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"Clostridium difficile" "proton pump inhibitor"

Timothy Lawes, José-María Lopez-Lozano, Cesar A Nebot, Gillian Macartney, Rashmi Subbarao-Sharma, Karen D Wares, Carolyn Sinclair, Ian M Gould
BACKGROUND: Whereas many antibiotics increase risk of Clostridium difficile infection through dysbiosis, epidemic C difficile ribotypes characterised by multidrug resistance might depend on antibiotic selection pressures arising from population use of specific drugs. We examined the effect of a national antibiotic stewardship intervention limiting the use of 4C antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, clindamycin, co-amoxiclav, and cephalosporins) and other infection prevention and control strategies on the clinical and molecular epidemiology of C difficile infections in northeast Scotland...
November 4, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Leticia Urbina Soto, Sara García Ávila, Ana Isabel Córdoba Alonso, M Pía Roiz Mesones, Ana M Arnaiz García, M Carmen Valero Díaz de Lamadrid
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea is a major health problem that seems to be on the increase. In our study, we analyse the changes in the incidence of this infection over the last 11 years. METHODS: A descriptive study in hospitalised patients with Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea in University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla (Santander, Spain) from 2004 to 2014. RESULTS: A total of 244 adults were identified [53% men; 66 (SD 15) years]...
November 4, 2016: Medicina Clínica
Drayton A Hammond, Niranjan Kathe, Anuj Shah, Bradley C Martin
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of stress ulcer prophylaxis with histamine2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) versus proton pump inhibitors (PPI) in critically ill and mechanically ventilated adults. DESIGN: A decision analytic model estimating the costs and effectiveness of stress ulcer prophylaxis (with H2RAs and PPIs) from a health care institutional perspective. PATIENTS: Adult, mixed intensive care unit (ICU) population who received an H2RA or PPI for up to 9 days...
November 3, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Avi Peretz, Izhar Ben Shlomo, Orna Nitzan, Luigi Bonavina, Pmela M Schaffer, Moshe Schaffer
BACKGROUND: Although mucositis, diarrhea, and constipation as well as immunosuppression are well recognized side-effects of cancer treatment, the underlying mechanisms including changes in the composition of gut microbiota and Clostridium difficile infection have not yet been thoroughly reviewed. OBJECTIVE: We herein set out to review the literature regarding the relations between cancer chemotherapy, radiation treatment, and Clostridium difficile-associated colitis...
October 28, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
B G Rogala, G E Malat, D H Lee, M N Harhay, A M Doyle, T E Bias
Clostridium difficile remains the leading cause of health care-associated infectious diarrhea, and its incidence and severity are increasing in liver transplant recipients. Several known risk factors for C difficile infection (CDI) are inherently associated with liver transplantation, such as severe underlying illness, immunosuppression, abdominal surgery, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use. We conducted a single-center retrospective case control study to characterize risk factors for CDI among patients who received a liver transplant from January 2008 to December 2012...
October 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
R Simmerlein, A Basta, M Gosch
Clostridium difficile is the main cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adults in Europe and North America. Infections with C. difficile typically occur in elderly patients with comorbidities and prior antibiotic therapy. Other risk factors are proton pump inhibitors, which are taken by many elderly patients. The main virulence factors are toxins A and B. The clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic colonization to severe disease with abdominal complications and sepsis. The current diagnostic gold standard is anaerobic culture but is impractical in routine use due to the long duration...
October 26, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Vanessa Arriola, Jessica Tischendorf, Jackson Musuuza, Anna Barker, Jeffrey W Rozelle, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile is the principal infectious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and accounts for 12% of hospital-acquired infections. Recent literature has shown an increased risk of C. difficile infection (CDI) with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use. OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic assessment of the risk of hospital-acquired CDI following exposure to PPI. METHODS We searched multiple databases for studies examining the relationship between PPI and hospital-acquired CDI. Pooled odds ratios were generated and assessment for heterogeneity performed...
December 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Ginger E Rouse, Karen Hardinger, Demetra Tsapepas, Eric M Tichy
INTRODUCTION: There are several different agents that can be used for gastrointestinal (GI) ulcer prophylaxis in posttransplant recipients, such as histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). RESEARCH QUESTION: This study was conducted to compare the incidence of adverse kidney events in transplant recipients who received prophylaxis with H2RAs or PPIs. DESIGN: This retrospective study included all kidney transplant recipients from 3 transplant centers who were transplanted in 2009 through 2011...
September 20, 2016: Progress in Transplantation
Elizabeth E Roughead, Esther W Chan, Nam-Kyong Choi, Jenna Griffiths, Xue-Mei Jin, Joongyub Lee, Michio Kimura, Tomomi Kimura, Kiyoshi Kubota, Edward Chia-Cheng Lai, Kenneth Kc Man, Tuan Anh Nguyen, Nobuhiro Ooba, Byung-Joo Park, Tsugumichi Sato, Ju-Young Shin, TongTong Wang, Ian Ck Wong, Yea-Huei Kao Yang, Nicole L Pratt
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between incident proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and Clostridium difficile infections across multiple countries Method: National data covering the total population in Australia and Korea, the Canadian population over 65 years and a 3 million person random sample data set from Taiwan were assessed, as were data from a worker insurance population and a hospital inpatient/outpatient population in Japan. Sequence symmetry analysis was used to assess the association with oral vancomycin dispensing as the outcome of interest...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Kevin W McConeghy, Melinda M Soriano, Larry H Danziger
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown associations between Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and non-antimicrobial medications including proton pump inhibitors, osteoporosis medications, and antidepressants. OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective was to evaluate oral bisphosphonates and reported CDI adverse drug reactions in the United States using the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System data (FAERS). METHODS: We performed a disproportionality analysis evaluating the proportion of reports with bisphosphonates and CDI compared with other adverse drug reactions in the database...
October 2016: Pharmacotherapy
David M Faleck, Hojjat Salmasian, E Yoko Furuya, Elaine L Larson, Julian A Abrams, Daniel E Freedberg
OBJECTIVES: Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) frequently receive proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and have high rates of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). PPIs have been associated with CDI in hospitalized patients, but ICU patients differ fundamentally from non-ICU patients and few studies have focused on PPI use exclusively in the critical care setting. We performed a retrospective cohort study to determine the associations between PPIs and health-care facility-onset CDI in the ICU...
November 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Jessica Michal, Thomas Henry, Connie Street
PURPOSE: Results of a pharmacist-driven protocol to decrease proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use in non-intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalized adults are presented. METHODS: This concurrent preintervention and postintervention study included subjects at least 18 years of age receiving PPIs while hospitalized in general medical or surgical beds. Patients were identified for inclusion in the postintervention group using a daily list of hospitalized patients with active PPI orders...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Paul O Lewis, John M Litchfield, Jennifer L Tharp, Rebecca M Garcia, Mohsen Pourmorteza, Chakradhar M Reddy
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates and severity of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among patients taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) versus those not taking PPIs. DESIGN: Retrospective, single-center, cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary community hospital with a teaching service. PATIENTS: A total of 41,663 patients with CDI who were hospitalized between January 2013 and May 2014; of those, 17,471 patients (41...
September 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Christopher E Kandel, Suzanne Gill, Janine McCready, John Matelski, Jeff E Powis
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Both a computer order entry alert to highlight this association as well as antimicrobial stewardship directed prospective audit and feedback represent novel interventions to reduce the co-administration of antibiotics and PPIs among hospitalized patients. METHODS: Consecutive patients admitted to two General Internal Medicine wards from October 1, 2010 until March 31, 2013 at a teaching hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada were evaluated...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jung Hwa Min, You Sun Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 15, 2016: Gut and Liver
Antonio Ramos, Jorge Ortiz, Ángel Asensio, Rocío Martínez-Ruiz, Elena Múñez, Mireia Cantero, Alberto Cozar, Piedad Ussetti, José Portolés, Valentín Cuervas-Mons
BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge about specific risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). METHOD: A retrospective study comparing cases of CDI in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with controls (SOT recipients who did not present CDI). RESULTS: Thirty patients with SOT from 1340 transplantation recipients had at least 1 episode of CDI (2.23%). The accumulated incidence was 3.06% in liver transplantation, 2.78% in lung transplantation, 2...
September 2016: Progress in Transplantation
S E Pérez-Topete, T Miranda-Aquino, J A Hernández-Portales
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a Gram-positive bacillus that is a common cause of diarrhea in the hospital environment, with a documented incidence of up to 10%. There are different methods to detect it, but a widely used test in our environment is the immunoassay for toxins A and B. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to 1) estimate the positive predictive value of the immunoassay for the detection of the C. difficile toxins A and B, 2) to establish the incidence of C...
June 14, 2016: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
Nagham Khanafer, Luc Oltra, Monique Hulin, Olivier Dauwalder, Francois Vandenesch, Philippe Vanhems
The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed with an increase in incidence and severity. Prospective surveillance was therefore implemented in a French university hospital to monitor the characteristics of patients at risk and to recognize local trends. Between 2007 and 2014, all hospitalized patients (≥18 years) with CDI were included. During the survey, the mean incidence rate of CDI was 2.9 per 10,000 hospital-days. In all, 590 patients were included. Most of the episodes were healthcare-associated (76...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sunny H Wong, Margaret Ip, Peter M Hawkey, Norman Lo, Katie Hardy, Susan Manzoor, Wyman W M Hui, Kin-Wing Choi, Rity Y K Wong, Irene M H Yung, Catherine S K Cheung, Kelvin L Y Lam, Thomas Kwong, William K K Wu, Siew C Ng, Justin C Y Wu, Joseph J Y Sung, Nelson Lee
OBJECTIVES: We aim to study the disease burden, risk factors and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Hong Kong. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, case-control study in three acute-care hospitals in Hong Kong. Adult inpatients who developed CDI diarrhoea confirmed by PCR (n = 139) were compared with the non-CDI controls (n = 114). Ribotyping of isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed. RESULTS: The estimated crude annual incidence of CDI was 23-33/100,000 population, and 133-207/100,000 population among those aged ≥65 years...
August 2016: Journal of Infection
Jason Abramowitz, Punam Thakkar, Arton Isa, Alan Truong, Connie Park, Richard M Rosenfeld
OBJECTIVE: To assist clinicians in counseling patients regarding the risk of adverse events from proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), by synthesizing evidence from published systematic reviews of antireflux therapy. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PubMed, Web of Knowledge. REVIEW METHODS: Overview based on PRISMA reporting standards (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) of English-language meta-analyses and systematic reviews of PPI therapy for reflux disease through December 2014...
October 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
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