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"Agent-based modeling"

Kenneth J Pienta, Robert Axelrod
The incidence and mortality for many cancers continues to rise. As such, critical action is needed on many fronts to reshape how a society thinks, discusses, and fights cancer especially as the population grows and ages. Cancer can be described as a broken social contract which requires different conceptual frameworks such as game theory. To this end, it is our hope that this perspective will catalyze a discussion to rethink the way we approach, communicate, and fund cancer research - thinking of cancer as a broken social contract is only one example...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Christian Hofer, Georg Jäger, Manfred Füllsack
Background: Understanding traffic is an important challenge in different scientific fields. While there are many approaches to constructing traffic models, most of them rely on origin-destination data and have difficulties when phenomena should be investigated that have an effect on the origin-destination matrix. Methods: A macroscopic traffic model is introduced that is novel in the sense that no origin-destination data are required as an input. This information is generated from mobility behavior data using a hybrid approach between agent-based modeling to find the origin and destination points of each vehicle and network techniques to find efficiently the routes most likely used to connect those points...
2018: Computational social networks
Enrico Gavagnin, Christian A Yates
Persistence of motion is the tendency of an object to maintain motion in a direction for short time scales without necessarily being biased in any direction in the long term. One of the most appropriate mathematical tools to study this behavior is an agent-based velocity-jump process. In the absence of agent-agent interaction, the mean-field continuum limit of the agent-based model (ABM) gives rise to the well known hyperbolic telegraph equation. When agent-agent interaction is included in the ABM, a strictly advective system of partial differential equations (PDEs) can be derived at the population level...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Jonatan Almagor, Elizabeth Temkin, Itzhak Benenson, Noga Fallach, Yehuda Carmeli
Extensive antibiotic use over the years has led to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB). Antibiotic resistance poses a major threat to public health since for many infections antibiotic treatment is no longer effective. Hospitals are focal points for ARB spread. Antibiotic use in hospitals exerts selective pressure, accelerating the spread of ARB. We used an agent-based model to explore the impact of antibiotics on the transmission dynamics and to examine the potential of stewardship interventions in limiting ARB spread in a hospital...
2018: PloS One
Fabrizio Parente, Alfredo Colosimo
Anticorrelations among brain areas observed in fMRI acquisitions under resting state are not endowed with a well-defined set of characters. Some evidence points to a possible physiological role for them, and simulation models showed that it is appropriate to explore such an issue. A large-scale brain representation was considered, implementing an agent-based brain-inspired model (ABBM) incorporating the SER (susceptible-excited-refractory) cyclic mechanism of state change. The experimental data used for validation included 30 selected functional images of healthy controls from the 1000 Functional Connectomes Classic collection...
2018: Neural Plasticity
N Rodríguez, G Malanson
Motivated by the importance of understanding the dynamics of the growth and dispersal of plants in various environments, we introduce and analyze a discrete agent-based model based on a birth-jump process, which exhibit wave-like solutions. To rigorously analyze these traveling wave phenomena, we derive the diffusion limit of the discrete model and prove the existence of traveling wave solutions (sharp and continuously differentiable) assuming a logarithmic-type growth. Furthermore, we provide a variational speed for the minimum speed of the waves and perform numerical experiments that confirm our results...
May 10, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Cuiying Song, Wei Guan, Jihui Ma
Public transport (PT) is a key element in most major cities around the world. With the development of smartphones, available journey planning information is becoming an integral part of the PT system. Each traveler has specific preferences when undertaking a trip, and these preferences can also be reflected on the smartphone. This paper considers transit assignment in urban public-transport networks in which the passengers receive smartphone-based information containing elements that might influence the travel decisions in relation to line loads, as well as passenger benefits, and the paper discusses the transition from the current widespread choosing approach to a personalized decision-making approach based on smartphone information...
2018: PloS One
Snehal B Shinde, Manish P Kurhekar
The immune system is an inherent protection system in vertebrate animals including human beings that exhibit properties such as self-organisation, self-adaptation, learning, and recognition. It interacts with the other allied systems such as the gut and lymph nodes. There is a need for immune system modelling to know about its complex internal mechanism, to understand how it maintains the homoeostasis, and how it interacts with the other systems. There are two types of modelling techniques used for the simulation of features of the immune system: equation-based modelling (EBM) and agent-based modelling...
June 2018: IET Systems Biology
Nicole Sani-Kast, Patrick Ollivier, Danielle Slomberg, Jérôme Labille, Konrad Hungerbühler, Martin Scheringer
To assess the environmental fate of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), it is essential to understand their interactions with dissolved organic matter (DOM). The highly complex nature of the interactions between DOM and ENPs and other particulate matter (PM) requires investigating a wide range of material types under different conditions. However, despite repeated calls for an increased diversity of the DOM and PM studied, researchers increasingly focus on certain subsets of DOM and PM. Considering the discrepancy between the calls for more diversity and the research actually carried out, we hypothesize that materials that were studied more often are more visible in the scientific literature and therefore are more likely to be studied again...
2018: PloS One
L F Johnson, P Mulongeni, A Marr, T Lane
Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is widely used to estimate HIV prevalence in men who have sex with men (MSM). Mathematical models that are calibrated to these data may be compromised if they fail to account for selection biases in RDS surveys. To quantify the potential extent of this bias, an agent-based model of HIV in South Africa was calibrated to HIV prevalence and sexual behaviour data from South African studies of MSM, first reweighting the modelled MSM population to match the younger age profile of the RDS surveys (age-adjusted analysis) and then without reweighting (unadjusted analysis)...
April 30, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Nuttiiya Seekhao, Caroline Shung, Joseph JaJa, Luc Mongeau, Nicole Y K Li-Jessen
Fast and accurate computational biology models offer the prospect of accelerating the development of personalized medicine. A tool capable of estimating treatment success can help prevent unnecessary and costly treatments and potential harmful side effects. A novel high-performance Agent-Based Model (ABM) was adopted to simulate and visualize multi-scale complex biological processes arising in vocal fold inflammation and repair. The computational scheme was designed to organize the 3D ABM sub-tasks to fully utilize the resources available on current heterogeneous platforms consisting of multi-core CPUs and many-core GPUs...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Leslie J Verteramo Chiu, Loren W Tauer, Mohammad A Al-Mamun, Karun Kaniyamattam, Rebecca L Smith, Yrjo T Grohn
This paper uses an agent-based simulation model to estimate the costs associated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), or Johne's disease, in a milking herd, and to determine the net benefits of implementing various control strategies. The net present value (NPV) of a 1,000-cow milking herd is calculated over 20 yr, parametrized to a representative US commercial herd. The revenues of the herd are generated from sales of milk and culled animals. The costs include all variable and fixed costs necessary to operate a representative 1,000-cow milking herd...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Florence Crick, Katie Jenkins, Swenja Surminski
Multisectoral partnerships are increasingly cited as a mechanism to deliver and improve disaster risk management. Yet, partnerships are not a panacea and more research is required to understand the role that they can play in disaster risk management and particularly disaster risk reduction. This paper investigates how partnerships can incentivise flood risk reduction by focusing on the UK public-private partnership on flood insurance. Developing the right flood insurance arrangements to incentivise flood risk reduction and adaptation to climate change is a key challenge...
April 25, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Iris J M M Boumans, Imke J M de Boer, Gert Jan Hofstede, Eddie A M Bokkers
Animals living in groups compete for food resources and face food conflicts. These conflicts are affected by social factors (e.g. competition level) and behavioural strategies (e.g. avoidance). This study aimed to deepen our understanding of the complex interactions between social factors and behavioural strategies affecting feeding and social interaction patterns in animals. We focused on group-housed growing pigs, Sus scrofa, which typically face conflicts around the feeder, and of which patterns in various competitive environments (i...
April 25, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Zi Wang, Dali Wang, Chengcheng Li, Yichi Xu, Husheng Li, Zhirong Bao
Motivation: Cell movement in the early phase of C. elegans development is regulated by a highly complex process in which a set of rules and connections are formulated at distinct scales. Previous efforts have demonstrated that agent-based, multi-scale modeling systems can integrate physical and biological rules and provide new avenues to study developmental systems. However, the application of these systems to model cell movement is still challenging and requires a comprehensive understanding of regulatory networks at the right scales...
April 25, 2018: Bioinformatics
Shiyong Liu, Konstantinos P Triantis, Li Zhao, Youfa Wang
BACKGROUND: In practical research, it was found that most people made health-related decisions not based on numerical data but on perceptions. Examples include the perceptions and their corresponding linguistic values of health risks such as, smoking, syringe sharing, eating energy-dense food, drinking sugar-sweetened beverages etc. For the sake of understanding the mechanisms that affect the implementations of health-related interventions, we employ fuzzy variables to quantify linguistic variable in healthcare modeling where we employ an integrated system dynamics and agent-based model...
2018: PloS One
David Champredon, Marek Laskowski, Nathalie Charland, Seyed M Moghadas
New vaccine production technologies can significantly shorten the timelines for availability of a strain-specific vaccine in the event of an influenza pandemic. We sought to evaluate the potential benefits of early vaccination in reducing the clinical attack rate (CAR), taking into account the timing and speed of vaccination roll-out. Various scenarios corresponding to the transmissibility of a pandemic strain and vaccine prioritization strategies were simulated using an agent-based model of disease spread in Ontario, the largest Canadian province...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tao Feng, Chao Wang, Peifang Wang, Jin Qian, Xun Wang
Cyanobacterial blooms have emerged as one of the most severe ecological problems affecting large and shallow freshwater lakes. To improve our understanding of the factors that influence, and could be used to predict, surface blooms, this study developed a novel Euler-Lagrangian coupled approach combining the Eulerian model with agent-based modelling (ABM). The approach was subsequently verified based on monitoring datasets and MODIS data in a large shallow lake (Lake Taihu, China). The Eulerian model solves the Eulerian variables and physiological parameters, whereas ABM generates the complete life cycle and transport processes of cyanobacterial colonies...
April 10, 2018: Water Research
Lei Bao, Joseph C Fritchman
Information about a system's internal interactions is important to modeling the system's dynamics. This study examines the finer categories of the information definition and explores the features of a type of local information that describes the internal interactions of a system. Based on the results, a dual-space agent and information modeling framework (AIM) is developed by explicitly distinguishing an information space from the material space. The two spaces can evolve both independently and interactively...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kin On Kwok, Jonathan M Read, Arthur Tang, Hong Chen, Steven Riley, Kai Man Kam
BACKGROUND: Non-hospital residential facilities are important reservoirs for MRSA transmission. However, conclusions and public health implications drawn from the many mathematical models depicting nosocomial MRSA transmission may not be applicable to these settings. Therefore, we reviewed the MRSA transmission dynamics studies in defined non-hospital residential facilities to: (1) provide an overview of basic epidemiology which has been addressed; (2) identify future research direction; and (3) improve future model implementation...
April 18, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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