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"Agent-based modeling"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303312/neutral-evolution-and-dispersal-limitation-produce-biogeographic-patterns-in-microcystis-aeruginosa-populations-of-lake-systems
#1
Sahar Shirani, Ferdi L Hellweger
Molecular observations reveal substantial biogeographic patterns of cyanobacteria within systems of connected lakes. An important question is the relative role of environmental selection and neutral processes in the biogeography of these systems. Here, we quantify the effect of genetic drift and dispersal limitation by simulating individual cyanobacteria cells using an agent-based model (ABM). In the model, cells grow (divide), die, and migrate between lakes. Each cell has a full genome that is subject to neutral mutation (i...
March 16, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298530/quantifying-the-driving-factors-for-language-shift-in-a-bilingual-region
#2
Katharina Prochazka, Gero Vogl
Many of the world's around 6,000 languages are in danger of disappearing as people give up use of a minority language in favor of the majority language in a process called language shift. Language shift can be monitored on a large scale through the use of mathematical models by way of differential equations, for example, reaction-diffusion equations. Here, we use a different approach: we propose a model for language dynamics based on the principles of cellular automata/agent-based modeling and combine it with very detailed empirical data...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298007/impact-of-centrality-on-cooperative-processes
#3
Sandro M Reia, Sebastian Herrmann, José F Fontanari
The solution of today's complex problems requires the grouping of task forces whose members are usually connected remotely over long physical distances and different time zones. Hence, understanding the effects of imposed communication patterns (i.e., who can communicate with whom) on group performance is important. Here we use an agent-based model to explore the influence of the betweenness centrality of the nodes on the time the group requires to find the global maxima of NK-fitness landscapes. The agents cooperate by broadcasting messages, informing on their fitness to their neighbors, and use this information to copy the more successful agents in their neighborhood...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294338/diversity-and-community-the-role-of-agent-based-modeling
#4
Alex Stivala
Community psychology involves several dialectics between potentially opposing ideals, such as theory and practice, rights and needs, and respect for human diversity and sense of community. Some recent papers in the American Journal of Community Psychology have examined the diversity-community dialectic, some with the aid of agent-based modeling and concepts from network science. This paper further elucidates these concepts and suggests that research in community psychology can benefit from a useful dialectic between agent-based modeling and the real-world concerns of community psychology...
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284136/the-importance-of-socio-ecological-system-dynamics-in-understanding-adaptation-to-global-change-in-the-forestry-sector
#5
Victor Blanco, Calum Brown, Sascha Holzhauer, Gregor Vulturius, Mark D A Rounsevell
Adaptation is necessary to cope with or take advantage of the effects of climate change on socio-ecological systems. This is especially important in the forestry sector, which is sensitive to the ecological and economic impacts of climate change, and where the adaptive decisions of owners play out over long periods of time. Relatively little is known about how successful these decisions are likely to be in meeting demands for ecosystem services in an uncertain future. We explore adaptation to global change in the forestry sector using CRAFTY-Sweden; an agent-based model that represents large-scale land-use dynamics, based on the demand and supply of ecosystem services...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273268/-methodological-novelties-applied-to-the-anthropology-of-food-agent-based-models-and-social-networks-analysis
#6
Diego Díaz Córdova
The aim of this article is to introduce two methodological strategies that have not often been utilized in the anthropology of food: agent-based models and social networks analysis. In order to illustrate these methods in action, two cases based in materials typical of the anthropology of food are presented. For the first strategy, fieldwork carried out in Quebrada de Humahuaca (province of Jujuy, Argentina) regarding meal recall was used, and for the second, elements of the concept of "domestic consumption strategies" applied by Aguirre were employed...
October 2016: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270258/the-impact-of-reducing-antibiotics-on-the-transmission-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#7
Sean L Barnes, Clare Rock, Anthony D Harris, Sara E Cosgrove, Daniel J Morgan, Kerri A Thom
OBJECTIVE Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to public health. Resistance is largely driven by antibiotic usage, which in many cases is unnecessary and can be improved. The impact of decreasing overall antibiotic usage on resistance is unknown and difficult to assess using standard study designs. The objective of this study was to explore the potential impact of reducing antibiotic usage on the transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). DESIGN We used agent-based modeling to simulate interactions between patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) using model inputs informed by the literature...
March 8, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269652/development-of-a-three-dimensional-lattice-free-multiscale-model-of-the-mammary-terminal-end-bud
#8
Joseph D Butner, Vittorio Cristini, Zhihui Wang
The terminal end bud (TEB) is a bulbous structure composed of highly proliferative cells that is responsible for mammary gland development during the pubertal stage. This is a highly organized process, involving cellular differentiation hierarchies regulated by endocrine and paracrine signaling. Here, we present development of a lattice-free, three dimensional multiscale agent based model of the TEB to study the effects of cellular phenotypic hierarchies, endocrine and paracrine signaling, and proliferation demographics on pubertal mammary gland development...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256420/using-data-driven-agent-based-models-for-forecasting-emerging-infectious-diseases
#9
Srinivasan Venkatramanan, Bryan Lewis, Jiangzhuo Chen, Dave Higdon, Anil Vullikanti, Madhav Marathe
Producing timely, well-informed and reliable forecasts for an ongoing epidemic of an emerging infectious disease is a huge challenge. Epidemiologists and policy makers have to deal with poor data quality, limited understanding of the disease dynamics, rapidly changing social environment and the uncertainty on effects of various interventions in place. Under this setting, detailed computational models provide a comprehensive framework for integrating diverse data sources into a well-defined model of disease dynamics and social behavior, potentially leading to better understanding and actions...
February 22, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255703/mathematical-modeling-of-synaptic-patterns
#10
Anastasios Siokis, Philippe A Robert, Michael Meyer-Hermann
During antigen recognition by T cells, a specific spatial structure is formed at the contact face to an antigen-presenting cell (APC), called an immunological synapse (IS). The IS supports bidirectional signaling and release of effector molecules and is widely studied both biologically and numerically, in order to understand the process of T cell activation and signaling. This specialized structure harbors a central area (central supramolecular activation cluster, cSMAC) populated by T cell receptor-peptide-major histocompatibility complex (TCR-pMHC ) interactions, hedged by a peripheral ring (peripheral supramolecular activation cluster, pSMAC) of integrin lymphocyte function associated-1 interactions with its immunoglobulin superfamily ligand intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (LFA-1-ICAM-1)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249103/a-hybrid-computational-model-to-explore-the-topological-characteristics-of-epithelial-tissues
#11
Ismael González-Valverde, José Manuel García Aznar
Epithelial tissues show a particular topology where cells resemble a polygon-like shape, but some biological processes can alter this tissue topology. During cell proliferation, mitotic cell dilation deforms the tissue and modifies the tissue topology. Additionally, cells are reorganized in the epithelial layer and these rearrangements also alter the polygon distribution. We present here a computer-based hybrid framework focused on the simulation of epithelial layer dynamics that combines discrete and continuum numerical models...
March 1, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245536/using-simulation-modelling-to-examine-the-impact-of-venue-lockout-and-last-drink-policies-on-drinking-related-harms-and-costs-to-licensees
#12
Nick Scott, Michael Livingston, Iyanoosh Reporter, Paul Dietze
OBJECTIVE: Many variations of venue lockout and last-drink policies have been introduced in attempts to reduce drinking-related harms. We estimate the public health gains and licensee costs of these policies using a computer simulated population of young adults engaging in heavy drinking. METHOD: Using an agent-based model we implemented 1 am/2 am/3 am venue lockouts in conjunction with last drinks zero/one/two hours later, or at current closing times. Outcomes included: the number of incidents of verbal aggression in public drinking venues, private venues or on the street; and changed revenue to public venues...
February 28, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245251/a-detailed-heterogeneous-agent-model-for-a-single-asset-financial-market-with-trading-via-an-order-book
#13
Roberto Mota Navarro, Hernán Larralde
We present an agent based model of a single asset financial market that is capable of replicating most of the non-trivial statistical properties observed in real financial markets, generically referred to as stylized facts. In our model agents employ strategies inspired on those used in real markets, and a realistic trade mechanism based on a double auction order book. We study the role of the distinct types of trader on the return statistics: specifically, correlation properties (or lack thereof), volatility clustering, heavy tails, and the degree to which the distribution can be described by a log-normal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231255/confidence-and-self-attribution-bias-in-an-artificial-stock-market
#14
Mario A Bertella, Felipe R Pires, Henio H A Rego, Jonathas N Silva, Irena Vodenska, H Eugene Stanley
Using an agent-based model we examine the dynamics of stock price fluctuations and their rates of return in an artificial financial market composed of fundamentalist and chartist agents with and without confidence. We find that chartist agents who are confident generate higher price and rate of return volatilities than those who are not. We also find that kurtosis and skewness are lower in our simulation study of agents who are not confident. We show that the stock price and confidence index-both generated by our model-are cointegrated and that stock price affects confidence index but confidence index does not affect stock price...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227910/development-of-a-three-dimensional-lattice-free-multiscale-model-of-the-mammary-terminal-end-bud
#15
Joseph D Butner, Vittorio Cristini, Zhihui Wang, Joseph D Butner, Vittorio Cristini, Zhihui Wang, Vittorio Cristini, Joseph D Butner, Zhihui Wang
The terminal end bud (TEB) is a bulbous structure composed of highly proliferative cells that is responsible for mammary gland development during the pubertal stage. This is a highly organized process, involving cellular differentiation hierarchies regulated by endocrine and paracrine signaling. Here, we present development of a lattice-free, three dimensional multiscale agent based model of the TEB to study the effects of cellular phenotypic hierarchies, endocrine and paracrine signaling, and proliferation demographics on pubertal mammary gland development...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212440/emergent-inequality-and-self-organized-social-classes-in-a-network-of-power-and-frustration
#16
Benoit Mahault, Avadh Saxena, Cristiano Nisoli
We propose a simple agent-based model on a network to conceptualize the allocation of limited wealth among more abundant expectations at the interplay of power, frustration, and initiative. Concepts imported from the statistical physics of frustrated systems in and out of equilibrium allow us to compare subjective measures of frustration and satisfaction to collective measures of fairness in wealth distribution, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini index. We find that a completely libertarian, law-of-the-jungle setting, where every agent can acquire wealth from or lose wealth to anybody else invariably leads to a complete polarization of the distribution of wealth vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196372/resilience-through-adaptation
#17
Guus A Ten Broeke, George A K van Voorn, Arend Ligtenberg, Jaap Molenaar
Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs) provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193218/a-combined-model-reduction-algorithm-for-controlled-biochemical-systems
#18
Thomas J Snowden, Piet H van der Graaf, Marcus J Tindall
BACKGROUND: Systems Biology continues to produce increasingly large models of complex biochemical reaction networks. In applications requiring, for example, parameter estimation, the use of agent-based modelling approaches, or real-time simulation, this growing model complexity can present a significant hurdle. Often, however, not all portions of a model are of equal interest in a given setting. In such situations methods of model reduction offer one possible approach for addressing the issue of complexity by seeking to eliminate those portions of a pathway that can be shown to have the least effect upon the properties of interest...
February 13, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162399/-176-agent-based-modeling-and-simulation-abms-to-elucidate-lagged-relationships-between-pain-and-sleep-interference-in-patients-with-painful-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-pdpn
#19
J Alexander, R Edwards, A Mahdavi, T Baggio, B Parsons
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162397/-174-development-of-an-agent-based-modeling-and-simulation-platform-for-improving-therapeutic-outcomes-in-patients-with-painful-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#20
J Alexander, R Edwards, A Mahdavi, T Baggio, B Parsons
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
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