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Biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918472/a-reliable-protocol-for-colorimetric-determination-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticle-uptake-by-cells
#1
Daiana K Deda, Roberta M Cardoso, Mayara K Uchiyama, Christiane Pavani, Sergio H Toma, Mauricio S Baptista, Koiti Araki
Size, shape, and surface properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) can influence their interaction with biological systems, particularly the incorporation by tumor cells and consequently the biological activity and efficiency in biomedical applications. Several strategies have been used to evaluate cellular uptake of SPIONs. While qualitative methods are generally based on microscopy techniques, quantitative assays are carried out by techniques such as inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and flow cytometry...
September 16, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917225/appropriate-nutritional-management-in-patients-with-impaired-mastication-and-those-with-mild-dysphagia-a-multicenter-study-of-the-usefulness-of-novel-foods-processed-and-softened-by-enzymes
#2
Takashi Higashiguchi, Akihiro Ito, Hirofumi Nishiyama, Takashi Shigematsu, Atsuko Ishikawa, Hiroyuki Kato, Shohei Iijima, Nobuyuki Kikuchi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate the safety of iEAT (a food that is softened by heat and enzyme homogeneous permeation) and iEAT-affected nutrition parameters, e.g., nutrition intake (calculated from the consumption rate in patients with impaired mastication and those with mild dysphagia). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A multicenter, randomized, cross-over study of iEAT was conducted in 50 patients (mean age 77.0±11.0 years) with dysphagia due to Occasional aspiration (4 points on the Dysphagia Severity Scale [DSS]) or Oral problems (5 points) randomly assigned to the study diet (iEAT) or its opposite (the modified traditional [control] diet) for 1 week and then switched for 1 week to the opposing diet...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912855/effect-of-transoral-endoscopic-adenoidectomy-on-peripheral-blood-t-lymphocyte-subsets-in-children-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-syndrome-and-its-treatment-strategy
#3
Na Yang, Yaofeng Ji, Yin Liu
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of transoral endoscopic adenoidectomy on peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and its treatment strategy. Ninety-eight pediatric patients with adenoidal hypertrophy associated with OSAHS admitted to the Department of Otolaryngology, Xuzhou Children's Hospital were selected. After admission, patients received perfected 24 h polysomnogram monitoring, routine blood examination, fasting blood biochemistry examination, T-lymphocyte subset count, 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and nasopharyngeal computed tomography...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912754/the-gambian-bone-and-muscle-ageing-study-baseline-data-from-a-prospective-observational-african-sub-saharan-study
#4
Ayse Zengin, Anthony J Fulford, Yankuba Sawo, Landing M Jarjou, Inez Schoenmakers, Gail Goldberg, Ann Prentice, Kate A Ward
The Gambian Bone and Muscle Ageing Study is a prospective observational study investigating bone and muscle ageing in men and women from a poor, subsistence farming community of The Gambia, West Africa. Musculoskeletal diseases, including osteoporosis and sarcopenia, form a major part of the current global non-communicable disease burden. By 2050, the vast majority of the world's ageing population will live in low- and middle-income countries with an estimated two-fold rise in osteoporotic fracture. The study design was to characterise change in bone and muscle outcomes and to identify possible preventative strategies for fracture and sarcopenia in the increasing ageing population...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912603/novel-insight-into-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-from-the-protein-misfolding-perspective
#5
Edgar Leyva-García, Reyna Lara-Martínez, Liborio Morán-Zanabria, Cristina Revilla-Monsalve, Luis Felipe Jiménez-García, Norma Oviedo, Chiharu Murata, Eulalia Garrido-Magaña, Nelly F Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M Altamirano-Bustamante
Protein folding is a process of self-assembly defined by the sequence of the amino acids of the protein involved. Additionally, proteins tend to unfold, misfold and aggregate due to both intrinsic and extrinsic causes. Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) aggregation is an early step in diabetes mellitus. However, the aggregation of rat IAPP (rIAPP) remains an open question. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150-250 g were divided into two groups. The experimental group (streptozotocin [STZ]) (n = 21) received an intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 40 mg/kg STZ...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912338/duration-of-post-operative-hypocortisolism-predicts-sustained-remission-after-pituitary-surgery-for-cushing-s-disease
#6
Prachi Ashok Kumar Bansal, Anurag Ranjan Lila, Manjunath Goroshi, Swati Jadhav, Nilesh Keshavrao Lomte, Kunal Thakkar, Atul Goel, Abhidha Shah, Shilpa S Sankhe, Naina Goel, Neelam Jaguste, Tushar Ramkrishna Bandgar, Nalini Shah
PURPOSE: Transsphenoidal surgery(TSS) is the primary treatment modality for Cushing's disease(CD). However, the predictors of post-operative remission and recurrence remain debatable. Thus, we studied the post-operative remission and long term recurrence rates, as well as their respective predictive factors. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of case records of 230 CDpatients who underwent primary microscopic TSS at our tertiary care referral center between 1987-2015was undertaken...
September 14, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911613/proteomic-changes-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-fructose-fed-rat-model
#7
Cheng-Chu Hsieh, Chen-Chung Liao, Yi-Chun Liao, Lucy Sun Hwang, Liang-Yi Wu, Shu-Chen Hsieh
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized by a constellation of disorders such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension, is becoming a major global public health problem. Fructose consumption has increased dramatically over the past several decades and with it the incidence of MetS. However, its molecular mechanisms remain to be explored. In this study, we used male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to study the pathological mechanism of fructose induced MetS. The SD rats were fed a 60% high-fructose diet for 16 weeks to induce MetS...
October 2016: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911127/nutritional-status-of-children-from-low-income-countries-arriving-in-spain
#8
Moncef Belhassen-García, Virginia Velasco-Tirado, Amparo Lopez-Bernus, Juan Luis Muñoz Bellido, Antonio Muro, Miguel Cordero, Javier Pardo-Lledias
Background: Nutritional problems, anaemia and infectious diseases are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents in tropical and subtropical areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status in children from low-income countries who migrated to Spain and the value of the usual biochemistry markers of nutrition in these children, as well as to evaluate the nutritional status associated with imported infectious diseases. Moreover, we evaluated the association between anaemia and nutrition problems...
September 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910170/the-protective-effect-of-vitamin-d-against-carbon-tetrachloride-damage-to-the-rat-liver
#9
D Özerkan, N Özsoy, K G Akbulut, S Güney, G Öztürk
We investigated the protective effect of vitamin D against liver damage caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Twenty-four male rats were divided into four equal groups: G1, untreated controls; G2, administered CCl4; G3, administered both CCl4 and vitamin D for 10 weeks; G4, administered CCl4 for 10 weeks and vitamin D for 12 weeks. At the end of experiment, intracardiac blood samples were taken and liver samples were removed. Hepatic damage due to CCl4 was assessed using biochemistry and histopathology. Glutathione (GSH) levels decreased, while malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased in liver tissues of G2...
September 14, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905667/preliminary-pharmacokinetics-of-intravenous-and-subcutaneous-dolasetron-and-pharmacodynamics-of-subcutaneous-dolasetron-in-healthy-cats
#10
Andrea K Herndon, Jessica M Quimby, Liberty G Sieberg, Leigh Davis, Amber L Caress, Sabina Ligas, Ryan J Hansen, Luke A Wittenburg, Danial L Gustafson
Objectives The objectives were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) dolasetron and the pharmacodynamics (PDs) of SC dolasetron in healthy cats. Methods Five cats with unremarkable complete blood count, serum biochemistry and urinalyses were utilized. In the PK study, cats received 0.8 mg/kg SC and IV dolasetron in a crossover format. Serum samples were obtained via a jugular catheter at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h after the administration of dolasetron...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903896/the-regulatory-functions-of-pirna-piwi-in-spermatogenesis
#11
Zhi-Heng Yuan, Yan-Mei Zhao
A class of 24-32 nt PIWI-binding small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) termed as PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have been identified in animal germline. Recent studies suggest that piRNA/PIWI pathway plays a critical role in both silencing of transposons and posttranscriptional regulation of mRNAs in animal germline. A study from Dr. Mofang Liu's lab in Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, reveals the physiological and pathological importance of PIWI metabolism (mouse PIWI as known as MIWI; human PIWI as HIWI) in mammalian spermatogenesis...
August 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903822/evaluation-of-a-zinc-gluconate-neutralized-with-arginine-product-as-a-nonsurgical-method-for-sterilization-of-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#12
Kacie N Woodward, Rebekah I Keesler, J Rachel Reader, Kari L Christe
Because rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are prolific breeders, overpopulation can be problematic in both research and feral populations. Currently, the most effective contraceptive methods are hormonal control in female macaques and vasectomies in males. These methods each come with innate challenges, the foremost being the alteration of necessary hormonal patterns. In this study, we assessed the use of zinc gluconate neutralized with arginine as a novel, nonsurgical alternative to male contraception in 12 rhesus macaques...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903340/multi-modality-imaging-monitored-creation-of-rat-orthotopic-pancreatic-head-cancer-with-obstructive-jaundice
#13
Zhibin Bai, Yaoping Shi, Jianfeng Wang, Longhua Qiu, Gaojun Teng, Feng Zhang, Xiaoming Yang
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of using multi-modality imaging to monitor the creation of rat models with orthotopic pancreatic head cancer with obstructive jaundice. RESULTS: 27 of 52 rats (51.92%) developed pancreatic head cancer. The tumor formation rate was significantly higher in the animal group receiving bioluminescent tumor, compared to the group receiving non-bioluminescent donor tumors [78.1% (25/32 rats) vs 10.0% (2/20 rats), P = 0.0001]. Both ultrasound imaging and MRI clearly characterized the orthotopic tumors...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902453/implementing-a-web-based-introductory-bioinformatics-course-for-non-bioinformaticians-that-incorporates-practical-exercises
#14
Antony T Vincent, Yves Bourbonnais, Jean-Simon Brouard, Hélène Deveau, Arnaud Droit, Stéphane M Gagné, Michel Guertin, Claude Lemieux, Louis Rathier, Steve J Charette, Patrick Lagüe
A recent scientific discipline, bioinformatics, defined as using informatics for the study of biological problems, is now a requirement for the study of biological sciences. Bioinformatics has become such a powerful and popular discipline that several academic institutions have created programs in this field, allowing students to become specialized. However, biology students who are not involved in a bioinformatics program also need a solid toolbox of bioinformatics software and skills. Therefore, we have developed a completely online bioinformatics course for non-bioinformaticians, entitled "BIF-1901 Introduction à la bio-informatique et à ses outils (Introduction to bioinformatics and bioinformatics tools)," given by the Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Bioinformatics of Université Laval (Quebec City, Canada)...
September 13, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902439/promoting-mastery-of-complex-biological-mechanisms
#15
William S Bradshaw, Kathryn J Groneman, Jennifer Nelson, John D Bell
This article describes efforts aimed at improving comprehension and retention of complex molecular mechanisms commonly studied in undergraduate biology and biochemistry courses. The focus is on the design of appropriate assessments, an active classroom emphasizing formative practice, and more effective out-of-class study habits. Assessments that require students to articulate their understanding through writing are the most effective. Frequent formative practice improves performance on problems that require intellectual transfer, the ability to apply conceptual principles in novel settings...
September 13, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901222/cell-phone-based-online-biochemistry-and-molecular-biology-medical-education-curriculum
#16
Junfang Zhang, Zelang Cai, Zhenfu Zhao, Kunmei Ji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900838/comparative-nutritional-value-of-jatropha-curcas-protein-isolate-and-soy-protein-isolate-in-common-carp
#17
Sunil Nepal, Vikas Kumar, Harinder P S Makkar, Timo Stadtlander, Nicholas Romano, Klaus Becker
Jatropha seed cake (JSC) is an excellent source of protein but does contain some antinutritional factors (ANF) that can act as toxins and thus negatively affect the growth and health status of fish. While this can limit the use of JSC, detoxified Jatropha protein isolate (DJPI) may be a better option. An 8-week study was performed to evaluate dietary DJPI to common carp Cyprinus carpio. Five iso-nitrogenous diets (crude protein of 38%) were formulated that consisted of a C ontrol (fish meal (FM) based protein), J 50 or J 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by DJPI), and S 50 or S 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by soy protein isolate, SPI) and fed to triplicate groups of 75 carp fingerlings (75; av...
September 12, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900700/auxiliary-activation-of-the-complement-system-and-its-importance-for-the-pathophysiology-of-clinical-conditions
#18
REVIEW
Markus Huber-Lang, Kristina N Ekdahl, Rebecca Wiegner, Karin Fromell, Bo Nilsson
Activation and regulation of the cascade systems of the blood (the complement system, the coagulation/contact activation/kallikrein system, and the fibrinolytic system) occurs via activation of zymogen molecules to specific active proteolytic enzymes. Despite the fact that the generated proteases are all present together in the blood, under physiological conditions, the activity of the generated proteases is controlled by endogenous protease inhibitors. Consequently, there is remarkable little crosstalk between the different systems in the fluid phase...
September 12, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900586/correction-biochemistry-in-endeavor-adventure-racers-study-bears
#19
Matthew Wetschler, David Radler, Mark Christensen, Sean Rundell, Grant Lipman
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.7759/cureus.1024.].
June 1, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898994/how-well-do-growing-season-dynamics-of-photosynthetic-capacity-correlate-with-leaf-biochemistry-and-climate-fluctuations
#20
Danielle A Way, Joseph R Stinziano, Henry Berghoff, Ram Oren, Lucas Cernusak
Accurate values of photosynthetic capacity are needed in Earth System Models to predict gross primary productivity. Seasonal changes in photosynthetic capacity in these models are primarily driven by temperature, but recent work has suggested that photoperiod may be a better predictor of seasonal photosynthetic capacity. Using field-grown kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi), a nitrogen-fixing vine species, we took weekly measurements of photosynthetic capacity, leaf nitrogen, and pigment and photosynthetic protein concentrations and correlated these with temperature, irradiance and photoperiod over the growing season...
July 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
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