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Biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155548/site-selective-rna-splicing-nanozyme-dnazyme-and-rtcb-conjugates-on-a-gold-nanoparticle
#1
Jessica R Petree, Kevin Yehl, Kornelia Galior, Roxanne Glazier, Brendan Deal, Khalid Salaita
Modifying RNA through either splicing or editing is a fundamental biological process for creating protein diversity from the same genetic code. Developing novel chemical biology tools for RNA editing has potential to transiently edit genes and to provide a better understanding of RNA biochemistry. Current techniques used to modify RNA include the use of ribozymes, adenosine deaminase and tRNA endonucleases. Herein, we report a nanozyme that is capable of splicing of virtually any RNA stem-loop. This nanozyme is comprised of a gold nanoparticle functionalized with three enzymes: two catalytic DNA strands with ribonuclease function and an RNA ligase...
November 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155077/subchronic-oral-toxicity-study-of-korean-red-ginseng-extract-in-sprague-dawley-rats-with-a-4-week-recovery-period
#2
Sang-Jin Park, JeongHo Noh, Eun Ju Jeong, Yong-Soon Kim, Byung-Cheol Han, Seung-Ho Lee, Kyoung-Sik Moon
Ginseng is a major herbal remedy used in Asian countries for thousands of years and known to restore and enhance vital energy. Korean red ginseng, which is processed by steaming and drying fresh Panax ginseng, is most popular and contains unique ginsenosides, which have anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the repeated oral dose toxicity of Korean red ginseng extract. The test article was administered orally once a day to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day for 13 consecutive weeks (15 animals/sex/group in the vehicle control and 2000 mg/kg/day groups, and 10 animals/sex/group in the 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day groups)...
November 16, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155076/genotoxicity-and-28-day-oral-toxicity-studies-of-a-functional-food-mixture-containing-maltodextrin-white-kidney-bean-extract-mulberry-leaf-extract-and-niacin-bound-chromium-complex
#3
Cheng-Tien Wu, Chen-Yuan Chiu, Chun-Fa Huang, Fu-Chuo Peng, Shing-Hwa Liu
Steady-fiber granule (SFG) is a functional food mixture that is composed of four major ingredients, resistant maltodextrin, white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) extract, mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) extract, and niacin-bound chromium complex. This study focused on determining the safety of SFG. Genotoxicity and 28-day oral toxicity were evaluated. SFG did not induce mutagenicity in the bacterial reverse mutation assay using five Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535, and TA1537) in the presence or absence of metabolic activation (S9 system)...
November 16, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155013/3-4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde-synthase-and-cuticle-formation-in-insects
#4
Chenghong Liao, Archana Upadhyay, Jing Liang, Qian Han, Jianyong Li
Cuticle is the most important structure that protects mosquitoes and other insect species from adverse environmental conditions and infections of microorganism. The physiology and biochemistry of insect cuticle formation have been studied for many years and our understanding of cuticle formation and hardening has increased considerably. This is especially true for flexible cuticle. The recent discovery of a novel enzyme that catalyzes the production of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) in insects provides intriguing insights concerning the flexible cuticle formation in insects...
November 15, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154543/fluorogenic-targeting-of-voltage-sensitive-dyes-to-neurons
#5
Pei Liu, Vincent Grenier, Wootack Hong, Vikram R Muller, Evan W Miller
We present a method to target voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes to specified cells using an enzyme-catalyzed fluorogenic reaction on cell surfaces. The dye/enzyme hybrids are composed of a photoinduced electron transfer (PeT)-based fluorescent voltage indicator and a complementary enzyme expressed on the cell surface. Action of the exogenous enzyme on the dye results in fluorogenic activation of the dye, enabling fast voltage imaging in defined neurons with sensitivity surpassing those of purely genetically encoded approaches...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154200/uvr-and-par-absorbing-compounds-of-marine-brown-macroalgae-along-a-latitudinal-gradient-of-the-brazilian-coast
#6
Caroline Schmitz, Fernanda Ramlov, Leidson Allan Ferreira de Lucena, Virgilio Uarrota, Manuela Bernardes Batista, Marina Nasri Sissini, Iara Oliveira, Bruno Briani, Cintia D L Martins, José Marcos de Castro Nunes, Leonardo Rörig, Paulo Antunes Horta, Félix L Figueroa, Nathalie Korbee, Marcelo Maraschin, José Bonomi-Barufi
Absorption spectra are indicative of biological sample chemical composition and can be used as a basis for the construction of descriptive and predictive models for biotechnological screening or assays. In marine algae, chemical composition can vary due to species-specific differences in biochemistry, as well as intra-specific responses to unique environmental variables. Different indices (UVCi, UVB+Ai and PARi) were proposed and calculated to evaluate how photoprotective compounds vary in 18 species of Phaeophyceae...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154193/fundamentals-on-the-biochemistry-of-peroxynitrite-and-protein-tyrosine-nitration
#7
REVIEW
Silvina Bartesaghi, Rafael Radi
In this review we provide an analysis of the biochemistry of peroxynitrite and tyrosine nitration. Peroxynitrite is the product of the diffusion-controlled reaction between superoxide (O2(•)(-)) and nitric oxide ((•)NO). This process is in competition with the enzymatic dismutation of O2(•-) and the diffusion of (•)NO across cells and tissues and its reaction with molecular targets (e.g. guanylate cyclase). Understanding the kinetics and compartmentalization of the O2(•-) / (•)NO interplay is critical to rationalize the shift of (•)NO from a physiological mediator to a cytotoxic intermediate...
September 19, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152907/hierarchical-multicomponent-inorganic-metamaterials-intrinsically-driven-self-assembly-at-the-nanoscale
#8
REVIEW
Igor Levchenko, Kateryna Bazaka, Michael Keidar, Shuyan Xu, Jinghua Fang
Increasingly intricate in their composition and structural organization, hierarchical multicomponent metamaterials with nonlinear spatially reconfigurable functionalities challenge the intrinsic constraints of natural materials, revealing tremendous potential for the advancement of biochemistry, nanophotonics, and medicine. Recent breakthroughs in high-resolution nanofabrication utilizing ultranarrow, precisely controlled ion or laser beams have enabled assembly of architectures of unprecedented structural and functional complexity, yet costly, time- and energy-consuming high-resolution sequential techniques do not operate effectively at industry-required scale...
November 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152248/nutritional-management-of-search-and-rescue-dogs
#9
G Vassalotti, N Musco, P Lombardi, S Calabrò, R Tudisco, V Mastellone, R Grazioli, S Bianchi, M I Cutrignelli
Dogs used for search and rescue (SAR) may experience continuous micro-traumas that predispose them to skeletal disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of diet on osteo-articular apparatus in healthy SAR dogs. A total of sixteen SAR dogs were divided into two groups (low supplementation (LS) and high supplementation (HS)) and were fed for 3 months with two experimental diets, characterised by the same protein and energy density, but different in n-3 PUFA (6·2 v. 8·4 % of metabolisable energy), chondroitin sulfate (219·8 v...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150559/a-program-for-iron-economy-during-deficiency-targets-specific-fe-proteins
#10
Laura J Hantzis, Gretchen E Kroh, Courtney E Jahn, Michael Cantrell, Graham Peers, Marinus Pilon, Karl Ravet
Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plants, utilized in nearly every cellular process. Because the adjustment of uptake under Fe limitation cannot satisfy all demands, plants need to acclimate their physiology and biochemistry, especially in their chloroplasts, which have a high demand for Fe. To investigate if a program exists for the utilization of Fe under deficiency, we analyzed how hydroponically grown Arabidopsis thaliana adjusts its physiology and Fe protein composition in vegetative photosynthetic tissue, during Fe deficiency...
November 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150272/proposed-biochemistry-of-parkinson-s-and-alzheimer-s-diseases
#11
D S Robertson
The formation of brain compounds linked to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's brain diseases are described. Metabolic mechanisms involved in the control of reacting biochemicals are detailed. Relationships are established between the biochemical reactions, biochemical control mechanisms and the onset of Parkinson's, Alzheimer's. Treatments based on these relationships are proposed.
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149556/evaluating-force-field-london-dispersion-coefficients-using-the-exchange-hole-dipole-moment-model
#12
Mohamad Mohebifar, Erin R Johnson, Christopher N Rowley
London dispersion interactions play an integral role in materials science and biophysics. Force fields for atomistic molecular simulations typically represent dispersion interactions by the 12-6 Lennard-Jones potential, using empirically-determined parameters. These parameters are generally underdetermined and there is no straightforward way to test if they are physically realistic. Alternatively, the exchange-hole dipole moment (XDM) model from density-functional theory predicts atomic and molecular London dispersion coefficients from first principles, providing an innovative strategy to validate the dispersion terms of molecular-mechanical force fields...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149477/pathfinders-in-oncology-from-the-beginning-of-the-19th-century-to-the-inauguration-of-the-first-cancer-hospital-in-the-united-states
#13
Steven I Hajdu
The fields of medicine and oncology made substantial progress between 1800 and 1885. The first half of this period was dominated by the spectacular progress in physiology, cytology, histology, histopathology, and diagnostic microscopy. In the second half of the period, advancements in surgical techniques, anesthesia, asepsis, and laboratory medicine, including bacteriology, chemistry, and biochemistry, led to the development of medical specialties, including surgical pathology and surgical oncology. Although wars, revolutions, and socioeconomic upheavals interrupted the daily life of the populace, distinguished artists, scientists, and physicians continued, against all odds, to advance their field of interest...
November 17, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148316/recognition-dynamics-of-trinuclear-copper-cluster-and-associated-histidine-residues-through-conserved-or-semi-conserved-water-molecules-in-human-ceruloplasmin-the-involvement-of-aspartic-and-glutamic-acid-gates
#14
Bishnu Prasad Mukhopadhyay
Human Ceruloplasmin belongs to the family of multi-copper oxidases and it is involved in different physiological processes, copper ion transport, iron metabolism, iron homeostasis, and biogenic amine metabolism. MD-simulation studies have indicated the higher hydrophilic susceptibility of the trinuclear copper cluster in native CP compared to its oxygen bound form. The copper (T2/T3) atom Cu3047 of the cluster, which is close to T1 copper center Cu3052 (~13 Å) has a higher affinity for water molecules compared to other copper centers...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145976/not-only-p-glycoprotein-amplification-of-the-abcb1-containing-chromosome-region-7q21-confers-multidrug-resistance-upon-cancer-cells-by-coordinated-overexpression-of-an-assortment-of-resistance-related-proteins
#15
Ilaria Genovese, Andrea Ilari, Yehuda G Assaraf, Francesco Fazi, Gianni Colotti
The development of drug resistance continues to be a dominant hindrance toward curative cancer treatment. Overexpression of a wide-spectrum of ATP-dependent efflux pumps, and in particular of ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein or MDR1) is a well-known resistance mechanism for a plethora of cancer chemotherapeutics including for example taxenes, anthracyclines, Vinca alkaloids, and epipodopyllotoxins, demonstrated by a large array of published papers, both in tumor cell lines and in a variety of tumors, including various solid tumors and hematological malignancies...
May 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144467/progress-in-and-promise-of-bacterial-quorum-sensing-research
#16
Marvin Whiteley, Stephen P Diggle, E Peter Greenberg
This Review highlights how we can build upon the relatively new and rapidly developing field of research into bacterial quorum sensing (QS). We now have a depth of knowledge about how bacteria use QS signals to communicate with each other and to coordinate their activities. In recent years there have been extraordinary advances in our understanding of the genetics, genomics, biochemistry, and signal diversity of QS. We are beginning to understand the connections between QS and bacterial sociality. This foundation places us at the beginning of a new era in which researchers will be able to work towards new medicines to treat devastating infectious diseases, and use bacteria to understand the biology of sociality...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144182/plasma-lyte-148-vs-hartmann-s-solution-for-cardiopulmonary-bypass-pump-prime-a-prospective-double-blind-randomized-trial
#17
Laurence Weinberg, Elizabeth Chiam, James Hooper, Frank Liskaser, Angela Kim Hawkins, Denise Massie, Andrew Ellis, Chong O Tan, David Story, Rinaldo Bellomo
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of acid-base changes during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that, when used as CPB pump prime solutions, Plasma-Lyte 148 (PL) and Hartmann's solution (HS) have differential mechanisms of action in their contribution to acid-base changes. METHODS: We performed a prospective, double-blind, randomized trial in adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with CPB. Participants received a CPB prime solution of 2000 mL, with either PL or HS...
November 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144123/the-sign-of-nmr-chemical-shift-difference-as-a-determinant-of-the-origin-of-binding-selectivity-elucidation-of-the-position-dependence-of-phosphorylation-in-ligands-binding-to-scribble-pdz1
#18
Gustav Sundell, Beat Vögeli, Ylva Ivarsson, Celestine Chi
The use of NMR chemical shift perturbation to monitor changes taking place around the binding site of a ligand-protein interaction is a routine and widely applied methodology in the field of protein biochemistry. Shifts are often acquired by titrating various concentrations of ligand to a fixed concentration of the receptor and may serve the purposes, amongst others, to determine affinity constants, locate binding surfaces, or differentiate between binding mechanisms. Shifts are quantified by the so-called combined chemical shift difference...
November 16, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142565/correlation-between-hyperhomocysteinemia-and-common-carotid-artery-intima-media-thickness-in-carbamazepine-treated-epileptic-patients-using-ultrasonography
#19
Shazia Bano, Nudrat Anwar Zuberi, Syed Munawar Alam
Objective: The objective was to assess the role of homocysteine in the development of atherosclerosis in common carotid artery in the carbamazepine treated epileptic patients. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI), Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi. Three hundred individuals, aged 34 ± 9.5 years were selected and divided into three groups. Each group comprised of 100 subjects labeled as Group-A (control group had healthy individuals), Group-B (newly diagnosed epileptic patients without antiepileptic therapy), Group-C (epileptic patients on Carbamazepine therapy, which was further subdivided into C-I having epileptic patients on Carbamazepine therapy less than 1 year n=33, C-II had epileptic patients on Carbamazepine therapy 1-2 years n = 33 and C-III comprised of epileptic patients on Carbamazepine therapy more than 2 years n = 34)...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142244/body-size-phenotypes-comprehensively-assess-cardiometabolic-risk-and-refine-the-association-between-obesity-and-gut-microbiota
#20
J de la Cuesta-Zuluaga, V Corrales-Agudelo, J A Carmona, J M Abad, J S Escobar
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota associates with obesity and related disorders, but recent meta-analyses have found that this association is, at best, of small effect. We argue that such analyses are flawed by the use of BMI as sole proxy for disease, and explore a classification method that distinguishes the cardiometabolic health status of individuals to look for more comprehensive associations between gut microbes and health. METHODS: We analyzed a 441 community-dwelling cohort on which we obtained demographic and health information, anthropometry and blood biochemistry data that served to categorize participants according to BMI, cardiometabolic health status and body size phenotypes...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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