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"Agent-based modeling"

Yong Yang, Brent A Langellier, Ivana Stankov, Jonathan Purtle, Katherine L Nelson, Ana V Diez Roux
OBJECTIVES: Daily transport may impact depression risk among older adults through several pathways including facilitating the ability to meet basic needs, enabling and promoting contact with other people and nature, and promoting physical activity (e.g. through active transportation such as walking or walking to public transit). Both daily transport and depression are influenced by the neighborhood environment. To provide insights into how transport interventions may affect depression in older adults, we developed a pilot agent-based model to explore the contribution of daily transport and neighborhood environment to older adults' depression in urban areas...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Balaraju Battu, V S Chandrasekhar Pammi, Narayanan Srinivasan
Conditional cooperation declines over time if heterogeneous ideal conditional agents are involved in repeated interactions. With strict assumptions of rationality and a population consisting of ideal conditional agents who strictly follow a decision rule, cooperation is not expected. However, cooperation is commonly observed in human societies. Hence, we propose a novel evolutionary agent-based model where agents rely on social information. Each agent interacts only once either as a donor or as a receiver. In our model, the population consists of either non-ideal or ideal heterogeneous conditional agents...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Liam V Brown, Eamonn A Gaffney, Jonathan Wagg, Mark C Coles
Tumour immunotherapy is dependent upon activation and expansion of tumour-targetting immune cells, known as cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). Cancer vaccines developed in the past have had limited success and the mechanisms resulting in failure are not well characterized. To elucidate these mechanisms, we developed a human-parametrized, in silico , agent-based model of vaccination-driven CTL activation within a clinical short-peptide vaccination context. The simulations predict a sharp transition in the probability of CTL activation, which occurs with variation in the separation rate (or off-rate) of tumour-specific immune response-inducing peptides (cognate antigen) from the major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) receptors of dendritic cells (DCs) originally at the vaccination site...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Keumseok Koh, Rebecca Reno, Ayaz Hyder
Recent advances in computing resources have increased interest in systems modeling and population health. While group model building (GMB) has been effectively applied in developing system dynamics models (SD), few studies have used GMB for developing an agent-based model (ABM). This article explores the use of a GMB approach to develop an ABM focused on food insecurity. In our GMB workshops, we modified a set of the standard GMB scripts to develop and validate an ABM in collaboration with local experts and stakeholders...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
A Monadjem, A Kane, A Botha, C Kelly, C Murn
Obligate scavengers such as vultures provide critical ecosystem services and their populations have undergone severe declines in Asia and Africa. Intentional poisoning is a major threat to vultures in Africa, yet the impact on vulture populations of where poisoned carcasses are positioned is not known. We used re-sightings of 183 African white-backed vultures captured and tagged in two regions of South Africa, some 200 km apart, to estimate spatial differences in relative survival rates across life stages...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pingyu Nan, Darragh M Walsh, Kerry A Landman, Barry D Hughes
Motivated by in vitro time-lapse images of ovarian cancer spheroids inducing mesothelial cell clearance, the traditional agent-based model of cell migration, based on simple volume exclusion, was extended to include the possibility that a cell seeking to move into an occupied location may push the resident cell, and any cells neighbouring it, out of the way to occupy that location. In traditional discrete models of motile cells with volume exclusion such a move would be aborted. We introduce a new shoving mechanism which allows cells to choose the direction to shove cells that expends the least amount of shoving effort (to account for the likely resistance of cells to being pushed)...
2018: PloS One
Christopher Keane, James E Egan, Mary Hawk
BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose deaths in the US rose dramatically in the past 16 years, creating an urgent national health crisis with no signs of immediate relief. In 2017, the President of the US officially declared the opioid epidemic to be a national emergency and called for additional resources to respond to the crisis. Distributing naloxone to community laypersons and people at high risk for opioid overdose can prevent overdose death, but optimal distribution methods have not yet been pinpointed...
March 7, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Serge W Wiltshire
An agent-based computer model that builds representative regional U.S. hog production networks was developed and employed to assess the potential impact of the ongoing trend towards increased producer specialization upon network-level resilience to catastrophic disease outbreaks. Empirical analyses suggest that the spatial distribution and connectivity patterns of contact networks often predict epidemic spreading dynamics. Our model heuristically generates realistic systems composed of hog producer, feed mill, and slaughter plant agents...
2018: PloS One
Christine Cuskley, Vittorio Loreto, Simon Kirby
A well-trod debate at the nexus of cognitive science and linguistics, the so-called past tense debate, has examined how rules and exceptions are individually acquired (McClelland & Patterson, ; Pinker & Ullman, ). However, this debate focuses primarily on individual mechanisms in learning, saying little about how rules and exceptions function from a sociolinguistic perspective. To remedy this, we use agent-based models to examine how rules and exceptions function across populations. We expand on earlier work by considering how repeated interaction and cultural transmission across speakers affects the dynamics of rules and exceptions in language, measuring linguistic outcomes within a social system rather than focusing individual learning outcomes...
March 8, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
Gael Pérez-Rodríguez, Sónia Dias, Martín Pérez-Pérez, Florentino Fdez-Riverola, Nuno F Azevedo, Anália Lourenço
Experimental incapacity to track microbe-microbe interactions in structures like biofilms, and the complexity inherent to the mathematical modelling of those interactions, raises the need for feasible, alternative modelling approaches. This work proposes an agent-based representation of the diffusion of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) in a multicellular environment formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Depending on the spatial location, C. albicans cells were variably exposed to AHLs, an observation that might help explain why phenotypic switching of individual cells in biofilms occurred at different time points...
March 8, 2018: Biofouling
Francesco Pizzitutti, William Pan, Beth Feingold, Ben Zaitchik, Carlos A Álvarez, Carlos F Mena
Though malaria control initiatives have markedly reduced malaria prevalence in recent decades, global eradication is far from actuality. Recent studies show that environmental and social heterogeneities in low-transmission settings have an increased weight in shaping malaria micro-epidemiology. New integrated and more localized control strategies should be developed and tested. Here we present a set of agent-based models designed to study the influence of local scale human movements on local scale malaria transmission in a typical Amazon environment, where malaria is transmission is low and strongly connected with seasonal riverine flooding...
2018: PloS One
Lucas Fievet, Didier Sornette
Since the 2008 financial crisis, agent-based models (ABMs), which account for out-of-equilibrium dynamics, heterogeneous preferences, time horizons and strategies, have often been envisioned as the new frontier that could revolutionise and displace the more standard models and tools in economics. However, their adoption and generalisation is drastically hindered by the absence of general reliable operational calibration methods. Here, we start with a different calibration angle that qualifies an ABM for its ability to achieve abnormal trading performance with respect to the buy-and-hold strategy when fed with real financial data...
2018: PloS One
Kelsey L Spence, Terri L O'Sullivan, Zvonimir Poljak, Amy L Greer
Participation in equestrian shows provides opportunities for contact between horses, increasing the risk of disease introduction and spread within the population. The magnitude of a potential outbreak, and the impact of disease prevention and control strategies, can be estimated using simulation modeling. The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the potential spread of equine influenza in a network of horses associated with a 2-day equestrian show in Ontario, Canada; and (2) determine the effectiveness of several interventions during a simulated outbreak...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Randall B Boone
Evolutionary computational methods have adopted attributes of natural selection and evolution to solve problems in computer science, engineering, and other fields. The method is growing in use in zoology and ecology. Evolutionary principles may be merged with an agent-based modeling perspective to have individual animals or other agents compete. Four main categories are discussed: genetic algorithms, evolutionary programming, genetic programming, and evolutionary strategies. In evolutionary computation, a population is represented in a way that allows for an objective function to be assessed that is relevant to the problem of interest...
December 2017: Current Zoology
Jared L Wilmoth, Peter W Doak, Andrea Timm, Michelle Halsted, John D Anderson, Marta Ginovart, Clara Prats, Xavier Portell, Scott T Retterer, Miguel Fuentes-Cabrera
The factors leading to changes in the organization of microbial assemblages at fine spatial scales are not well characterized or understood. However, they are expected to guide the succession of community development and function toward specific outcomes that could impact human health and the environment. In this study, we put forward a combined experimental and agent-based modeling framework and use it to interpret unique spatial organization patterns of H1-Type VI secretion system (T6SS) mutants of P . aeruginosa under spatial confinement...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Robert Chase Cockrell, Gary An
Sepsis, a manifestation of the body's inflammatory response to injury and infection, has a mortality rate of between 28%-50% and affects approximately 1 million patients annually in the United States. Currently, there are no therapies targeting the cellular/molecular processes driving sepsis that have demonstrated the ability to control this disease process in the clinical setting. We propose that this is in great part due to the considerable heterogeneity of the clinical trajectories that constitute clinical "sepsis," and that determining how this system can be controlled back into a state of health requires the application of concepts drawn from the field of dynamical systems...
February 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Maxime Derex, Charles Perreault, Robert Boyd
Identifying the determinants of cumulative cultural evolution is a key issue in the interdisciplinary field of cultural evolution. A widely held view is that large and well-connected social networks facilitate cumulative cultural evolution because they promote the spread of useful cultural traits and prevent the loss of cultural knowledge through factors such as drift. This view stems from models that focus on the transmission of cultural information, without considering how new cultural traits actually arise...
April 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Simon Alderton, Ewan T Macleod, Neil E Anderson, Gwen Palmer, Noreen Machila, Martin Simuunza, Susan C Welburn, Peter M Atkinson
BACKGROUND: This paper presents the development of an agent-based model (ABM) to incorporate climatic drivers which affect tsetse fly (G. m. morsitans) population dynamics, and ultimately disease transmission. The model was used to gain a greater understanding of how tsetse populations fluctuate seasonally, and investigate any response observed in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT) disease transmission, with a view to gaining a greater understanding of disease dynamics...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
B V Gomes, D M Guimarães, D Szczupak, K Neves
The evolution of mating strategies is not well understood. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the variation in mating strategies, with varying levels of support. Specifically, female dispersion, adult sex ratio and mate guarding have been proposed as drivers of the evolution of monogamous strategies. In this study, we used an agent-based model (ABM) to examine how different mating behaviors evolve in a population under different conditions related to these putative drivers, looking to understand the interaction between them...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jo-An Atkinson, Ante Prodan, Michael Livingston, Dylan Knowles, Eloise O'Donnell, Robin Room, Devon Indig, Andrew Page, Geoff McDonnell, John Wiggers
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Evaluations of alcohol policy changes demonstrate that restriction of trading hours of both 'on' and 'off' license venues can be an effective means of reducing rates of alcohol-related harm. Despite this, the effects of different trading hour policy options over time, accounting for different contexts and demographic characteristics, and the common co-occurrence of other harm reduction strategies in trading hour policy initiatives are difficult to estimate. The aim of this study was to use dynamic simulation modelling to compare estimated impacts over time of a range of trading hour policy options on various indicators of acute alcohol related harm...
February 3, 2018: Addiction
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