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Xing Guo, Daniel C Thomas, Richard M K Saunders
Although hybridisation between closely related species is common and known to be important in plant evolution, hybridisation at the generic level or above is comparatively rare. We address ancient intergeneric hybridisation in the early-divergent angiosperm family Annonaceae by phylogenetic reconstruction, divergence time estimation and coalescent simulation of the genus Dasymaschalon using a multi-locus approach based on molecular data from five chloroplast (matK, psbA-trnH, ndhF, rbcL, and trnL-F) and five nuclear (ITS, ETS, AP3, PhyA, and PhyC) DNA markers...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Zhen-Wang Zhao, Min Zhang, Ling-Yan Chen, Duo Gong, Xiao-Dan Xia, Xiao-Hua Yu, Si-Qi Wang, Xiang Ou, Xiao-Yan Dai, Xi-Long Zheng, Da-Wei Zhang, Chao-Ke Tang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent studies have suggested that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) may play critical roles in cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of HSP70 on the development of atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice remain largely unknown. This study was to investigate the role and potential mechanism of HSP70 in atherosclerosis. METHODS: HSP70 was overexpressed in apoE-/- mice and THP-1-derived macrophages with lentiviral vectors. Oil Red O, hematoxylin-eosin, and Masson staining were performed to evaluate atherosclerotic plaque in apoE-/- mice fed the Western type diet...
April 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Max A Seibold
About 50% of patients with asthma exhibit chronic airway inflammation driven by the type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13. These patients with type 2-high asthma experience more allergic symptoms, greater airway hyperresponsiveness, and more severe mucus obstruction than patients with type 2-low asthma. Mouse models of asthma have shown that much of the airway dysfunction in these models can be generated by IL-13 stimulation of the airway epithelium alone. Both in vivo mouse model studies and in vitro studies of human mucociliary airway epithelial cultures have shown that IL-13 induces cellular remodeling of the airway epithelium through proliferation-independent transdifferentiation processes...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Xiaodan Xu, Wei Zheng, Vicki A Funk, Jun Wen
Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth) Zardini of the Gerbera -complex (Mutisieae, Asteraceae/Compositae) is distributed in Ecuador and Peru. This perennial herb was first named as Onoseris hieracioides Kunth and was later recognised as Trichocline hieracioides (Kunth) Ferreyra. Now it is generally treated as Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth) Zardini but it has never been included in any section of Gerbera . In this study, the position of Gerbera hieracioides is assessed based on morphology and a molecular phylogeny that includes G...
2018: PhytoKeys
Xiaodan Xu, Wei Zheng, Vicki A Funk, Kexin Li, Jie Zhang, Jun Wen
Recently the Asian Gerbera species were shown to form a clade that was not the sister group of the African Gerbera . In this study, the position of the Asian Gerbera species was further assessed based on morphology and molecular phylogenetic analyses that included six Asian Gerbera and 26 other species from the Gerbera -complex. Morphological results showed that the six Asian Gerbera species, which were sampled, bear leaves with the adaxial epidermal surface lacking stomates, possess bracteate scapes and lack inner ray florets...
2018: PhytoKeys
Kyoko Ochiai, Haruka Kondo, Yasunobu Okamura, Hiroki Shima, Yuko Kurokochi, Kazumi Kimura, Ryo Funayama, Takeshi Nagashima, Keiko Nakayama, Katsuyuki Yui, Kengo Kinoshita, Kazuhiko Igarashi
The transcription factor (TF) interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4) promotes both germinal center (GC) reactions and plasma cell (PC) differentiation by binding to alternative DNA motifs including AP-1-IRF composite elements, Ets-IRF composite elements (EICEs), and interferon sequence response elements (ISREs). Although all of these motifs mediate transcriptional activation by IRF4, it is still unknown how some of the IRF4 target genes are downregulated upon PC differentiation. Here, we revealed a molecular mechanism of IRF4-mediated gene downregulation during PC differentiation...
April 24, 2018: Blood Advances
Eileen Gilder, Rachael L Parke, Andrew Jull
BACKGROUND: Despite the evidence and available guidelines about endotracheal suction (ETS), a discrepancy between published guidelines and clinical practice persists. To date, ETS practice in the adult intensive care unit (ICU) population across New Zealand and Australia has not been described. OBJECTIVE: To describe ICU nurses' ETS practice in New Zealand and Australia including the triggers for performing endotracheal suction. METHODS: A single day, prospective observational, binational, multicentre point prevalence study in New Zealand and Australian ICUs...
April 14, 2018: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
M K Lalor, T Mohiyuddin, T Uddin, H L Thomas, M Lipman, C N J Campbell
BACKGROUND: Accurate estimates of tuberculosis (TB) mortality are required to monitor progress towards the World Health Organization End TB goal of reducing TB deaths by 95% by 2035. We compared TB death data for England and Wales from the national surveillance system (Enhanced Tuberculosis Surveillance System [ETS]) and the vital registration system from the Office for National Statistics (ONS). METHODS: TB cases notified in ETS were matched to deaths in ONS (dONS) with International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes indicating that TB caused/contributed to the death (A15-A19)...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
David C Wedge, Gunes Gundem, Thomas Mitchell, Dan J Woodcock, Inigo Martincorena, Mohammed Ghori, Jorge Zamora, Adam Butler, Hayley Whitaker, Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Ludmil B Alexandrov, Peter Van Loo, Charlie E Massie, Stefan Dentro, Anne Y Warren, Clare Verrill, Dan M Berney, Nening Dennis, Sue Merson, Steve Hawkins, William Howat, Yong-Jie Lu, Adam Lambert, Jonathan Kay, Barbara Kremeyer, Katalin Karaszi, Hayley Luxton, Niedzica Camacho, Luke Marsden, Sandra Edwards, Lucy Matthews, Valeria Bo, Daniel Leongamornlert, Stuart McLaren, Anthony Ng, Yongwei Yu, Hongwei Zhang, Tokhir Dadaev, Sarah Thomas, Douglas F Easton, Mahbubl Ahmed, Elizabeth Bancroft, Cyril Fisher, Naomi Livni, David Nicol, Simon Tavaré, Pelvender Gill, Christopher Greenman, Vincent Khoo, Nicholas Van As, Pardeep Kumar, Christopher Ogden, Declan Cahill, Alan Thompson, Erik Mayer, Edward Rowe, Tim Dudderidge, Vincent Gnanapragasam, Nimish C Shah, Keiran Raine, David Jones, Andrew Menzies, Lucy Stebbings, Jon Teague, Steven Hazell, Cathy Corbishley, Johann de Bono, Gerhardt Attard, William Isaacs, Tapio Visakorpi, Michael Fraser, Paul C Boutros, Robert G Bristow, Paul Workman, Chris Sander, Freddie C Hamdy, Andrew Futreal, Ultan McDermott, Bissan Al-Lazikani, Andrew G Lynch, G Steven Bova, Christopher S Foster, Daniel S Brewer, David E Neal, Colin S Cooper, Rosalind A Eeles
Prostate cancer represents a substantial clinical challenge because it is difficult to predict outcome and advanced disease is often fatal. We sequenced the whole genomes of 112 primary and metastatic prostate cancer samples. From joint analysis of these cancers with those from previous studies (930 cancers in total), we found evidence for 22 previously unidentified putative driver genes harboring coding mutations, as well as evidence for NEAT1 and FOXA1 acting as drivers through noncoding mutations. Through the temporal dissection of aberrations, we identified driver mutations specifically associated with steps in the progression of prostate cancer, establishing, for example, loss of CHD1 and BRCA2 as early events in cancer development of ETS fusion-negative cancers...
April 16, 2018: Nature Genetics
Nathane Rosa Rodrigues, Giulianna Echeverria Macedo, Illana Kemmerich Martins, Karen Kich Gomes, Nélson Rodrigues de Carvalho, Thaís Posser, Jeferson Luis Franco
Many studies have shown the effects of sleep deprivation in several aspects of health and disease. However, little is known about how mitochondrial bioenergetics function is affected under this condition. To clarify this, we developed a simple model of short-term sleep deprivation, in which fruit-flies were submitted to a nocturnal light condition and then mitochondrial parameters were assessed by high resolution respirometry (HRR). Exposure of flies to constant light was able to alter sleep patterns, causing locomotor deficits, increasing ROS production and lipid peroxidation, affecting mitochondrial activity, antioxidant defense enzymes and caspase activity...
April 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Cristina Mayor-Ruiz, Teresa Olbrich, Matthias Drosten, Emilio Lecona, Maria Vega-Sendino, Sagrario Ortega, Orlando Dominguez, Mariano Barbacid, Sergio Ruiz, Oscar Fernandez-Capetillo
MEK inhibition in combination with a glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) inhibitor, referred as the 2i condition, favors pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, the mechanisms by which the 2i condition limits ESC differentiation and whether RAS proteins are involved in this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that RAS nullyzygosity reduces the growth of mouse ESCs (mESCs) and prohibits their differentiation. Upon RAS deficiency or MEK inhibition, ERF (E twenty-six 2 [Ets2]-repressive factor), a transcriptional repressor from the ETS domain family, translocates to the nucleus, where it binds to the enhancers of pluripotency factors and key RAS targets...
April 12, 2018: Genes & Development
Yiping Wang, Yingqiong Huang, Min Zhang, Xiaoqin Zhang, Xuemei Tang, Yan Kang
Background: Both miR-30a and miR-30e are significantly downregulated in cardiomyocytes (CMs) 2 days (d) post myocardial infarction (MI). This study aimed to identify their possible regulative network in CMs 2d post-MI. Methods: The dysregulated mRNAs in left ventricle tissues 2d post-MI in mice model were retrieved from one previous publication. The verified target genes of miR-30a/e and the predicted targets (upregulated 2d post-MI) were subjected to analysis of the involvement in biological processes according to their enrichment in gene ontology (GO) terms...
March 2018: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
Ram B Jain
Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2013-2014 were used to compute rates of exposure (ROE) to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from various indoor environments among US children and nonsmoking adolescents and adults. In a typical week in USA, 473,000 infants (ROE, 11%), 3.36 million children aged 1-5 years (ROE, 16.4%), and 4.59 million children aged 6-11 years (ROE, 18.6%) are exposed to ETS from indoor environments only. ROE among children was found to be highest by inhaling tobacco smoke inside home, riding in a car, and when visiting other people's homes...
April 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
J Foulds, A Hobkirk, E Wasserman, J Richie, S Veldheer, N M Krebs, L Reinhart, J Muscat
Regulations requiring a reduction of the nicotine content in cigarettes to minimally addictive levels could significantly reduce the public health impact of cigarette smoking. Clinical trials evaluating this strategy are ongoing and methods have been developed to use nicotine biomarkers to estimate compliance with use of very low nicotine content cigarettes (VLNCs). To date, these methods have not considered the potential contribution of nicotine absorption from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among research participants...
April 4, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Takashi Kojima, Cem Simsek, Ayako Igarashi, Kazue Aoki, Kazunari Higa, Takahiko Shimizu, Murat Dogru, Kazuo Tsubota, Jun Shimazaki
Purpose: The superoxide dismutase-1 knockout (Sod1-/-) mouse is an age-related dry eye mouse model. We evaluated the role of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic solution on the conjunctiva and ocular surface alterations in Sod1-/- mice. Methods: Rebamipide eye drops (2%) were instilled in six 50-week-old male Sod1-/- mice and six C57BL/6 strain wild-type (WT) male mice four times a day for 2 weeks. Aqueous tear secretion quantity and tear film breakup time measurements as well as vital stainings were performed...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Toru Tanaka, Kohei Izawa, Yusuke Maniwa, Maki Okamura, Atsumasa Okada, Tomoko Yamaguchi, Keisuke Shirakura, Naoki Maekawa, Hayato Matsui, Kenji Ishimoto, Nobumasa Hino, Osamu Nakagawa, William C Aird, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi, Kenji Kawabata, Takefumi Doi, Yoshiaki Okada
Although transcription factors regulating endothelial cell (EC)-specific gene expression have been identified, it is not known how those factors induce EC-specificity. We previously reported that DNA hypomethylation of the proximal promoter elicits EC-specific expression of Roundabout4 (Robo4). However, the mechanisms establishing EC-specific hypomethylation of the Robo4 promoter remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the hypermethylated Robo4 proximal promoter is demethylated as human iPS cells differentiate into endothelial cells...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Feng Guo, Chenchen Si, Mingjuan Zhou, Jingwen Wang, Dan Zhang, Peter C K Leung, Bufang Xu, Aijun Zhang
STUDY QUESTION: Is recurrent implantation failure (RIF) associated with decreased expression of platelet and endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM1) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in the endometrium during the implantation window? SUMMARY ANSWER: The present study demonstrates that the expression of PECAM1 and TGF-β1 is significantly decreased in the mid-secretory endometrium in women with RIF, which may account for embryo implantation failure...
March 30, 2018: Human Reproduction
Bartosz Fotschki, Jerzy Juśkiewicz, Krzysztof Kołodziejczyk, Adam Jurgoński, Monika Kosmala, Joanna Milala, Katarzyna Ognik, Zenon Zduńczyk
The present study compares the effects of two dietary strawberry extracts rich in monomeric (ME) or dimeric (DE) ellagitannins (ETs) on gastrointestinal, blood and tissue biomarkers in Wistar rats fed high-fructose diets. Both strawberry extracts beneficially affect the antioxidant status and lipid profile of the liver and serum. The ME extract shows a greater ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation in kidneys, more effectively decreases serum and liver triglycerides, and exerts greater anti-inflammatory effects in blood serum than the DE extract...
April 4, 2018: Nutrients
Emanoil Linul, Nima Movahedi, Liviu Marsavina
In this research work, the effect of lateral loading (LL) on the crushing performance of empty tubes (ETs) and ex situ aluminum foam-filled tubes (FFTs) was investigated at 300 °C. The cylindrical thin-walled steel tube was filled with the closed-cell aluminum alloy foam that compressed under quasi-static loading conditions. During the compression test, the main mechanical properties of the ETs improved due to the interaction effect between the cellular structure of the foam and the inner wall of the empty tube...
April 4, 2018: Materials
Annicka Hedman, Anders Kottorp, Ove Almkvist, Louise Nygård
ABSTRACTBackground:In clinical practice, efficient and valid functional markers are needed to detect subtle cognitive and functional decline in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This prospective study explored whether changes in perceived challenge of certain everyday technologies (ETs) can be used to detect signs of functional change in MCI. METHODS: Baseline and five-year data from 37 older adults (mean age 67.5 years) with MCI regarding their perceived ability to use ET were used to generate Rasch-based ET item measures reflecting the relative challenge of 46 ETs...
April 4, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
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