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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728378/phenotypic-diversity-major-genes-and-production-potential-of-local-chickens-and-guinea-fowl-in-tamale-northern-ghana
#1
Michael Mensah Brown, Benjamin Alenyorege, Gabriel Ayum Teye, Regina Roessler
Objective: Our study provides information on phenotypes of local chickens and guinea fowl and their body measures as well as on major genes in local chickens in northern Ghana. Methods: Qualitative and morphometric traits were recorded on 788 local chickens and 394 guinea fowl in urban households in Tamale, Ghana. Results: The results showed considerable variation of color traits and numerous major genes in local chickens, while color variations and related genotypes in guinea fowl were limited...
June 26, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728369/estimation-of-heritability-and-genetic-correlation-of-body-weight-gain-and-growth-curve-parameters-in-korean-native-chicken
#2
Prabuddha Manjula, Hee-Bok Park, Dongwon Seo, Nuri Choi, Shil Jin, Sung Jin Ahn, Kang Nyeong Heo, Bo Seok Kang, Jun Heon Lee
Objective: The aim of this present study was to estimate genetic parameters for body weight gain and growth curve parameter traits in Korean Native Chicken (KNC). Methods: A total of 585 F1 chickens were used along with 88 of their F0 birds. Body weights were measured every 2 weeks from hatching to 20 weeks of age to measure weight gain at 2-week intervals. For each individual, a logistic growth curve model was fitted to the longitudinal growth dataset to obtain three growth curve parameters (α: asymptotic final body weight, β: inflection point, and γ: constant scale that was proportional to the overall growth rate)...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728362/estimation-of-genetic-parameters-of-the-productive-and-reproductive-traits-in-ethiopian-holstein-using-multi-trait-models
#3
Wondossen Ayalew, Mohammed Aliy, Enyew Negussie
Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for productive and reproductive traits. Methods: The data included production and reproduction records of animals that have calved between 1979 and 2013. The genetic parameters were estimated using multivariate mixed models (DMU) package, fitting univariate and multivariate mixed models with average information restricted maximum likelihood (AI-REML) algorithm. Results: The estimates of heritability for milk production traits from the first three lactation records were 0...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728219/-solitary-fibrous-tumor-hemangiopericytoma-of-central-nervous-system-a-clinicopathologic-analysis-of-71-cases
#4
X L Li, W W Fu, S Zhang, D Y Chen, Y P Chen, J Wu, X Y Liu, G P Li, S M Lin, S Luo, S S Cai, W Guo, X F Wang
Objective: As solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) and hemangiopericytoma (HPC) share the same molecular genetics features, the 2016 WHO classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors had created the combined term SFT/HPC and assigns three grades. This study aims to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and prognosis of CNS SFT/HPC. Methods: Seventy-one cases of CNS SFT and HPC were retrospectively reclassified and studied. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and imaging features were analyzed...
July 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728185/novel-presenting-phenotype-in-a-child-with-autosomal-dominant-best-s-vitelliform-macular-dystrophy
#5
Yasmine F Abdalla, Gabriella De Salvo, Ahmad Elsahn, James E Self
Best's macular dystrophy (BMD) usually manifests with visual failure in the first or second decade of life; however, there is a large variability in expressivity of the disease, and some patients have no manifestation other than a pathological electro-oculogram (EOG). Autosomal dominant Best's vitelliform macular dystrophy (AD-BVMD) has a very specific phenotype that varies with the stage of the disease. In recent years, the authors have seen description of another clinical entity known as autosomal recessive BMD...
July 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728153/genetic-variants-of-cytochrome-cyp2d6-in-two-mixed-chilean-populations
#6
Mónica Acuña, Eric Pinto, Paulina Olivares, Carolina Ríos
OBJECTIVES: It is known that the interindividual and interethnic variability of the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 plays an important role in the presentation of adverse drug reactions and concerning lack of therapeutic effects in humans. However, there are few data available from mixed populations of Latin America, including the Chilean. The aim of this study was therefore to estimate the frequencies of CYP2D6 variants in two samples of hospitals from the northern (Hospital San José, HSJ) and eastern (Clínica Las Condes, CLC) parts of Santiago, Chile, with different degrees of Amerindian admixture (HSJ: 34...
July 21, 2017: Human Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728147/efficient-maximum-likelihood-estimation-for-pedigree-data-with-the-sum-product-algorithm
#7
Alexander Engelhardt, Anna Rieger, Achim Tresch, Ulrich Mansmann
OBJECTIVE: We analyze data sets consisting of pedigrees with age at onset of colorectal cancer (CRC) as phenotype. The occurrence of familial clusters of CRC suggests the existence of a latent, inheritable risk factor. We aimed to compute the probability of a family possessing this risk factor as well as the hazard rate increase for these risk factor carriers. Due to the inheritability of this risk factor, the estimation necessitates a costly marginalization of the likelihood. METHODS: We propose an improved EM algorithm by applying factor graphs and the sum-product algorithm in the E-step...
July 21, 2017: Human Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728046/advanced-morphological-neuroimaging-study-in-lateral-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-multicentric-study
#8
Roberta Vasta, Alessia Sarica, Francesca Bisulli, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Alfredo D'Aniello, Jacopo C Difrancesco, Laura Canafoglia, Marina Casazza, Silvana Franceschetti, Carlotta Stipa, Paolo Tinuper, Laura Mumoli, Antonio Gambardella, Angelo Labate
Lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (lTLE) is a rare condition characterized by auditory auras or receptive aphasia, negative MRI, and relatively benign evolution. With the low number of cases in the world, our objective was to analyze a cohort of sporadic cases with lTLE (slTLE), in order to investigate possible cerebral morphological alterations. Forty patients with lTLE (34.93±12.08years of age) and 38 healthy controls (CTRL, 34.55±9.08years of age) were enrolled from four tertiary Italian epilepsy centers, which provided brain MRI T1-weighted images following a standard protocol for patients with epilepsy...
July 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728022/loss-of-tmem106b-ameliorates-lysosomal-and-frontotemporal-dementia-related-phenotypes-in-progranulin-deficient-mice
#9
Zoe A Klein, Hideyuki Takahashi, Mengxiao Ma, Massimiliano Stagi, Melissa Zhou, TuKiet T Lam, Stephen M Strittmatter
Progranulin (GRN) and TMEM106B are associated with several common neurodegenerative disorders including frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). A TMEM106B variant modifies GRN-associated FTLD risk. However, their functional relationship in vivo and the mechanisms underlying the risk modification remain unclear. Here, using transcriptomic and proteomic analyses with Grn(-/-) and Tmem106b(-/-) mice, we show that, while multiple lysosomal enzymes are increased in Grn(-/-) brain at both transcriptional and protein levels, TMEM106B deficiency causes reduction in several lysosomal enzymes...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728016/location-location-location-microglia-are-where-they-live
#10
Margaret M McCarthy
A deep dive into microglia form and function reveals startling regional heterogeneity in number, morphology, activity, and transcriptomics in nuclei relevant to motor control and motivation (De Biase et al., 2017). Differences appear 2 weeks after birth, and depletion and recolonization in adulthood recapitulate the original phenotype, implicating local environment as mediators of microglial phenotype.
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727976/monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-trisomy-13-a-case-of-trisomic-rescue-supporting-the-continued-need-for-first-trimester-ultrasound
#11
Patrick McFadden, Sarah Smithson, Robert Massaro, Jialing Huang, Gail T Prado, Wendy Shertz
Monozygotic twins with discordant karyotypes for trisomy 13 are rare. We report a case of a spontaneously conceived pregnancy who presented with first-trimester ultrasound finding of umbilical cord cyst and increased nuchal translucency in Twin A and no abnormalities in Twin B. Amniocentesis revealed 47,XY,+13 karyotype in Twin A and 46,XY karyotype in Twin B. Selective fetal reduction was performed for Twin A. Twin B was delivered at 32 weeks gestation with normal phenotype. Peripheral blood karyotype revealed 15% mosaicism for trisomy 13 and skin fibroblast revealed 46,XY karyotype...
July 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727969/fetal-dysmorphology-still-an-essential-art-analysis-of-the-limitations-of-microarray-in-a-fetal-population-and-a-look-toward-the-genome-sequencing-era
#12
E Fletcher, M Porteous, K J McKenzie, E J Maher, M J Evans
Cytogenomic microarray allows assessment of the genome at higher resolutions than traditional karyotyping. The objective of this study is to evaluate the utility of microarray in a routine fetal autopsy setting before the advent of routine fetal exome/genome sequencing and the issues these technologies may generate. A systematic review of fetal postmortems at 12-24 weeks gestation between January 2011 and December 2014 was undertaken. Cases where there was no consent for audit, research, or genetic testing were excluded as were cases referred to the Procurator Fiscal, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths...
July 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727846/effects-of-high-intensity-interval-versus-mild-intensity-endurance-training-on-metabolic-phenotype-and-corticosterone-response-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-or-control-diet
#13
Youqing Shen, Guoyuan Huang, Bryan P McCormick, Tao Song, Xiangfeng Xu
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI) to mild-intensity endurance training (ME), combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11), CD and ME (CME, n = 8), CD and HI (CHI, n = 8), HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10), HFD and ME (HME, n = 8), and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727825/differentially-expressed-genes-in-the-head-of-the-2nd-instar-pre-molting-larvae-of-the-nm2-mutant-of-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#14
Pingyang Wang, Simin Bi, Fan Wu, Pingzhen Xu, Xingjia Shen, Qiaoling Zhao
Molting is an important physiological process in the larval stage of Bombyx mori and is controlled by various hormones and peptides. The silkworm mutant that exhibits the phenotype of non-molting in the 2nd instar (nm2) is incapable of molting in the 2nd instar and dies after seven or more days. The ecdysone titer in the nm2 mutant is lower than that in the wildtype, and the mutant can be rescued by feeding with 20E and cholesterol. The results of positional cloning indicated that structural alteration of BmCPG10 is responsible for the phenotype of the nm2 mutant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727813/label-free-three-dimensional-imaging-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-with-visible-optical-coherence-microscopy
#15
Séverine Coquoz, Paul J Marchand, Arno Bouwens, Laurent Mouchiroud, Vincenzo Sorrentino, Daniel Szlag, Johan Auwerx, Theo Lasser
Fast, label-free, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging platforms are crucial for high-throughput in vivo time-lapse studies of the anatomy of Caenorhabditis elegans, one of the most commonly used model organisms in biomedical research. Despite the needs, methods combining all these characteristics have been lacking. Here, we present label-free imaging of live Caenorhabditis elegans with three-dimensional sub-micrometer resolution using visible optical coherence microscopy (visOCM). visOCM is a versatile optical imaging method which we introduced recently for tomography of cell cultures and tissue samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727781/escherichia-coli-mastitis-strains-in-vitro-phenotypes-and-severity-of-infection-in-vivo
#16
Perrine Roussel, Adeline Porcherie, Maryline Répérant-Ferter, Patricia Cunha, Christophe Gitton, Pascal Rainard, Pierre Germon
Mastitis remains a major infection of dairy cows and an important issue for dairy farmers and the dairy industry, in particular infections due to Escherichia coli strains. So far, properties specific to E. coli causing mastitis remain ill defined. In an attempt to better understand the properties required for E. coli to trigger mastitis, we used a range of in vitro assays to phenotypically characterize four E. coli strains, including the prototypical E. coli mastitis strain P4, possessing different relative abilities to cause mastitis in a mouse model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727779/contemporary-status-of-insecticide-resistance-in-the-major-aedes-vectors-of-arboviruses-infecting-humans
#17
REVIEW
Catherine L Moyes, John Vontas, Ademir J Martins, Lee Ching Ng, Sin Ying Koou, Isabelle Dusfour, Kamaraju Raghavendra, João Pinto, Vincent Corbel, Jean-Philippe David, David Weetman
Both Aedes aegytpi and Ae. albopictus are major vectors of 5 important arboviruses (namely chikungunya virus, dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus), making these mosquitoes an important factor in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Vector control using insecticides coupled with larval source reduction is critical to control the transmission of these viruses to humans but is threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Here, we review the available evidence for the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in these 2 major vectors worldwide and map the data collated for the 4 main classes of neurotoxic insecticide (carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, and pyrethroids)...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727763/loss-of-receptor-activity-modifying-protein-2-in-mice-causes-placental-dysfunction-and-alters-pth1r-regulation
#18
Mahita Kadmiel, Brooke C Matson, Scott T Espenschied, Patricia M Lenhart, Kathleen M Caron
Receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (Ramp2) is a single-pass transmembrane protein that heterodimerizes with several family B G-protein coupled receptors to alter their function. Ramp2 has been primarily characterized in association with calcitonin receptor-like receptor (Calcrl, CLR), forming the canonical receptor complex for the endocrine peptide adrenomedullin (Adm, AM). However, we previously demonstrated that Ramp2+/- female mice display a constellation of endocrine-related phenotypes that are distinct from those of Adm+/- and Calcrl+/- mice, implying that RAMP2 has physiological functions beyond its canonical complex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727671/phenotypes-and-characterization-of-copd-a-pulmonary-rehabilitation-perspective
#19
Jonathan Raskin, Ted Marks, Albert Miller
Phenotyping and the characterization of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently an active area of interest. The perspectives gleaned from evaluating COPD in the context of exercise lend new insights into this endeavor. Pulmonary rehabilitation centers are uniquely positioned to generate such clinical observations and have enhanced an understanding of the disease processes that are involved in COPD. This review and commentary discusses the various patterns of exercise intolerance and characterizes COPD from the perspectives of clinicians caring for persons with COPD...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727653/rising-incidence-of-paediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-canterbury-new-zealand-1996-2015
#20
Robert N Lopez, Laura Appleton, Richard B Gearry, Andrew S Day
BACKGROUND: The incidence of paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) around the world is increasing. Canterbury, New Zealand, has one of the highest Crohn's disease (CD) incidence rates published. This study aimed to document the incidence of paediatric IBD in Canterbury between 1996 and 2015. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with IBD in Canterbury, while under 16 years of age, between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2015 were identified. Demographic and disease phenotypic details were collected and entered into a secure database...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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