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Biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339429/the-biochemistry-of-sensing-enteric-pathogens-regulate-type-iii-secretion-in-response-to-environmental-and-host-cues
#1
REVIEW
Nicole J De Nisco, Giomar Rivera-Cancel, Kim Orth
Enteric pathogens employ sophisticated strategies to colonize and infect mammalian hosts. Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Campylobacter jejuni, are among the leading causes of gastrointestinal tract infections worldwide. The virulence strategies of many of these Gram-negative pathogens rely on type III secretion systems (T3SSs), which are macromolecular syringes that translocate bacterial effector proteins directly into the host cytosol. However, synthesis of T3SS proteins comes at a cost to the bacterium in terms of growth rate and fitness, both in the environment and within the host...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339145/ocular-delivery-of-proteins-and-peptides-challenges-and-novel-formulation-approaches
#2
Abhirup Mandal, Dhananjay Pal, Vibhuti Agrahari, Hoang My Trinh, Mary Joseph, Ashim K Mitra
The impact of proteins and peptides on the treatment of various conditions including ocular diseases over the past few decades has been advanced by substantial breakthroughs in structural biochemistry, genetic engineering, formulation and delivery approaches. Formulation and delivery of proteins and peptides, such as monoclonal antibodies, aptamers, recombinant proteins and peptides to ocular tissues poses significant challenges owing to their large size, poor permeation and susceptibility to degradation. A wide range of advanced drug delivery systems including polymeric controlled release systems, cell-based delivery and nanowafers are being exploited to overcome the challenges of frequent administration to ocular tissues...
January 12, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337902/cytokine-disturbances-in-coronary-artery-ectasia-do-not-support-atherosclerosis-pathogenesis
#3
Usama Boles, Anders Johansson, Urban Wiklund, Zain Sharif, Santhosh David, Siobhan McGrory, Michael Y Henein
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is a rare disorder commonly associated with additional features of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we aimed to examine the systemic immune-inflammatory response that might associate CAE. METHODS: Plasma samples were obtained from 16 patients with coronary artery ectasia (mean age 64.9 ± 7.3 years, 6 female), 69 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and angiographic evidence for atherosclerosis (age 64.5 ± 8...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332191/genome-wide-characterization-of-differentially-expressed-genes-provides-insights-into-regulatory-network-of-heat-stress-response-in-radish-raphanus-sativus-l
#4
Ronghua Wang, Yi Mei, Liang Xu, Xianwen Zhu, Yan Wang, Jun Guo, Liwang Liu
Heat stress (HS) causes detrimental effects on plant morphology, physiology, and biochemistry that lead to drastic reduction in plant biomass production and economic yield worldwide. To date, little is known about HS-responsive genes involved in thermotolerance mechanism in radish. In this study, a total of 6600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the control and Heat24 cDNA libraries of radish were isolated by high-throughput sequencing. With Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, some genes including MAPK, DREB, ERF, AP2, GST, Hsf, and Hsp were predominantly assigned in signal transductions, metabolic pathways, and biosynthesis and abiotic stress-responsive pathways...
January 13, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331509/selenolanthionine-is-the-major-water-soluble-selenium-compound-in-the-selenium-tolerant-plant-cardamine-violifolia
#5
Eszter Borbála Both, Shuxun Shao, Jiqian Xiang, Zsuzsa Jókai, Hongqing Yin, Yafeng Liu, Anna Magyar, Mihály Dernovics
BACKGROUND: Selenium hyperaccumulation in plants often involves the synthesis of non-proteinaceous methylated selenoamino acids serving for the elimination of excess selenium from plant metabolism to protect plant homeostasis. METHODS: Our study aimed at the identification of the main selenium species of the selenium hyperaccumulator plant Cardamine violifolia (Brassicaceae) that grows in the wild in the seleniferous region of Enshi, China. A sample of this plant (3...
January 10, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331368/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-safety-analysis-of-enterococcus-faecium-2c-isolated-from-human-breast-milk
#6
Soodabeh Khalkhali, Naheed Mojgani
INTRODUCTION: Safety analysis of probiotic bacteria is an obligatory characteristic to be evaluated prior to application in food or pharmacological products. This study was designed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo safety parameters of Enterococcus faecium 2C strain, a probiotic candidate isolated from human breast milk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: E.faecium 2C was studied for its hemolytic activity and phenotypic antibiotics resistance profile. In vivo safety of the mentioned Enterococcus strain was studied by determining acute oral toxicity in Wistar Male rats...
January 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330785/genetic-knockdown-and-pharmacologic-inhibition-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-hif-hydroxylases
#7
Christina Pickel, Cormac T Taylor, Carsten C Scholz
Reduced oxygen supply that does not satisfy tissue and cellular demand (hypoxia) regularly occurs both in health and disease. Hence, the capacity for cellular oxygen sensing is of vital importance for each cell to be able to alter its energy metabolism and promote adaptation to hypoxia. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylases 1-3 (PHD1-3) and the asparagine hydroxylase factor-inhibiting HIF (FIH) are the primary cellular oxygen sensors, which confer cellular oxygen-dependent sensitivity upon HIF as well as other hypoxia-sensitive pathways, such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330374/predicting-fibrosis-progression-in-renal-transplant-recipients-using-laser-based-infrared-spectroscopic-imaging
#8
Vishal K Varma, Andre Kajdacsy-Balla, Sanjeev Akkina, Suman Setty, Michael J Walsh
Renal transplants have not seen a significant improvement in their 10-year graft life. Chronic damage accumulation often leads to interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) and thus graft function loss over time. For this reason, IF/TA has been the chief suspect for a potential prognostic marker for long term outcomes. In this study, we have used infrared spectroscopic (IR) imaging to interrogate the biochemistry of regions of fibrosis from renal transplant biopsies to identify a biochemical signature that can predict rapid progression of fibrosis...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330189/targeted-synthesis-and-characterization-of-a-gene-cluster-encoding-nad-p-h-dependent-3%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-and-12%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases-from-eggerthella-cag-298-a-gut-metagenomic-sequence
#9
Sean M Mythen, Saravanan Devendran, Celia Méndez-García, Isaac Cann, Jason M Ridlon
Gut metagenomic sequences provide a rich source of microbial genes, the majority of which are annotated by homology or unknown. Genes and gene pathways that encode enzymes catalyzing biotransformation of host bile acids are important to identify in gut metagenomic sequences due to the importance of bile acids on gut microbiome structure and host physiology. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDH) are pyridine nucleotide-dependent enzymes with stereo-specificity and regio-specificity for bile acid and steroid hydroxyl groups...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329628/spirocerca-lupi-induced-oesophageal-neoplasia-predictors-of-surgical-outcome
#10
Paolo Pazzi, Anastasia Kavkovsky, Anna Shipov, Gilad Segev, Eran Dvir
Canine spirocercosis is caused by the nematode Spirocerca lupi. Migration results in oesophageal fibro-inflammatory nodules that may undergo neoplastic transformation. No studies have assessed pre- or post-surgical prognostic indicators in dogs that undergo intervention for S. lupi induced oesophageal neoplasia. This observational, multi-center study aimed to assess the outcome of dogs with Spirocerca induced sarcoma undergoing endoscopic-guided ablation (n = 12) or surgery (n = 18), and identify prognostic indicators...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329519/eikenella-corrodens-endocarditis-and-liver-abscess-in-a-previously-healthy-male-a-case-report
#11
Anne Christine Nordholm, Ruth Ottilia Birgitta Vøgg, Henrik Permin, Terese Katzenstein
BACKGROUND: Eikenella corrodens is one of the HACEK bacteria constituting part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, however, still an uncommon pathogen. We report a case of a large Eikenella corrodens liver abscess with simultaneously endocarditis in a previously healthy male. CASE PRESENTATION: A 49-year-old Danish man was admitted because of one-month malaise, fever, cough and unintentional weight loss. On admission there was elevated white blood cell count and C-reactive protein, as well as affected liver function tests...
January 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329305/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-switching-from-lamivudine-plus-adefovir-to-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-monotherapy-in-lamivudine-resistant-stable-hepatitis-b-patients
#12
Heon Ju Lee, Sang Jin Kim, Young Oh Kweon, Soo Young Park, Jeong Heo, Hyun Young Woo, Jae Seok Hwang, Woo Jin Chung, Chang Hyeong Lee, Byung Seok Kim, Jeong Ill Suh, Won Young Tak, Byoung Kuk Jang
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of switching to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) monotherapy from lamivudine (LAM) plus adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) combination therapy (stable switching) in patients with LAM-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and undetectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is not clear. METHODS: In this non-inferiority trial, patients with LAM-resistant CHB and undetectable serum HBV DNA (<20 IU/mL) for >6 months after initiating LAM+ADV combination therapy were randomized (1:2) either to continue the combination therapy (LAM+ADV group, n = 58) or switched to TDF monotherapy (TDF group, n = 111)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328945/astaxanthin-ameliorates-cerulein-induced-acute-pancreatitis-in-mice
#13
Hui Zhang, Wenjuan Yang, Yueyue Li, Liangkai Hu, Ying Dai, Jianqing Chen, Shuqi Xu, Xuanfu Xu, Haiqiong Jiang
BACKGROUND: A various of pharmacological effects of astaxanthin has been confirmed. However, the mechanism underlying protective effect of astaxanthin on acute pancreatitis (AP) induced by cerulein still unclear. The present study is to investigate the mechanism underlying the effect of astaxanthin on autophagy and apoptosis via the JAK/STAT3 pathway. METHODS: Intraperitoneal injection of cerulein at hourly intervals followed by lipopolysaccharide injection were used in Balb/C mice...
January 9, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328784/dna-encoded-chemical-libraries-a-selection-system-based-on-endowing-organic-compounds-with-amplifiable-information
#14
Dario Neri, Richard A Lerner
The discovery of organic ligands that bind specifically to proteins is a central problem in chemistry, biology, and the biomedical sciences. The encoding of individual organic molecules with distinctive DNA tags, serving as amplifiable identification bar codes, allows the construction and screening of combinatorial libraries of unprecedented size, thus facilitating the discovery of ligands to many different protein targets. Fundamentally, one links powers of genetics and chemical synthesis. After the initial description of DNA-encoded chemical libraries in 1992, several experimental embodiments of the technology have been reduced to practice...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328783/signaling-to-and-from-the-rna-polymerase-iii-transcription-and-processing-machinery
#15
Ian M Willis, Robyn D Moir
RNA polymerase (Pol) III has a specialized role in transcribing the most abundant RNAs in eukaryotic cells, transfer RNAs (tRNAs), along with other ubiquitous small noncoding RNAs, many of which have functions related to the ribosome and protein synthesis. The high energetic cost of producing these RNAs and their central role in protein synthesis underlie the robust regulation of Pol III transcription in response to nutrients and stress by growth regulatory pathways. Downstream of Pol III, signaling impacts posttranscriptional processes affecting tRNA function in translation and tRNA cleavage into smaller fragments that are increasingly attributed with novel cellular activities...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327936/a-simple-boxed-molecular-kinetics-approach-to-accelerate-rare-events-in-the-stochastic-kinetic-master-equation
#16
Robin Shannon, David R Glowacki
The chemical master equation is a powerful theoretical tool for analysing the kinetics of complex multi-well potential energy surfaces in a wide range of different domains of chemical kinetics spanning combustion, atmospheric chemistry, gas-surface chemistry, solution phase chemistry, and biochemistry. There are two well-established methodologies for solving the chemical master equation: a stochastic "kinetic Monte Carlo" approach and a matrix-based approach. In principle, the results yielded by both approaches are identical; the decision of which approach is better suited to a particular study depends on the details of the specific system under investigation...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327221/whole-cell-solid-state-nmr-study-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-microalgae
#17
Alexandre A Arnold, Jean-Philippe Bourgouin, Bertrand Genard, Dror E Warschawski, Réjean Tremblay, Isabelle Marcotte
In vivo or whole-cell solid-state NMR is an emerging field which faces tremendous challenges. In most cases, cell biochemistry does not allow the labelling of specific molecules and an in vivo study is thus hindered by the inherent difficulty of identifying, among a formidable number of resonances, those arising from a given molecule. In this work we examined the possibility of studying, by solid-state NMR, the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii fully and non-specifically 13C labelled. The extension of NMR-based dynamic filtering from one-dimensional to two-dimensional experiments enabled an enhanced selectivity which facilitated the assignment of cell constituents...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327219/pharmacological-insights-into-the-use-of-apomorphine-in-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-relevance
#18
REVIEW
Manon Auffret, Sophie Drapier, Marc Vérin
The present paper consists of a comprehensive review of the literature on apomorphine pharmacological properties and its usefulness in Parkinson's disease (PD). The chemistry, structure-activity relationship, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of apomorphine are described with regard to its effects on PD symptoms, drug interactions, interindividual variability and adverse events. Apomorphine chemical structure accounts for most of its beneficial and deleterious properties, both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326397/roger-barry-clampitt
#19
Max Murray, James Armour, Christopher Little, Ronald Barron
A clinical pathologist whose outstanding contribution to the profession was to invent the first reliable clinical biochemistry analyser for use in practice.
January 13, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325042/biochemistry-of-complex-glycan-depolymerisation-by-the-human-gut-microbiota
#20
Didier Ndeh, Harry J Gilbert
The human gut microbiota (HGM) makes an important contribution to health and disease. It is a complex microbial community of trillions of microbes with a majority of its members represented within two phyla, the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, although it also contains species of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Reflecting its importance, the HGM is sometimes referred to as an 'organ' as it performs functions analogous to systemic tissues within the human host. The major nutrients available to the HGM are host and dietary complex carbohydrates...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
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