effects and to metabolic substrate shift induced by the mild and persistent hyperketonemia, while the positive effects of liraglutide treatment may be attributable to biologic changes of atherosclerotic lesions...
December 2016: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092375/postprandial-macrophage-derived-il-1%C3%AE-stimulates-insulin-and-both-synergistically-promote-glucose-disposal-and-inflammation
#6
Erez Dror, Elise Dalmas, Daniel T Meier, Stephan Wueest, Julien Thévenet, Constanze Thienel, Katharina Timper, Thierry M Nordmann, Shuyang Traub, Friederike Schulze, Flurin Item, David Vallois, Francois Pattou, Julie Kerr-Conte, Vanessa Lavallard, Thierry Berney, Bernard Thorens, Daniel Konrad, Marianne Böni-Schnetzler, Marc Y Donath
The deleterious effect of chronic activation of the IL-1β system on type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases is well documented. However, a possible physiological role for IL-1β in glucose metabolism has remained unexplored. Here we found that feeding induced a physiological increase in the number of peritoneal macrophages that secreted IL-1β, in a glucose-dependent manner. Subsequently, IL-1β contributed to the postprandial stimulation of insulin secretion. Accordingly, lack of endogenous IL-1β signaling in mice during refeeding and obesity diminished the concentration of insulin in plasma...
March 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019064/novel-antidiabetic-medications-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
REVIEW
Yoshio Sumida, Yuya Seko, Masashi Yoneda
Liver-related diseases are the leading causes of death in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Japan. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is closely associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is the most prevalent chronic liver disease worldwide. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of NAFLD, can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic failure. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis can be called "diabetic hepatopathy". There are no established pharmacotherapies for NAFLD/NASH patients with T2DM...
December 26, 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867961/cardio-renal-protection-with-empagliflozin
#8
Richard J MacIsaac, George Jerums, Elif I Ekinci
Cardiovascular (CV) and kidney disease are common and significant complications in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). CV disease is the leading cause of death, morbidly and hospitalisations for people with T2DM. Furthermore, diabetic kidney disease is a major risk factor for CV disease and is the main reason why patients need renal replacement therapy. In this perspective, we highlight the results of the recent landmark EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial which has shown that empagliflozin, a member of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor class of glucose lowering medications, reduces death from CV causes, hospitalisation for heart failure and progression to end stage kidney disease in patients with T2DM and established CV disease...
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858115/-the-new-esc-guidelines-for-acute-and-chronic-heart-failure-2016
#9
C U Oeing, C Tschöpe, B Pieske
The new guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure (HF) were presented in May 2016 during the congress of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) in Florence. An important amendment affects the classification of HF which now differentiates between HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and left ventricular EF (LVEF) > 50%, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, LVEF < 40%) and the new entity HF with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF, LVEF 40-49%)...
December 2016: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802313/effect-of-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitor-dapagliflozin-on-renal-renin-angiotensin-system-in-an-animal-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#10
Seok Joon Shin, Sungjin Chung, Soo Jung Kim, Eun-Mi Lee, Young-Hye Yoo, Ji-Won Kim, Yu-Bae Ahn, Eun-Sook Kim, Sung-Dae Moon, Myung-Jun Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko
BACKGROUND: Renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation is one of the important pathogenic mechanisms in the development of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, dapagliflozin, on renal RAS in an animal model with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Dapagliflozin (1.0 mg/kg, OL-DA) or voglibose (0.6 mg/kg, OL-VO, diabetic control) (n = 10 each) was administered to Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats for 12 weeks...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754289/br-08-1-high-sodium-intake-reduction-in-diabetes-with-hypertension
#11
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709509/effects-of-incretin-based-therapies-and-sglt2-inhibitors-on-skeletal-health
#12
REVIEW
Andrea Egger, Marius E Kraenzlin, Christian Meier
Anti-diabetic drugs are widely used and are essential for adequate glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recently, marketed anti-diabetic drugs include incretin-based therapies (GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors) and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. In contrast to well-known detrimental effects of thiazolidinediones on bone metabolism and fracture risk, clinical data on the safety of incretin-based therapies is limited. Based on meta-analyses of trials investigating the glycemic-lowering effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP4 inhibitors, it seems that incretin-based therapies are not associated with an increase in fracture risk...
December 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701934/impact-of-empa-reg-outcome-%C3%A2-on-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-review-for-primary-care-physicians
#13
REVIEW
Soe Naing, Anupama Poliyedath, Stutee Khandelwal, Teresa Sigala
Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Most published trials of glucose-lowering agents have shown no significant CV benefit or increased risk of death or heart failure, with the exception of metformin. Three novel classes of glucose-lowering agents, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of T2DM in the United States and have also been available in other parts of the world in the past decade...
November 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651332/glp-1-receptor-agonists-and-sglt2-inhibitors-a-couple-at-last
#14
Michael A Nauck, Juris J Meier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651331/exenatide-once-weekly-plus-dapagliflozin-once-daily-versus-exenatide-or-dapagliflozin-alone-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-inadequately-controlled-with-metformin-monotherapy-duration-8-a-28-week-multicentre-double-blind-phase-3-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Juan P Frías, Cristian Guja, Elise Hardy, Azazuddin Ahmed, Fang Dong, Peter Öhman, Serge A Jabbour
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce glycaemia and weight, and improve cardiovascular risk factors via different mechanisms. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of co-initiation of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide and the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin with exenatide or dapagliflozin alone in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by metformin. METHODS: DURATION-8 was a 28 week, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, active-controlled phase 3 trial done at 109 sites in six countries...
December 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643287/br-08-1-high-sodium-intake-reduction-in-diabetes-with-hypertension
#16
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568470/mechanisms-of-improved-glucose-handling-after-metabolic-surgery-the-big-6
#17
REVIEW
Rebecca L Paszkiewicz, Richard N Bergman
For some time, it has been clear that elevated glucose is detrimental to the organism. A plethora of medicines have been introduced to reduce the fasting and postprandial glucose levels (including insulin, glucagon-like peptide receptor 1 [GLP-1] agonists, and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 [SGLT2] inhibitors, among others). Although these medications are useful to reduce tissue exposure to glucose, no single compound and no combination have been able to totally normalize the blood sugar. Thus, it was astonishing when it was reported that surgery of the gastrointestinal tract could not only reduce obesity but also normalize the blood sugar...
July 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538677/abcc8-related-maturity-onset-diabetes-of-the-young-mody12-clinical-features-and-treatment-perspective
#18
Alla K Ovsyannikova, Oksana D Rymar, Elena V Shakhtshneider, Vadim V Klimontov, Elena A Koroleva, Natalya E Myakina, Mikhail I Voevoda
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a heterogeneous group of diseases associated with gene mutations leading to dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells. Thirteen identified MODY variants differ from each other by the clinical course and treatment requirement. Currently, MODY subtypes 1-5 are best-studied, descriptions of the other forms are sporadic. This article reports a MODY12 clinical case, caused by a mutation in the gene of the ATP-binding cassette transporter sub-family C member 8 (ABCC8), encoding sulfonylurea receptor 1...
September 2016: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514514/continued-efforts-to-translate-diabetes-cardiovascular-outcome-trials-into-clinical-practice
#19
REVIEW
Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini, Giorgio Sesti, Enzo Bonora, Stefano Del Prato
Diabetic patients suffer from a high rate of cardiovascular events and such risk increases with HbA1c. However, lowering HbA1c does not appear to yield the same benefit on macrovascular endpoints, as observed for microvascular endpoints. As the number of glucose-lowering medications increases, clinicians have to consider several open questions in the management of type 2 diabetes, one of which is the cardiovascular risk profile of each regimen. Recent placebo-controlled cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) have responded to some of these questions, but careful interpretation is needed...
August 11, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440828/positioning-sglt2-inhibitors-incretin-based-therapies-in-the-treatment-algorithm
#20
REVIEW
John P H Wilding, Surya Panicker Rajeev, Ralph A DeFronzo
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are the most recent addition to the therapeutic options available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and became available after the introduction of incretin-based therapies, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs). These agents have potential advantages with regard to their weight loss-promoting effect, low risk of hypoglycemia, reduction in blood pressure, and reduction in cardiovascular events in high-risk patients (with empagliflozin)...
August 2016: Diabetes Care
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