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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679892/electric-field-driven-assembly-of-live-bacterial-cell-microarrays-for-rapid-phenotypic-assessment-and-cell-viability-testing
#1
Meenal Goel, Abhishek Verma, Shalini Gupta
Microarray technology to isolate living cells using external fields is a facile way to do phenotypic analysis at the cellular level. We have used alternating current dielectrophoresis (AC-DEP) to drive the assembly of live pathogenic Salmonella typhi (S.typhi) and Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria into miniaturized single cell microarrays. The effects of voltage and frequency were optimized to identify the conditions for maximum cell capture which gave an entrapment efficiency of 90% in 60 min. The chip was used for calibration-free estimation of cellular loads in binary mixtures and further applied for rapid and enhanced testing of cell viability in the presence of drug via impedance spectroscopy...
April 7, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679847/deep-learning-in-mammography-and-breast-histology-an-overview-and-future-trends
#2
Azam Hamidinekoo, Erika Denton, Andrik Rampun, Kate Honnor, Reyer Zwiggelaar
Recent improvements in biomedical image analysis using deep learning based neural networks could be exploited to enhance the performance of Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems. Considering the importance of breast cancer worldwide and the promising results reported by deep learning based methods in breast imaging, an overview of the recent state-of-the-art deep learning based CAD systems developed for mammography and breast histopathology images is presented. In this study, the relationship between mammography and histopathology phenotypes is described, which takes biological aspects into account...
March 26, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679746/prevalence-of-cfr-in-enterococcus-faecalis-strains-isolated-from-swine-farms-in-china-predominated-cfr-carrying-pcppf5-like-plasmids-conferring-non-linezolid-resistance-phenotype
#3
Liang-Xing Fang, Jia-Hong Duan, Mu-Ya Chen, Hui Deng, Hua-Qing Liang, Yan Q Xiong, Jian Sun, Ya-Hong Liu, Xiao-Ping Liao
The cfr gene associated with linezolid resistance has attracted wide attention. However, little is known about its prevalence and mode of transmission in Enterococcus faecalis. In this study, we investigate the prevalence and genetic environment of the cfr gene in 91 E. faecalis isolates collected from swine faecal swabs in 30 farms in Guangdong Province, China in 2012. A relatively high prevalence of cfr was identified in E. faecalis isolates (11/91, 12.1%) by PCR. All the cfr-positive E. faecalis strains had a multidrug-resistance phenotype including erythrocin, tetracycline, gentamicin, kanamicin and ciprofloxacin, except vancomycin and linezolid...
April 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679710/cpg-oligodeoxynucleotides-may-be-effective-for-preventing-ionizing-radiation-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis
#4
Chao Zhang, Hainan Zhao, Bai-Long Li, Fu-Gao, Hu Liu, Jian-Ming Cai
Pulmonary fibrosis is a serious adverse effect of radiotherapy for thoracic tumor, which is believed to be a process that is tightly regulated by the phenotype of the developing Th response after radiation. Here, we will investigate whether CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) prevent radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis by shifting the imbalance of Th1 and Th2 response and summarizes the possible mechanism. In this study, female C57BL/6 mice were chosen to preform pulmonary fibrosis model, the whole-thorax of mice was exposed to a single radiation dose of 15 Gy...
April 18, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679646/chronic-methamphetamine-exposure-attenuates-neural-activation-in-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-associated-brain-regions-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#5
Jason S Jacobskind, Zachary J Rosinger, Tiffany Gonzalez, Kristen L Zuloaga, Damian G Zuloaga
Sex differences in methamphetamine (MA) abuse and consequences of MA have been reported with females showing an increased addiction phenotype and withdrawal symptoms. One mechanism through which these effects might occur is via sex-specific alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its associated brain regions. In this study, mice were administered MA (5 mg/kg) or saline for 10 consecutive days. During early withdrawal, anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in the open field, light/dark box, and elevated plus maze...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679610/mutated-mitf-e87r-in-melanoma-enhances-tumor-progression-via-s100a4
#6
Alice Nordlinger, Shani Dror, Abdel Elkahloun, Justine Del Rio, Elisa Stubbs, Tami Golan, Hagar Malcov, Todd D Pricket, Julia C Cronin, Shivang Parikh, Sapir Labes, Laetitia Thomas, Gal Yankovitz, Yuval Tabach, Carmit Levy, Yardena Samuels, Mehdi Khaled
Melanoma, a melanocyte origin neoplasm, is the most lethal type of skin cancer and incidence is increasing. Several familial and somatic mutations have been identified in the gene encoding the melanocyte lineage master regulator, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF); however, the neoplastic mechanisms of these mutant MITF variants are mostly unknown. Here, by performing unbiased analysis of the transcriptomes in cells expressing mutant MITF, we identified calcium-binding protein S100A4, as a downstream target of MITF-E87R...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679566/matrix-stiffness-regulate-apoptotic-cell-death-in-hiv-hcv-co-infected-hepatocytes-importance-for-liver-fibrosis-progression
#7
Murali Ganesan, Raghubendra Singh Dagur, Edward Makarov, Larisa I Poluektova, Srivatsan Kidambi, Natalia A Osna
HIV-HCV co-infection causes rapid progression of liver fibrosis. These outcomes to liver cirrhosis can be improved, but not stopped by specific antiviral therapies. Due to high significance of HIV-HCV interactions for morbidity and mortality in co-infected patients, our attention was attracted to the multi-component pathogenesis of fibrosis progression as the transition to end-stage liver disease development. In this study, we hypothesize that increased matrix stiffness enhances apoptosis in HCV-HIV-co-infected hepatocytes and that capturing of apoptotic bodies (AB) derived from these infected hepatocytes by hepatic stellate cells (HSC) drives the fibrosis progression...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679490/increased-nk-cell-subsets-with-inhibitory-cytokines-and-inhibitory-surface-receptors-in-patients-with-recurrent-miscarriage-and-decreased-or-normal-subsets-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-late-post-transplant
#8
Li Zhu, Mostafa Aly, Haihao Wang, Hristos Karakizlis, Rolf Weimer, Christian Morath, Ruben Jeremias Kuon, Bettina Toth, Naruemol Ekpoom, Gerhard Opelz, Volker Daniel
BACKGROUND: Patients with recurrent miscarriage (RM) show up-regulated cytotoxic NK cells that are suspected to play a causal role in abortion. In the present study, we investigated counter-regulating inhibitory mechanisms and compared the results in RM patients with those of healthy controls (HC), patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) and kidney transplant recipients late post-transplant (TX). METHODS: NK, NKT and T cell subsets were analyzed in the peripheral blood of 31 RM, 14 female ESRD and 9 female TX patients as well as 21 female HC using eight-color fluorescence flow cytometry...
April 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679465/generating-anchors-only-to-lose-them-the-unusual-story-of-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor-biosynthesis-and-remodeling-in-yeast-and-fungi
#9
REVIEW
Sneha Sudha Komath, Sneh Lata Singh, Vavilala A Pratyusha, Sudisht Kumar Sah
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are present ubiquitously at the cell surface in all eukaryotes. They play a crucial role in the interaction of the cell with its external environment, allowing the cell to receive signals, respond to challenges, and mediate adhesion. In yeast and fungi, they also participate in the structural integrity of the cell wall and are often essential for survival. Roughly four decades after the discovery of the first GPI-APs, this review provides an overview of the insights gained from studies of the GPI biosynthetic pathway and the future challenges in the field...
May 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679416/sequential-bacterial-sampling-of-the-midline-incision-in-horses-undergoing-exploratory-laparotomy
#10
C M Isgren, S E Salem, N B Townsend, D Timofte, T W Maddox, D C Archer
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about bacterial isolates that are present on the equine midline incision during and following exploratory laparotomy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bacterial species cultured from the ventral midline pre-, intra- and post laparotomy, whether particular bacterial isolates are associated with the development of surgical site infections (SSIs) and to report the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of these isolates. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study...
April 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679399/inherited-epidermolysis-bullosa-new-diagnostics-and-new-clinical-phenotypes
#11
Cristina Has, Judith Fischer
Inherited epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of heterogeneous genetic disorders characterized by skin fragility. EB comprises a large spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from severe cutaneous and extracutaneous involvement caused by lack of key adhesion proteins, to mild cutaneous fragility caused by subtle molecular defects. Disease-causing variants in 20 different genes account for the genetic and allelic heterogeneity of EB. Here we discuss the development of laboratory methods that enabled these discoveries and the clinical and molecular features of some new EB entities elucidated during the past 5-6 years...
April 20, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679330/in-vitro-model-of-macrophage-biomaterial-interactions
#12
Claire E Witherel, Pamela L Graney, Kara L Spiller
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, facilitated by biomaterial-based therapies, hold promise for the repair, replacement, or regeneration of damaged tissue. The success or failure of all implanted biomaterials, ranging from stainless steel total joint replacements to naturally or synthetically derived skin grafts, is predominantly mediated by macrophages, the primary cell of the innate immune system. In an effort to better assess safety and efficacy of novel biomaterials, evaluating and understanding macrophage-biomaterial interactions is a necessary first step...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679329/crimped-electrospun-fibers-for-tissue-engineering
#13
Pen-Hsiu Grace Chao
Collagen fibers exist in many parts of the body as parallel bundles with a wavy morphology, known as crimp. This crimp structure contributes to the nonlinear mechanical properties of the tissue, such as ligament, blood vessels, and intestine, which provide elasticity and prevent injury. To recapitulate the native collagen crimp structure, we report a robust method using electrospinning and post-processing to generate parallel polymeric fibers with crimp that simulate the structure-function relationship of native tissue mechanics...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679267/engelmann-spruce-chemotypes-in-colorado-and-their-effects-on-symbiotic-fungi-associated-with-the-north-american-spruce-beetle
#14
Thomas Seth Davis, Fiona B Horne, Jens C Yetter, Jane E Stewart
Conifer secondary metabolites play a key role in mechanisms of resistance to biotic disturbance, especially by bark beetles and beetle-associated microorganisms. Here, we describe variation in constitutive monoterpenes isolated from Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmannii, phloem across fourteen high-elevation populations in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, and test interactions between phloem monoterpenes and an endophloedic symbiotic fungus, Leptographium abietinum, associated with the North American spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679261/accumulation-of-mitochondrial-dna-common-deletion-since-the-preataxic-stage-of-machado-joseph-disease
#15
Mafalda Raposo, Amanda Ramos, Cristina Santos, Nadiya Kazachkova, Balbina Teixeira, Conceição Bettencourt, Manuela Lima
Molecular alterations reflecting pathophysiologic changes thought to occur many years before the clinical onset of Machado-Joseph disease (MJD)/spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), a late-onset polyglutamine disorder, remain unidentified. The absence of molecular biomarkers hampers clinical trials, which lack sensitive measures of disease progression, preventing the identification of events occurring prior to clinical onset. Our aim was to analyse the mtDNA content and the amount of the common deletion (m...
April 21, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679241/therapeutic-approaches-to-type-i-interferonopathies
#16
REVIEW
Marc Bienias, Normi Brück, Constanze Griep, Christine Wolf, Stefanie Kretschmer, Barbara Kind, Victoria Tüngler, Reinhard Berner, Min Ae Lee-Kirsch
To review recent scientific advances and therapeutic approaches in the expanding field of type I interferonopathies. Type I interferonopathies represent a genetically and phenotypically heterogenous group of disorders of the innate immune system caused by constitutive activation of antiviral type I interferon (IFN). Clinically, type I interferonopathies are characterized by autoinflammation and varying degrees of autoimmunity or immunodeficiency. The elucidation of the underlying genetic causes has revealed novel cell-intrinsic mechanisms that protect the organism against inappropriate immune recognition of self nucleic acids by cytosolic nucleic acid sensors...
April 20, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679229/compromised-alveolar-bone-cells-in-a-patient-with-dentinogenesis-imperfecta-caused-by-dspp-mutation
#17
Thantrira Porntaveetus, Nunthawan Nowwarote, Thanaphum Osathanon, Thanakorn Theerapanon, Prasit Pavasant, Lawan Boonprakong, Kittisak Sanon, Sirivimol Srisawasdi, Kanya Suphapeetiporn, Vorasuk Shotelersuk
OBJECTIVES: Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) plays an important role in the mineralization of both dentin and bones. The Dspp null mice developed periodontal diseases. Patients with DSPP mutations have dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI), but very little is known about their bone characteristics. This study aims to characterize alveolar bone cells of a DGI patient with DSPP mutation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pathogenic variants were identified by whole exome and sanger sequencing...
April 20, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679223/association-between-lepr-fto-mc4r-and-pparg-2-polymorphisms-with-obesity-traits-and-metabolic-phenotypes-in-school-aged-children
#18
Sílvia M Almeida, José M Furtado, Paulo Mascarenhas, Maria E Ferraz, José C Ferreira, Mariana P Monteiro, Manuel Vilanova, Fernando P Ferraz
PURPOSE: Evaluate the relationship of leptin receptor (LEPR) rs1137101, fat mass obesity-associated (FTO) receptors 9939609, melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4R) rs2229616 and rs17782313, and proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG) rs1801282 with clinical and metabolic phenotypes in prepubertal children. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the effect of polymorphisms on clinical and metabolic phenotypes in prepubertal children? METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed to evaluate anthropometric features, percentage body fat (%BF), biochemical parameters, and genotype in 773 prepubertal children...
April 20, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679163/paenibacillus-panacihumi-sp-nov-a-potential-plant-growth-promoting-bacterium-isolated-from-ginseng-cultivated-soil
#19
Chun-Gon Kim, Jong-Pyo Kang, Yue Huo, Mohan Chokkalingam, Yeon-Ju Kim, Dong-Hyun Kim, Deok-Chun Yang
A novel bacterium, designated DCY114T , was isolated from ginseng-cultivated soil in Gochang-gun, Republic of Korea. This isolate was assigned to the genus Paenibacillus and is closely related to Paenibacillus amylolyticus NRRL NRS-290T (98.3%), P. dongdonensis KUDC0114T (98.0%), P. tylopili MK2T (97.9%), P. tundrae A10bT (97.8%), and P. xylanexedens B22aT (97.5%) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain DCY114T is a Gram-reaction positive, catalase and oxidase positive, facultatively aerobic rod that is motile by peritrichous flagella...
April 20, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679097/quantitative-trait-loci-qtls-for-water-use-and-crop-production-traits-co-locate-with-major-qtl-for-tolerance-to-water-deficit-in-a-fine-mapping-population-of-pearl-millet-pennisetum-glaucum-l-r-br
#20
Murugesan Tharanya, Jana Kholova, Kaliamoorthy Sivasakthi, Deepmala Seghal, Charles Tom Hash, Basker Raj, Rakesh Kumar Srivastava, Rekha Baddam, Thiyagarajan Thirunalasundari, Rattan Yadav, Vincent Vadez
Four genetic regions associated with water use traits, measured at different levels of plant organization, and with agronomic traits were identified within a previously reported region for terminal water deficit adaptation on linkage group 2. Close linkages between these traits showed the value of phenotyping both for agronomic and secondary traits to better understand plant productive processes. Water saving traits are critical for water stress adaptation of pearl millet, whereas maximizing water use is key to the absence of stress...
April 21, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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