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Wei Ling Chua, Min Ting Alicia See, Helena Legido-Quigley, Daryl Jones, Augustine Tee, Sok Ying Liaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Qiushi Li, Jihui Wang, Xuteng Xing, Wenbin Hu
The corrosion behavior of X65 steel was investigated in the seawater inoculated with sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) under the aerobic environment by electrochemical impedance techniques and immersion tests. The corroded morphologies and the composition of the corrosion products were investigated. The variation of the solution parameters including the bacterium number, the pH value and the soluble iron concentration were also investigated. The results indicated that in the SRB-containing system, the impedance responses presented a depressed semi-circle in the initial period, which then turned into the blocked electrode characteristic during the later immersion...
March 11, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Martin Bachmann, Aniko Czetö, Kristin Romanowski, Andreas Vernunft, Monika Wensch-Dorendorf, Petra Wolf, Cornelia C Metges, Annette Zeyner
Postprandial alterations of plasma amino acid (PAA) levels partly reflect a temporal contribution of the feed. How cereal grains affect PAA levels is not known. We hypothesized that a meal of cereal grains causes a temporal increase of PAA, affected by grain species, grain genotype and meal size. Six mares were used in three consecutive trials, receiving four oats, barley and maize genotypes, respectively. Individual grain genotypes were provided as 3 meal sizes corresponding to 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 g starch/kg body weight...
March 13, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Meng Liu, Shiyang Shen, Di Wen, Mengru Li, Teng Li, Xiaojie Chen, Zhen Gu, Ran Mo
Protein therapeutics hold increasing interest with promise of revolutionizing the cancer treatment by virtue of potent specific activity and reduced adverse effect. Nonetheless, the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer proteins is highly compromised by multiple successive physiological barriers to protein delivery. Concurrent elimination of bulk tumor cells and highly-tumorigenic cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) has been evidenced as a promising strategy to improve cancer therapy. Here we show that a hierarchically-assembled nanocomposite can self-adaptively transform its particulate property in response to endogenous tumor-associated signals to overcome the sequential barriers and achieve enhanced antitumor efficacy by killing CSCs and bulk tumor cells synchronously...
March 16, 2018: Nano Letters
Elodie Alessandri-Gradt, Fabienne De Oliveira, Marie Leoz, Véronique Lemee, David L Robertson, Felix Feyertag, Paul-Alain Ngoupo, Philippe Mauclere, François Simon, Jean-Christophe Plantier
OBJECTIVES: HIV/1 group P (HIV-1/P) is the last HIV/1 group discovered and to date, comprises only two strains. To obtain new insights into this divergent group, we screened for new infections by developing specific tools, and analysed phenotypic and genotypic properties of the prototypic strain RBF168. In addition, the follow-up of the unique patient monitored so far, has raised the knowledge of the natural history of this infection and its therapeutic management. DESIGN/METHODS: We developed an HIV-1/P specific sero-molecular strategy and screened over 29,498 specimen samples...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Maria J Gonzalez-Moa, Bieke Van Dorst, Ole Lagatie, Ann Verheyen, Lieven Stuyver, Marco A Biamonte
Three O. volvulus immunogenic peptide sequences recently discovered by peptide microarray were adapted to a lateral flow assay (LFA). The LFA employs gold nanoshells as novel high-contrast reporter nanoparticles and detects a serological response against the 3 peptides, found in OvOC9384, OvOC198, and OvOC5528, respectively. When tested on 118 sera from O. volvulus infected patients and 208 control sera, the LFA was 90, 63, and 98% sensitive for each peptide, respectively, and 99-100% specific vs. samples from healthy volunteers...
March 16, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Zhili Wan, Yingen Sun, Lulu Ma, Feibai Zhou, Jian Guo, Song-Qing Hu, Xiao-Quan Yang
Nanofibrils from self-assembly of the naturally occurring saponin glycyrrhizic acid (GA) can be used to create an oil-in-water emulsion foam with long-term stability. Through a homogenization and aeration followed by a rapid cooling, stable emulsion foams can be produced from the mixtures of sunflower oil and saponin nanofibrils. At high temperature, the GA fibrils form a multilayer assembly at the interface, creating an interfacial fibrillar network to stabilize the oil droplets and air bubbles generated during homogenization...
March 16, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Germán Errázuriz
INTRODUCTION: Rectal prolapse (RP) is related to an increase of intra-abdominal pressure, pelvic floor disease or anal sphincter. The most common causes of RP are constipation, cystic fibrosis, whooping cough and dysenteric diarrhea. However, celiac disease is not considered among the pathologies re lated to RP. OBJECTIVE: To present a scarcely described association between RP and celiac disease. CLINICAL CASES: We presented 2 preschoolers in whom the reason for consultation was RP, whose study was focused on as prolonged diarrhea, due to the antecedent of pasty consistency of stools...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Kasper Meidahl Petersen, Søren Bøgevig, Jens Juul Holst, Filip Krag Knop, Mikkel Bring Christensen
Context: Glucagon's effects on hemodynamic parameters - most notably heart rate and cardiac contractility - are overlooked. The glucagon receptor is a central target in novel and anticipated type 2 diabetes therapies and hemodynamic consequences of glucagon signaling have therefore become increasingly important. In this review we summarize and evaluate published studies on glucagon pharmacology with focus on clinical hemodynamic effects in humans. Evidence acquisition: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library were searched for clinical studies concerning hemodynamic effects of glucagon (no year restriction)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Andrzej T Slominski, Michal A Zmijewski, Przemyslaw M Plonka, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Ralf Paus
The skin, a self-regulating protective barrier organ, is empowered with sensory and computing capabilities to counteract the environmental stressors to maintain/restore disrupted cutaneous homeostasis. These complex functions are coordinated by a cutaneous neuro-endocrine system that also communicates in a bidirectional fashion with the central nervous, endocrine and immune systems, all acting in concert to control body homeostasis. While ultraviolet energy (UV) has played an important role in the origin and evolution of life, UV absorption by the skin not only triggers mechanisms that defend skin integrity and regulate global homeostasis, but also induces skin pathology (e...
March 12, 2018: Endocrinology
Cécile Vors, Charles Couillard, Marie-Eve Paradis, Iris Gigleux, Johanne Marin, Marie-Claude Vohl, Patrick Couture, Benoît Lamarche
Background: High-fat meals induce postprandial inflammation. Resveratrol is a polyphenol known to prevent comorbidities associated with cardiovascular disease and exerts an anti-inflammatory action. There is also an increasing body of evidence supporting the role of curcumin, a polyphenol from the curcuminoid family, as a modulator of proinflammatory processes. Objective: The objectives of this study were to investigate the following: 1) the bioavailability of resveratrol consumed in combination with curcumin after consumption of a high-fat meal; and 2) the acute combined effects of this combination on the postprandial inflammatory response of subjects with abdominal obesity...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Jeliazko R Jeliazkov, Adnan Sljoka, Daisuke Kuroda, Nobuyuki Tsuchimura, Naoki Katoh, Kouhei Tsumoto, Jeffrey J Gray
Antibodies can rapidly evolve in specific response to antigens. Affinity maturation drives this evolution through cycles of mutation and selection leading to enhanced antibody specificity and affinity. Elucidating the biophysical mechanisms that underlie affinity maturation is fundamental to understanding B-cell immunity. An emergent hypothesis is that affinity maturation reduces the conformational flexibility of the antibody's antigen-binding paratope to minimize entropic losses incurred upon binding. In recent years, computational and experimental approaches have tested this hypothesis on a small number of antibodies, often observing a decrease in the flexibility of the complementarity determining region (CDR) loops that typically comprise the paratope and in particular the CDR-H3 loop, which contributes a plurality of antigen contacts...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Seung Yub Han, Alesia Antoine, David Howard, Bryant Chang, Woo Sung Chang, Matthew Slein, Gintaras Deikus, Sofia Kossida, Patrice Duroux, Marie-Paule Lefranc, Robert P Sebra, Melissa L Smith, Ismael Ben F Fofana
The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pathogenesis is critical for furthering our understanding of the role of antibody responses in the prevention of HIV infection, and will only increase in importance as macaque immunoglobulin (IG) gene databases are expanded. We have previously reported the construction of a phage display library from a SIV-infected rhesus macaque ( Macaca mulatta ) using oligonucleotide primers based on human IG gene sequences...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Nicolas S Merle, Anne Grunenwald, Marie-Lucile Figueres, Sophie Chauvet, Marie Daugan, Samantha Knockaert, Tania Robe-Rybkine, Remi Noe, Olivia May, Marie Frimat, Nathan Brinkman, Thomas Gentinetta, Sylvia Miescher, Pascal Houillier, Veronique Legros, Florence Gonnet, Olivier P Blanc-Brude, Marion Rabant, Regis Daniel, Jordan D Dimitrov, Lubka T Roumenina
Intravascular erythrocyte destruction, accompanied by the release of pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory components hemoglobin and heme, is a common event in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases with heterogeneous etiology and clinical features. A frequent adverse effect related to massive hemolysis is the renal injury and inflammation. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether heme--a danger-associated molecular pattern--and ligand for TLR4 or upstream hemolysis-derived products are responsible for these effects...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yinhong Hu, Xiaolin Dou, Juanyong Li, Feng Li
The rapid expansion of urbanization has caused land cover change, especially the increasing area of impervious surfaces. Such alterations have significant effects on the soil ecosystem by impeding the exchange of gasses, water, and materials between soil and the atmosphere. It is unclear whether impervious surfaces have any effects on soil bacterial diversity and community composition. In the present study, we conducted an investigation of bacterial communities across five typical land cover types, including impervious surfaces (concrete), permeable pavement (bricks with round holes), shrub coverage ( Buxus megistophylla Levl...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Barry H Smith, Lawrence S Gazda, Thomas J Fahey, Angelica Nazarian, Melissa A Laramore, Prithy Martis, Zoe P Andrada, Joanne Thomas, Tapan Parikh, Sudipta Sureshbabu, Nathaniel Berman, Allyson J Ocean, Richard D Hall, David J Wolf
Objective: The complexity, heterogeneity and capacity of malignant neoplastic cells and tumors for rapid change and evolution suggest that living-cell-based biological-systems approaches to cancer treatment are merited. Testing this hypothesis, the tumor marker, metabolic activity, and overall survival (OS) responses, to the use of one such system, implantable macrobeads [RENCA macrobeads (RMBs)], in phase I and IIa clinical trials in advanced, treatment-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are described here...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
J D Drummond, F Boano, E R Atwill, X Li, T Harter, A I Packman
Rivers are a means of rapid and long-distance transmission of pathogenic microorganisms from upstream terrestrial sources. Pathogens enter streams and rivers via overland flow, shallow groundwater discharge, and direct inputs. Of concern is the protozoal parasite, Cryptosporidium, which can remain infective for weeks to months under cool and moist conditions, with the infectious stage (oocysts) largely resistant to chlorination. We applied a mobile-immobile model framework to assess Cryptosporidium transport and retention in streams, that also accounts for inactivation...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Muhammad Abid, Shafaqat Ali, Lei Kang Qi, Rizwan Zahoor, Zhongwei Tian, Dong Jiang, John L Snider, Tingbo Dai
Defining the metabolic strategies used by wheat to tolerate and recover from drought events will be important for ensuring yield stability in the future, but studies addressing this critical research topic are limited. To this end, the current study quantified the physiological, biochemical, and agronomic responses of a drought tolerant and drought sensitive cultivar to periods of water deficit and recovery. Drought stress caused a reversible decline in leaf water relations, membrane stability, and photosynthetic activity, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation and membrane injury...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuan Luo, Teena Mohan, Wandi Zhu, Chao Wang, Lei Deng, Bao-Zhong Wang
Seasonal influenza vaccines have proven to be effective against well-matched viruses in healthy adults. However, rapid accumulation of mutations in the main antigenic surface proteins of influenza can compromise the efficiency of flu vaccines. Occasionally, influenza pandemics arise and present a different type of challenge to current seasonal vaccines. Novel vaccination strategies that can educate the host immune system to generate immune responses focusing on conserved epitopes on theses antigenic surface proteins are crucial for controlling and limiting influenza epidemics and pandemics...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jenny Q Ouyang, Scott Davies, Davide Dominoni
Alternation between day and night is a predictable environmental fluctuation that organisms use to time their activities. Since the invention of artificial lighting, this predictability has been disrupted and continues to change in a unidirectional fashion with increasing urbanization. As hormones mediate individual responses to changing environments, endocrine systems might be one of the first systems affected, as well as being the first line of defense to ameliorate any negative health impacts. In this Review, we first highlight how light can influence endocrine function in vertebrates...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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