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Ana L Sosa, Laura C Rosso, Fabricio A Salusso, Miriam G Etcheverry, María A Passone
The plant-parasitic nematode Nacobbus aberrans is an endoparasite causing severe losses to a wide range of crops from North to South America. The use of native antagonistic fungi may be considered as a possible biological control alternative to reduce the damages caused by this species. Antagonistic effects of 66 potential nematophagous fungi against eggs (J1) and second-stage juveniles (J2) of N. aberrans, were evaluated in vitro on water agar. DGC test showed significant differences (p < 0.0001) in the efficacy of some fungal isolates tested, with parasitism levels for J1 and J2 of 0-95 and 1-78%, respectively...
April 17, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Ramesh K Singh, N Rai, Amareesh K Singh, Prashant Kumar, T Chaubey, B Singh, Satya N Singh
Genetic diversity during prebreeding or postbreeding programme, is the key pillar to characterize the valuable traits and gene of interest. Whereas, superior or inferior heterotic performance of F1 depend on the diverse nature of their pedigree. Therefore, the aim of this study was to see the diversity between the interspecific crosses and effect of heterosis, and inheritance for the morphological traits and ToLCV resistance. All the 24 F1 interspecific crosses were classified into four clusters on the basis of morphological traitsas well as simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers...
March 2018: Journal of Genetics
Adrian H Nicholas, Peter A Follett
The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest of fresh horticultural produce and as such is considered a biosecurity risk in many countries from which it is absent. Information is needed on the radiation tolerance of important surface pests of quarantine importance such as F. occidentalis so that phytosanitary irradiation treatments for exported fresh commodities can be lowered to below the 400 Gy generic treatment currently approved for most insects in the United States and Australia...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Samuel K Muchemi, Claus P W Zebitz, Christian Borgemeister, Komivi S Akutse, Caroline N Foba, Sunday Ekesi, Komi K M Fiaboe
Liriomyza spp., leafminer flies (Mik; Diptera: Agromyzidae), are economically important quarantine pests that puncture and mine leaves and fruits of various horticultural crops worldwide, affecting yield and trade. Halticoptera arduine (Walker; Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a key parasitoid from the pests' areas of origin in South America, was introduced as a potential alternative management strategy. Prior to H. arduine release, its potential interactions with the dominant local ectoparasitoid, Diglyphus isaea (Walker; Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), were assessed...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Paolo Ascenzi, Loris Leboffe, Daniele Toti, Fabio Polticelli, Viviana Trezza
Fipronil is a broad-spectrum pesticide widely used in agriculture, horticulture, and forestry. Because fipronil can cause a variety of toxic effects in animals and humans, its use is authorized as a pesticide in veterinary medicinal products for pets, but not for the treatment of livestock animals whose products are intended for consumption. Recently, however, the presence of fipronil residues has been detected in the eggs and meat of layer hens from farms located in different European countries. Given the relevance of fipronil toxicity for human health, it is important to gain information concerning its fate in the human body, including its binding mode to human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in plasma...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
Xin Cui, Yong-Xin Wang, Zhi-Wei Liu, Wen-Li Wang, Hui Li, Jing Zhuang
The tea plant is an important commercial horticulture crop cultivated worldwide. Yield and quality of this plant are influenced by abiotic stress. The bHLH family transcription factors play a pivotal role in the growth and development, including abiotic stress response, of plants. A growing number of bHLH proteins have been functionally characterized in plants. However, few studies have focused on the bHLH proteins in tea plants. In this study, 120 CsbHLH TFs were identified from tea plants using computational prediction method...
April 12, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Josefine Nymark Hegelund, Chang Liang, Uffe Bjerre Lauridsen, Oliver Kemp, Henrik Lütken, Renate Müller
Brassica napus (oilseed rape) is a major oil crop worldwide. Due to the short domestication period of oilseed rape the genetic variability is limited compared to other crops. Transfer of rol and aux genes from Agrobacterium rhizogenes is used in horticulture to increase genetic variability. In the current study, we explore transformation by A. rhizogenes as a biotechnological approach in breeding for more branched and shorter oilseed rape. In the 2nd generation of transformed oilseed rape, branch numbers increased significantly by 49% from 7...
June 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Nathan C Medd, Simon Fellous, Fergal M Waldron, Anne Xuéreb, Madoka Nakai, Jerry V Cross, Darren J Obbard
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is one of the most damaging and costly pests to invade temperate horticultural regions in recent history. Conventional control of this pest is challenging, and an environmentally benign microbial biopesticide is highly desirable. A thorough exploration of the pathogens infecting this pest is not only the first step on the road to the development of an effective biopesticide, but also provides a valuable comparative dataset for the study of viruses in the model family Drosophilidae ...
January 2018: Virus Evolution
Rahat Sharif, Muhammad Mujtaba, Mati Ur Rahman, Abdullah Shalmani, Husain Ahmad, Toheed Anwar, Deng Tianchan, Xiping Wang
Chitosan is a naturally occurring compound and is commercially produced from seafood shells. It has been utilized in the induction of the defense system in both pre and post-harvest fruits and vegetables against fungi, bacteria, viruses, and other abiotic stresses. In addition to that, chitosan effectively improves the physiological properties of plants and also enhances the shelf life of post-harvest produces. Moreover, chitosan treatment regulates several genes in plants, particularly the activation of plant defense signaling pathways...
April 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Florence McLean, Duncan Berger, Dominik R Laetsch, Hillel T Schwartz, Mark Blaxter
Background: Genome assembly and annotation remains an exacting task. As the tools available for these tasks improve, it is useful to return to data produced with earlier instances to assess their credibility and correctness. The entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora is widely used to control insect pests in horticulture. The genome sequence for this species was reported to encode an unusually high proportion of unique proteins and a paucity of secreted proteins compared to other related nematodes...
April 2, 2018: GigaScience
Piotr Salachna, Monika Grzeszczuk, Edward Meller, Marcin Soból
Biopolymers have become increasingly popular as biostimulators of plant growth. One of them, oligo-alginate, is a molecule that regulates plant biological processes and may be used in horticultural practice as a plant growth regulator. Biostimulators are mainly used to improve plant tolerance to abiotic stresses, including salinity. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of salinity and oligo-alginate of various molecular masses on the growth and physiological activity of Eucomis autumnalis . The species is an ornamental and medicinal plant that has been used for a long time in the traditional medicine of South Africa...
April 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Eun-Ae Im, Sin-Ae Park, Ki-Cheol Son
OBJECTIVES: This study developed evaluation scales for measuring the effects of horticultural therapy in practical settings. DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative research, including three preliminary studies and a main study, were conducted. SETTING: In the first study, a total of 779 horticultural therapists answered an open-end questionnaire based on 58 items about elements of occupational therapy and seven factors about singularity of horticultural therapy...
April 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Min Jung Lee, Wook Oh, Ja Soon Jang, Ju Young Lee
The effects of three horticulture-related activities (HRAs), including floral arranging, planting, and flower pressing were compared to see if they influenced changes on a stress scale and on salivary cortisol concentrations (SCC) in maladjusted elementary school children. Twenty maladjusted elementary school children were randomly assigned either to an experimental or control group. The control group carried out individual favorite indoor activities under the supervision of a teacher. Simultaneously, the ten children in the experimental group participated in a HRA program consisting of flower arrangement (FA), planting (P), and flower pressing (PF) activities, in which the other ten children in the control group did not take part...
April 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Jacqueline Cotton, John Edwards, Muhammad Aziz Rahman, Susan Brumby
BACKGROUND: Australian farmers are routinely exposed to a wide variety of agrichemicals, including herbicides and insecticides. Organophosphate (OP) insecticides are widely used for agricultural production, horticulture and animal husbandry practices. Symptoms of OP toxicity are the results of inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which is found in many types of conducting tissue in human bodies such as nerve and muscle, central and peripheral tissues, motor and sensory fibres...
April 2, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Katchen Julliany P Silva, Nasser Mahna, Zhonglin Mou, Kevin M Folta
The NPR1 ( NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS RELATED GENES1 ) gene has a central role in the long-lasting, broad-spectrum defense response known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). When overexpressed in a transgenic context in Arabidopsis thaliana , this gene enhances resistance to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses. Its position as a key regulator of defense across diverse plant species makes NPR1 a strong candidate gene for genetic engineering disease and stress tolerance into other crops. High-value horticultural crops face many new challenges from pests and pathogens, and their emergence exceeds the pace of traditional breeding, making the application of NPR1 -based strategies potentially useful in fruit and vegetable crops...
2018: Horticulture Research
Junhui Zhou, Guoming Wang, Zhongchi Liu
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system is an effective genome editing tool for plant and animal genomes. However, there are still few reports on the successful application of CRISPR-Cas9 to horticultural plants, especially with regard to germline transmission of targeted mutations. Here we report high efficiency genome editing in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca and its successful application to mutate the auxin biosynthesis gene TAA1 and Auxin Response Factor 8 (ARF8)...
March 25, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Paola Fincheira, Andrés Quiroz
Agricultural practices require novel products that allow sustainable development and commercial production according to the needs of farmers and consumers. Therefore, in the last decade, eco-friendly alternatives have been studied, so volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by microorganisms have emerged as a cheaper, effective, efficient, and an eco-friendly alternative. VOCs are lipophilic compounds derived from microbial metabolic pathways with low molecular weight (<300 g mol-1 ), low boiling point, and high vapor pressure that allow them to act as signal molecules over short and long distances...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Helen Elsey, Tracey Farragher, Sandy Tubeuf, Rachel Bragg, Marjolein Elings, Cathy Brennan, Rochelle Gold, Darren Shickle, Nyantara Wickramasekera, Zoe Richardson, Janet Cade, Jenni Murray
OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of conducting a cost-effectiveness study of using care farms (CFs) to improve quality of life and reduce reoffending among offenders undertaking community orders (COs). To pilot questionnaires to assess quality of life, connection to nature, lifestyle behaviours, health and social-care use. To assess recruitment and retention at 6 months and feasibility of data linkage to Police National Computer (PNC) reconvictions data and data held by probation services...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Abinaya Manivannan, Jin-Hee Kim, Eun-Young Yang, Yul-Kyun Ahn, Eun-Su Lee, Sena Choi, Do-Sun Kim
Pepper is an economically important horticultural plant that has been widely used for its pungency and spicy taste in worldwide cuisines. Therefore, the domestication of pepper has been carried out since antiquity. Owing to meet the growing demand for pepper with high quality, organoleptic property, nutraceutical contents, and disease tolerance, genomics assisted breeding techniques can be incorporated to develop novel pepper varieties with desired traits. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches has reformed the plant breeding technology especially in the area of molecular marker assisted breeding...
2018: BioMed Research International
Yuxi Zhang, Yanyan Wang, Xuekai Gao, Chunying Liu, Shupeng Gai
Tree peony, one of the most valuable horticultural and medicinal plants in the world, has to go through winter to break dormancy. Growing studies from molecular aspects on dormancy release process have been reported, but inadequate study has been done on miRNA-guided regulation in tree peony. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was employed to identify and characterize miRNAs in three libraries (6 d, 18 d and 24 d chilling treatments). There were 7,122, 10,076 and 9,097 unique miRNA sequences belonging to 52, 87 and 68 miRNA families, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
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