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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107778/parabolic-variation-in-sexual-selection-intensity-across-the-range-of-a%C3%A2-cold-water-pipefish-implications-for-susceptibility-to-climate-change
#1
Nuno Monteiro, Mário Cunha, Lídia Ferreira, Natividade Vieira, Agostinho Antunes, David Lyons, Adam G Jones
While an understanding of evolutionary processes in shifting environments is vital in the context of rapid ecological change, one of the most potent selective forces, sexual selection, remains curiously unexplored. Variation in sexual selection across a species range, especially across a gradient of temperature regimes, has the potential to provide a window into the possible impacts of climate change on the evolution of mating patterns. Here, we investigated some of the links between temperature and indicators of sexual selection, using a cold-water pipefish as model...
January 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107495/germination-response-of-four-alien-congeneric-amaranthus-species-to-environmental-factors
#2
Jian-Hua Hao, Shuang-Shuang Lv, Saurav Bhattacharya, Jian-Guo Fu
Seed germination is the key step for successful establishment, growth and further expansion of population especially for alien plants with annual life cycle. Traits like better adaptability and germination response were thought to be associated with plant invasion. However, there are not enough empirical studies correlating adaptation to environmental factors with germination response of alien invasive plants. In this study, we conducted congeneric comparisons of germination response to different environmental factors such as light, pH, NaCl, osmotic and soil burials among four alien amaranths that differ in invasiveness and have sympatric distribution in Jiangsu Province, China...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107415/serum-uric-acid-and-progression-of-kidney-disease-a-longitudinal-analysis-and-mini-review
#3
Ching-Wei Tsai, Shih-Yi Lin, Chin-Chi Kuo, Chiu-Ching Huang
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence supports the association between hyperuricemia and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, there are conflicting data regarding the role of hyperuricemia in the progression of CKD. This study retrospectively assessed the longitudinal association between uric acid (UA) level and CKD progression in a Chinese population lived in Taiwan. METHODS: Patients with physician diagnosis of hyperuricemia or receiving urate-lowering therapy between 2003 and 2005 were identified in the electronic medical records (EMR) of a tertiary medical center and were followed up until December 31, 2011...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107359/sustained-cortical-and-subcortical-measures-of-auditory-and-visual-plasticity-following-short-term-perceptual-learning
#4
Bonnie K Lau, Dorea R Ruggles, Sucharit Katyal, Stephen A Engel, Andrew J Oxenham
Short-term training can lead to improvements in behavioral discrimination of auditory and visual stimuli, as well as enhanced EEG responses to those stimuli. In the auditory domain, fluency with tonal languages and musical training has been associated with long-term cortical and subcortical plasticity, but less is known about the effects of shorter-term training. This study combined electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures to investigate short-term learning and neural plasticity in both auditory and visual domains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107058/rapid-changes-in-the-sex-linkage-of-male-coloration-in-introduced-guppy-populations
#5
Swanne P Gordon, Andrés López-Sepulcre, Diana Rumbo, David N Reznick
Theory predicts that the sex linkage of sexually selected traits can influence the direction and rate of evolution and should itself evolve in response to sex-specific selection. Some studies have found intraspecific differences in sex linkage associated with differences in selection pressures, but we know nothing about how fast these differences can evolve. Here we show that introduced guppy populations showing rapid evolution of male coloration also show rapid changes in sex-linkage patterns. A comparison, using hormonal manipulations in females, of introduced populations of different ages suggests a consistent increase of autosomal or X-linked coloration 2 years after introduction from high- to low-predation environments...
February 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106917/is-there-an-optimal-length-of-psychological-treatment-for-eating-disorder-pathology
#6
Caroline Bell, Glenn Waller, Roz Shafran, Jaime Delgadillo
Treatment guidelines for eating disorders (ED) are unclear about the optimal length of psychological care. We aimed to investigate associations between treatment duration and changes in ED pathology. Data for 164 outpatients accessing psychological interventions for ED were analyzed using MANOVA. We tested associations between number of therapy sessions and pre-post treatment changes in clinical outcomes (EDE-Q global scores, binge eating, purging); adjusting for baseline measures, diagnoses, and treatment type...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106879/bacterial-community-segmentation-facilitates-the-prediction-of-ecosystem-function-along-the-coast-of-the-western-antarctic-peninsula
#7
Jeff S Bowman, Linda A Amaral-Zettler, Jeremy J Rich, Catherine M Luria, Hugh W Ducklow
Bacterial community structure can be combined with observations of ecophysiological data to build predictive models of microbial ecosystem function. These models are useful for understanding how function might change in response to a changing environment. Here we use five spring-summer seasons of bacterial community structure and flow cytometry data from a productive coastal site along the western Antarctic Peninsula to construct models of bacterial production (BP), an ecosystem function that heterotrophic bacteria provide...
January 20, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106055/rapid-adaptive-phenotypic-change-following-colonization-of-a-newly-restored-habitat
#8
Camilla Lo Cascio Sætre, Charles Coleiro, Martin Austad, Mark Gauci, Glenn-Peter Sætre, Kjetil Lysne Voje, Fabrice Eroukhmanoff
Real-time observation of adaptive evolution in the wild is rare and limited to cases of marked, often anthropogenic, environmental change. Here we present the case of a small population of reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) over a period of 19 years (1996-2014) after colonizing a restored wetland habitat in Malta. Our data show a population decrease in body mass, following a trajectory consistent with a population ascending an adaptive peak, a so-called Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. We corroborate these findings with genetic and ecological data, revealing that individual survival is correlated with body mass, and more than half of the variation in mean population fitness is explained by variation in body mass...
January 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105876/what-drives-continuous-improvement-project-success-in-healthcare
#9
Paul Stelson, Joshua Hille, Chinweike Eseonu, Toni Doolen
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a study of factors that affect continuous improvement (CI) project success in hospitals. Design/methodology/approach Quantitative regression analysis was performed on Likert scale survey responses. Qualitative thematic analysis was performed on open-ended survey responses and written reports on CI projects. Findings The paper identifies managerial and employee factors that affect project success. These factors include managerial support, communication, and affective commitment...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105785/micromotors-spontaneously-neutralize-gastric-acid-for-ph-responsive-payload-release
#10
Jinxing Li, Pavimol Angsantikul, Wenjuan Liu, Berta Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Soracha Thamphiwatana, Mingli Xu, Elodie Sandraz, Xiaolei Wang, Jorge Delezuk, Weiwei Gao, Liangfang Zhang, Joseph Wang
The highly acidic gastric environment creates a physiological barrier for using therapeutic drugs in the stomach. While proton pump inhibitors have been widely used for blocking acid-producing enzymes, this approach can cause various adverse effects. Reported herein is a new microdevice, consisting of magnesium-based micromotors which can autonomously and temporally neutralize gastric acid through efficient chemical propulsion in the gastric fluid by rapidly depleting the localized protons. Coating these micromotors with a cargo-containing pH-responsive polymer layer leads to autonomous release of the encapsulated payload upon gastric-acid neutralization by the motors...
January 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105781/a-qualitative-study-exploring-medication-management-in-people-with-dementia-living-in-the-community-and-the-potential-role-of-the-community-pharmacist
#11
Ian D Maidment, Lydia Aston, Tiago Moutela, Chris G Fox, Andrea Hilton
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of dementia is increasing rapidly. People with dementia may be prescribed complex medication regimens, which may be challenging for them and any carers involved to safely manage. OBJECTIVE: To describe and understand the key challenges, in relation to medication issues, experienced by people with dementia and their informal carers dwelling in the community and the potential role of community pharmacists. DESIGN: Qualitative semi-structured interviews...
January 19, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105632/the-micro-taphonomy-of-cold-differential-microcracking-in-response-to-experimental-cold-stresses
#12
Chantal Turpin
Cold is a central feature of environments at higher latitudes and elevations. Thus, cold-induced taphonomic changes are relevant in many forensic contexts. Fifty-two lamb bone segments were used to assess the impact of cold, freeze-thaw cycles, freeze-drying, and water immersion on microstructural cracking of bone in a series of controlled exposure experiments. For each bone segment, three thin sections were examined under a light microscope. Cold exposure caused taphonomic changes in the form of microscopic cracking...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105571/metal-stress-in-zooplankton-diapause-production-post-hatching-response
#13
Adriana Aránguiz-Acuña, Pablo Pérez-Portilla
Aquatic organisms commonly respond to harsh conditions by forming diapausing stages, which enable populations to survive adverse periods forming egg banks. Production of diapausing eggs is frequently observed in monogonont rotifers, previously changing from asexual to partial sexual reproduction (mixis). In despite that zooplankton are frequently used in ecotoxicological assessment because of their sensitivity to various toxicants and their important role in the ecosystems, toxicity evaluations often consider the directly exposed population produced by parthenogenetic reproduction, exclusively...
January 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105368/clinical-and-immunologic-correlates-of-response-to-pd-1-blockade-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-renal-medullary-carcinoma
#14
Kathryn E Beckermann, Pradeep C Jolly, Ju Y Kim, Jennifer Bordeaux, Igor Puzanov, W Kimryn Rathmell, Douglas B Johnson
BACKGROUND: Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare kidney tumor that occurs in adolescent and young adults, typically in association with sickle cell trait. RMC exhibits rapid disease progression, frequent metastases at diagnosis, and dismal clinical outcomes. Currently available therapies, including cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy, multi-tyrosine kinase, and mTOR inhibitor strategies demonstrate either transient responses or minimal activity. Therefore, further molecular characterization and additional treatment strategies are urgently needed in this aggressive disease...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105343/increased-complements-and-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-predict-heart-failure-in-acute-myocardial-infarction
#15
Danni Liu, Xin Qi, Qi Li, Wenjun Jia, Liping Wei, Anan Huang, Keqiang Liu, Zongjin Li
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the serum levels of complements and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are associated with the severity of myocardial injury. Consecutive patients (n=110) with AMI and 33 healthy individuals, who served as control subjects, were enrolled from May 2013 to February 2015. These patients were divided into two groups, those with ST segment elevation MI (STEMI) and those with non-ST segment elevation MI (NSTEMI)...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105230/dendritic-cell-activated-cytokine-induced-killer-cell-mediated-immunotherapy-is-safe-and-effective-for-cancer-patients-65-years-old
#16
Yanfeng Liu, Haibo Liu, Hausheng Liu, Pengcheng He, Jing Li, Xin Liu, Limei Chen, Mengchang Wang, Jiejing Xi, Huaiyu Wang, Haitao Zhang, Ying Zhu, Wei Zhu, Jing Ning, Caili Guo, Chunhong Sun, Mei Zhang
Individuals >65 years old account for a large proportion of cancer patients, and usually have poor prognoses due to relative weaker physiological function and lower drug tolerance. To characterize the efficacy and safety of dendritic cell (DC)-activated cytokine-induced killer cell (CIK)-mediated treatment, and develop an adoptive immunotherapy for cancer patients >65 years old, a retrospective study was performed in 58 cancer sufferers who received 1-4 cycles of DC-activated CIK (DC-CIK) treatment and evaluated the response (tumor remission rate) and toxicity (side effects to the treatment)...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104876/small-peptides-allow-rapid-responses
#17
EDITORIAL
Pamela J Hines
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104801/aquatic-insects-in-a-multistress-environment-cross-tolerance-to-salinity-and-desiccation
#18
Susana Pallarés, María Botella-Cruz, Paula Arribas, Andrés Millán, Josefa Velasco
Exposing organims to a particular stressor may enhance tolerance to a subsequent stress, when protective mechanisms against both stressors are shared. Such cross-tolerance is a common adaptive response in dynamic multivariate environments and often indicates potential co-evolution of stress traits. Many aquatic insects in inland saline waters from Mediterranean-climate regions are sequentially challenged with salinity and desiccation stress. Thus, cross-tolerance to these physiologically similar stressors could have been positively selected in insects of these regions...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104718/boncat-enables-time-resolved-analysis-of-protein-synthesis-in-native-plant-tissue
#19
Weslee Glenn, Shannon E Stone, Samuel H Ho, Michael J Sweredoski, Annie Moradian, Sonja Hess, Julia Bailey-Serres, David A Tirrell
Proteomic plasticity undergirds stress responses in plants, and understanding such responses requires accurate measurement of the extent to which proteins levels are adjusted to counter external stimuli. Here, we adapt bioorthogonal non-canonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) to interrogate protein synthesis in vegetative Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. BONCAT relies on the translational incorporation of a non-canonical amino acid (ncAA) probe into cellular proteins. In this study, the probe is the methionine surrogate azidohomoalanine (Aha), which carries a reactive azide moiety in its amino acid side chain...
January 19, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104456/rapid-stimulation-of-sodium-intake-combining-aldosterone-into-the-4-th-ventricle-and-the-blockade-of-the-lateral-parabrachial-nucleus
#20
S Gasparini, M R Melo, G F Leite, P A Nascimento, G M F Andrade-Franzé, J V Menani, E Colombari
Chronic infusion of aldosterone into the 4(th) ventricle (4(th) V) induces robust daily sodium intake, whereas acute injection of aldosterone into the 4(th) V produces no sodium intake. The inhibitory mechanism of the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) restrains sodium intake induced by different natriorexigenic stimuli and might affect the acute response to aldosterone into the 4(th) V. In the present study, 1.8% NaCl and water intake was tested in rats treated with acute injections of aldosterone into the 4(th) V combined with the blockade of the inhibitory mechanisms with injections of moxonidine (α2 adrenergic/imidazoline agonist) or methysergide (a serotonergic antagonist) into the LPBN...
January 16, 2017: Neuroscience
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