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Biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102913/autumn-photosynthetic-decline-and-growth-cessation-in-seedlings-of-white-spruce-are-decoupled-under-warming-and-photoperiod-manipulations
#1
Joseph R Stinziano, Danielle A Way
Climate warming is expected to increase the seasonal duration of photosynthetic carbon fixation and tree growth in high latitude forests. However photoperiod, a crucial cue for seasonality, will remain constant, which may constrain tree responses to warming. We investigated the effects of temperature and photoperiod on weekly changes in photosynthetic capacity, leaf biochemistry and growth in seedlings of a boreal evergreen conifer, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss). Warming delayed autumn declines in photosynthetic capacity, extending the period when seedlings had high carbon uptake...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102516/production-of-lovastatin-and-itaconic-acid-by-aspergillus-terreus-a-comparative-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Tomasz Boruta, Marcin Bizukojc
Aspergillus terreus is a textbook example of an industrially relevant filamentous fungus. It is used for the biotechnological production of two valuable metabolites, namely itaconic acid and lovastatin. Itaconic acid serves as a precursor in polymer industry, whereas lovastatin found its place in the pharmaceutical market as a cholesterol-lowering statin drug and a precursor for semisynthetic statins. Interestingly, their biosynthetic gene clusters were shown to reside in the common genetic neighborhood. Despite the genomic proximity of the underlying biosynthetic genes, the production of lovastatin and itaconic acid was shown to be favored by different factors, especially with respect to pH values of the broth...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101952/classical-biochemistry-reveals-the-complexity-of-the-mitochondrial-protein-import-system
#3
Dana Dayan, Abdussalam Azem
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101752/the-impact-of-hydrocortisone-treatment-on-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-release-in-porcine-endotoxemic-shock
#4
E Söderberg, M Eriksson, A Larsson, M Lipcsey
BACKGROUND: A key feature of sepsis is systemic inflammatory activation that could be counteracted by steroids. In this experimental model of systemic inflammation, we sought to investigate whether septic neutrophil activation, evaluated by the plasma levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated protein (NGAL), is modulated by the timing of hydrocortisone treatment. METHODS: Sixteen anesthetized pigs were allocated to one of four equally sized groups. Three of these groups received endotoxin at 2 μg × kg(-1) × h(-1) for 6 h so as to induce endotoxemic shock...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101469/concurrent-inflammation-augments-antimalarial-drugs-induced-liver-injury-in-rats
#5
Hossein Niknahad, Reza Heidari, Roya Firuzi, Farzaneh Abazari, Maral Ramezani, Negar Azarpira, Massood Hosseinzadeh, Asma Najibi, Arastoo Saeedi
Purpose: Accumulating evidence suggests that drug exposure during a modest inflammation induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) might increase the risk of drug-induced liver injury. The current investigation was designed to test if antimalarial drugs hepatotoxicity is augmented in LPS‑treated animals. Methods: Rats were pre-treated with LPS (100 µg/kg, i.p). Afterward, non-hepatotoxic doses of amodiaquine (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, oral) and chloroquine (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, oral) were administered. Results: Interestingly, liver injury was evident only in animals treated with both drug and LPS as estimated by pathological changes in serum biochemistry (ALT, AST, LDH, and TNF-α), and liver tissue (severe hepatitis, endotheliitis, and sinusoidal congestion)...
December 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100257/food-specific-sublingual-immunotherapy-is-well-tolerated-and-safe-in-healthy-dogs-a-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#6
E Maina, M Pelst, M Hesta, E Cox
BACKGROUND: Food allergies are increasing in prevalence but no treatment strategies are currently available to cure dogs with food allergy. Over the past decade, experimental food allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (FA-SLIT) has emerged as a potential treatment for food allergies in human medicine. However, FA-SLIT has not been investigated in dogs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the safety, tolerability and dispenser sterility of FA-SLIT in healthy dogs before testing it in food allergic dogs...
January 18, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099341/laparoscopic-distal-splenoadrenal-shunt-for-the-treatment-of-portal-hypertension-in-children-with-congenital-hepatic-fibrosis-a-case-report
#7
Jin-Shan Zhang, Wei Cheng, Long Li
BACKGROUND: The distal splenorenal shunt is an effective procedure for the treatment of portal hypertension in children. However, there has been no report about laparoscopic distal splenorenal shunt in the treatment of portal hypertension in children. METHODS: From December 2015 to August 2016, 4 children with upper gastrointestinal bleeding underwent laparoscopic distal splenoadrenal shunt. Portal hypertension and splenomegaly were demonstrated on the preoperative computed tomography (CT) and sonography...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099083/update-on-alzheimer-s-disease-therapy-and-prevention-strategies
#8
W Vallen Graham, Alessandra Bonito-Oliva, Thomas P Sakmar
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the primary cause of age-related dementia. Effective strategies to prevent and treat AD remain elusive despite major efforts to understand its basic biology and clinical pathophysiology. Significant investments in therapeutic drug discovery programs over the past two decades have yielded some important insights but no blockbuster drugs to alter the course of disease. Because significant memory loss and cognitive decline are associated with neuron death and loss of gray matter, especially in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, some focus in drug development has shifted to early prevention of cellular pathology...
January 14, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098944/validation-of-a-smartphone-based-point-of-care-hemoglobin-assay-for-use-in-dogs
#9
Kate S Farrell, Phillip L Chapman, Lauren A Sullivan
OBJECTIVE: To validate a smartphone-based spectrophotometric assay for point-of-care (POC) measurement of hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration against the standard measurement method in dogs without increases in serum lipemia, hemolysis, or bilirubin. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: One hundred thirty-nine dogs that had a CBC and corresponding biochemical profile submitted to the clinical pathology laboratory...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098108/the-relationship-between-mean-platelet-volume-and-neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-with-inflammation-and-proteinuria-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
Gulay Yilmaz, Can Sevinc, Sedat Ustundag, Yasemin Coskun Yavuz, Tuba Hacıbekiroglu, Esra Hatipoglu, Mehmet Baysal
Atherosclerosis, which develops as a result of inflammation, is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we investigated the relationship of mean platelet volume (MPV) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with inflammation and proteinuria in patients with CKD Stage 3-4. Healthy individuals who applied to nephrology clinic for checkup purposes acted as controls. Fifty-three patients and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Patients with diabetes mellitus, active infection, malignancy, and coronary artery disease were excluded from the study...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097043/single-dose-intramuscular-toxicity-of-mahwangcheonoh-pharmacopuncture-in-a-rat-model-toxicity-of-mahwangcheonoh-pharmacopuncture-in-sd-rats
#11
Heejin Sung, Eunyong Lee
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to analyze the single-dose toxicity and the safety of Mahwangcheonoh pharmacopuncture extracts. METHODS: Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this study. Doses of Mahwangcheonoh pharmacopuncture extracts were set at 0.25 mL (low-dose), 0.5 mL (medium-dose) and 1.0 mL (high-dose) for the test groups. A dose of 1.0 mL of normal saline solution was set for the control group. During 14 days, general symptoms, mortalities, and changes in hematology, blood biochemistry and histopathology of all rats were observed...
December 2016: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096614/evidence-of-hemolysis-in-pigs-infected-with-highly-virulent-african-swine-fever-virus
#12
Zaven Karalyan, Hovakim Zakaryan, Elina Arakelova, Violeta Aivazyan, Marina Tatoyan, Armen Kotsinyan, Roza Izmailyan, Elena Karalova
AIM: The research was conducted to understand more profoundly the pathogenetic aspects of the acute form of the African swine fever (ASF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 10 pigs were inoculated with ASF virus (ASFV) (genotype II) in the study of the red blood cells (RBCs), blood and urine biochemistry in the dynamics of disease. RESULTS: The major hematological differences observed in ASFV infected pigs were that the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and hematocrits were significantly decreased compared to controls, and the levels of erythropoietin were significantly increased...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095659/molecular-characterization-of-nippostrongylus-brasiliensis-nematoda-heligmosomatidae-from-mus-musculus-in-india
#13
Anshu Chaudhary, Urvashi Goswami, Hridaya Shanker Singh
Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae) has generally been infected with a rodent hookworm Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. In this report, we present morphological and molecular identification of N. brasiliensis by light and scanning electron microscopy and PCR amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and the protein sequences encoded by cox1 gene, respectively. Despite the use of N. brasiliensis in many biochemistry studies from India, their taxonomic identification was not fully understood, especially at the species level, and no molecular data is available in GenBank from India...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094805/the-genome-sequence-of-barbarea-vulgaris-facilitates-the-study-of-ecological-biochemistry
#14
Stephen L Byrne, Pernille Østerbye Erthmann, Niels Agerbirk, Søren Bak, Thure Pavlo Hauser, Istvan Nagy, Cristiana Paina, Torben Asp
The genus Barbarea has emerged as a model for evolution and ecology of plant defense compounds, due to its unusual glucosinolate profile and production of saponins, unique to the Brassicaceae. One species, B. vulgaris, includes two 'types', G-type and P-type that differ in trichome density, and their glucosinolate and saponin profiles. A key difference is the stereochemistry of hydroxylation of their common phenethylglucosinolate backbone, leading to epimeric glucobarbarins. Here we report a draft genome sequence of the G-type, and re-sequencing of the P-type for comparison...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094610/reference-intervals-for-serum-biochemistries-of-molting-pacific-black-brant-branta-bernicla-nigricans-in-northern-alaska
#15
J Christian Franson, Paul L Flint, Joel A Schmutz
We determined reference intervals for nine serum biochemistries in samples from 329 molting, after-hatch-year, Pacific Black Brant ( Branta bernicla nigricans) in Alaska. Cholesterol and nonesterified fatty acids differed by sex, but no other differences were noted.
January 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094603/lethal-mechanisms-in-gastric-volvulus
#16
Kimberley J Omond, Roger W Byard
A 55-year-old wheelchair-bound woman with severe cerebral palsy was found at autopsy to have marked distention of the stomach due to a volvulus. The stomach was viable, and filled with air and fluid and had pushed the left dome of the diaphragm upwards causing marked compression of the left lung with a mediastinal shift to the right (including the heart). There was no evidence of gastric perforation, ischaemic necrosis or peritonitis. Removal of the organ block revealed marked kyphoscoliosis. Histology confirmed the viability of the stomach and biochemistry showed no dehydration...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094501/artificial-cells-synthetic-compartments-with-life-like-functionality-and-adaptivity
#17
Bastiaan C Buddingh', Jan C M van Hest
Cells are highly advanced microreactors that form the basis of all life. Their fascinating complexity has inspired scientists to create analogs from synthetic and natural components using a bottom-up approach. The ultimate goal here is to assemble a fully man-made cell that displays functionality and adaptivity as advanced as that found in nature, which will not only provide insight into the fundamental processes in natural cells but also pave the way for new applications of such artificial cells. In this Account, we highlight our recent work and that of others on the construction of artificial cells...
January 17, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093038/metabonomic-strategy-to-the-evaluation-of-chinese-medicine-salvia-miltiorrhiza-and-dalbergia-odorifera-interfering-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#18
Fei Mu, Jialin Duan, Haixu Bian, Xiaohu Zhai, Peijin Shang, Rui Lin, Meina Zhao, Dongmei Hu, Ying Yin, Aidong Wen, Miaomiao Xi
Extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Dalbergia Odorifera (SM-DOO) has been traditionally used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, information regarding the pharmacodyamic material basis and potential mechanism remain unknown. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: Sham, Model, Diltiazem and SM-DOO group, n=6. Rats were pretreated with homologous drugs for 7 days, then subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 180 min of reperfusion. Cardioprotection effects of SM-DOO on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury rats were examined by hemodynamic, infarct area, histopathology, biochemical indicators and western blot analysis...
January 16, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092807/application-of-the-dreadd-technique-in-biomedical-brain-research
#19
REVIEW
Grzegorz Dobrzanski, Małgorzata Kossut
The DREADD (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs) technique is a new chemogenetic approach allowing for selective and remote control of neural activity with a high degree of spatial resolution. Since its discovery in 2007 the DREADD technique was successfully employed into basic research, and together with the optogenetic method provided so far the best tool to influence the activity of the brain circuits and cell populations. The first aim of this review was to concisely describe the technique with regard to such issues like the history of its development, biochemistry as well as modes of the designer receptors delivery and expression...
October 29, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092147/should-serum-calcitonin-be-routinely-measured-in-patients-presenting-with-thyroid-nodule
#20
William P Tormey, Brendan Byrne, Arnold D Hill, Mark Sherlock, Christopher J Thompson
BACKGROUND: The European Thyroid Association recommends serum calcitonin measurement in thyroid nodule cases. In contrast, the American Thyroid Association is ambivalent. In this institution, thyroid nodules cases are subject to a multidisciplinary evaluation of the clinical history and examination, ultrasound and scintigraphy, CT scan and sometimes MRI scan, biochemistry and histopathology of biopsies. We report on the current use of plasma calcitonin measurements in the context of changing practice which has not included screening of all thyroid nodules...
January 13, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
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