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"Clostridium difficile" "proton pump inhibitor"

Vanessa Arriola, Jessica Tischendorf, Jackson Musuuza, Anna Barker, Jeffrey W Rozelle, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile is the principal infectious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and accounts for 12% of hospital-acquired infections. Recent literature has shown an increased risk of C. difficile infection (CDI) with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use. OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic assessment of the risk of hospital-acquired CDI following exposure to PPI. METHODS We searched multiple databases for studies examining the relationship between PPI and hospital-acquired CDI. Pooled odds ratios were generated and assessment for heterogeneity performed...
September 28, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Ginger E Rouse, Karen Hardinger, Demetra Tsapepas, Eric M Tichy
INTRODUCTION: There are several different agents that can be used for gastrointestinal (GI) ulcer prophylaxis in posttransplant recipients, such as histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). RESEARCH QUESTION: This study was conducted to compare the incidence of adverse kidney events in transplant recipients who received prophylaxis with H2RAs or PPIs. DESIGN: This retrospective study included all kidney transplant recipients from 3 transplant centers who were transplanted in 2009 through 2011...
September 20, 2016: Progress in Transplantation
Elizabeth E Roughead, Esther W Chan, Nam-Kyong Choi, Jenna Griffiths, Xue-Mei Jin, Joongyub Lee, Michio Kimura, Tomomi Kimura, Kiyoshi Kubota, Edward Chia-Cheng Lai, Kenneth Kc Man, Tuan Anh Nguyen, Nobuhiro Ooba, Byung-Joo Park, Tsugumichi Sato, Ju-Young Shin, TongTong Wang, Ian Ck Wong, Yea-Huei Kao Yang, Nicole L Pratt
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between incident proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and Clostridium difficile infections across multiple countries Method: National data covering the total population in Australia and Korea, the Canadian population over 65 years and a 3 million person random sample data set from Taiwan were assessed, as were data from a worker insurance population and a hospital inpatient/outpatient population in Japan. Sequence symmetry analysis was used to assess the association with oral vancomycin dispensing as the outcome of interest...
September 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Kevin W McConeghy, Melinda M Soriano, Larry H Danziger
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown associations between Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and non-antimicrobial medications including proton pump inhibitors, osteoporosis medications, and antidepressants. OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective was to evaluate oral bisphosphonates and reported CDI adverse drug reactions in the United States using the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System data (FAERS). METHODS: We performed a disproportionality analysis evaluating the proportion of reports with bisphosphonates and CDI compared with other adverse drug reactions in the database...
October 2016: Pharmacotherapy
David M Faleck, Hojjat Salmasian, E Yoko Furuya, Elaine L Larson, Julian A Abrams, Daniel E Freedberg
OBJECTIVES: Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) frequently receive proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and have high rates of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). PPIs have been associated with CDI in hospitalized patients, but ICU patients differ fundamentally from non-ICU patients and few studies have focused on PPI use exclusively in the critical care setting. We performed a retrospective cohort study to determine the associations between PPIs and health-care facility-onset CDI in the ICU...
August 30, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Jessica Michal, Thomas Henry, Connie Street
PURPOSE: Results of a pharmacist-driven protocol to decrease proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use in non-intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalized adults are presented. METHODS: This concurrent preintervention and postintervention study included subjects at least 18 years of age receiving PPIs while hospitalized in general medical or surgical beds. Patients were identified for inclusion in the postintervention group using a daily list of hospitalized patients with active PPI orders...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Paul O Lewis, John M Litchfield, Jennifer L Tharp, Rebecca M Garcia, Mohsen Pourmorteza, Chakradhar M Reddy
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates and severity of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among patients taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) versus those not taking PPIs. DESIGN: Retrospective, single-center, cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary community hospital with a teaching service. PATIENTS: A total of 41,663 patients with CDI who were hospitalized between January 2013 and May 2014; of those, 17,471 patients (41...
September 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Christopher E Kandel, Suzanne Gill, Janine McCready, John Matelski, Jeff E Powis
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Both a computer order entry alert to highlight this association as well as antimicrobial stewardship directed prospective audit and feedback represent novel interventions to reduce the co-administration of antibiotics and PPIs among hospitalized patients. METHODS: Consecutive patients admitted to two General Internal Medicine wards from October 1, 2010 until March 31, 2013 at a teaching hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada were evaluated...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jung Hwa Min, You Sun Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 15, 2016: Gut and Liver
Antonio Ramos, Jorge Ortiz, Ángel Asensio, Rocío Martínez-Ruiz, Elena Múñez, Mireia Cantero, Alberto Cozar, Piedad Ussetti, José Portolés, Valentín Cuervas-Mons
BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge about specific risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). METHOD: A retrospective study comparing cases of CDI in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with controls (SOT recipients who did not present CDI). RESULTS: Thirty patients with SOT from 1340 transplantation recipients had at least 1 episode of CDI (2.23%). The accumulated incidence was 3.06% in liver transplantation, 2.78% in lung transplantation, 2...
September 2016: Progress in Transplantation
S E Pérez-Topete, T Miranda-Aquino, J A Hernández-Portales
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a Gram-positive bacillus that is a common cause of diarrhea in the hospital environment, with a documented incidence of up to 10%. There are different methods to detect it, but a widely used test in our environment is the immunoassay for toxins A and B. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to 1) estimate the positive predictive value of the immunoassay for the detection of the C. difficile toxins A and B, 2) to establish the incidence of C...
June 14, 2016: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
Nagham Khanafer, Luc Oltra, Monique Hulin, Olivier Dauwalder, Francois Vandenesch, Philippe Vanhems
The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed with an increase in incidence and severity. Prospective surveillance was therefore implemented in a French university hospital to monitor the characteristics of patients at risk and to recognize local trends. Between 2007 and 2014, all hospitalized patients (≥18 years) with CDI were included. During the survey, the mean incidence rate of CDI was 2.9 per 10,000 hospital-days. In all, 590 patients were included. Most of the episodes were healthcare-associated (76...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sunny H Wong, Margaret Ip, Peter M Hawkey, Norman Lo, Katie Hardy, Susan Manzoor, Wyman W M Hui, Kin-Wing Choi, Rity Y K Wong, Irene M H Yung, Catherine S K Cheung, Kelvin L Y Lam, Thomas Kwong, William K K Wu, Siew C Ng, Justin C Y Wu, Joseph J Y Sung, Nelson Lee
OBJECTIVES: We aim to study the disease burden, risk factors and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Hong Kong. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, case-control study in three acute-care hospitals in Hong Kong. Adult inpatients who developed CDI diarrhoea confirmed by PCR (n = 139) were compared with the non-CDI controls (n = 114). Ribotyping of isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed. RESULTS: The estimated crude annual incidence of CDI was 23-33/100,000 population, and 133-207/100,000 population among those aged ≥65 years...
August 2016: Journal of Infection
Jason Abramowitz, Punam Thakkar, Arton Isa, Alan Truong, Connie Park, Richard M Rosenfeld
OBJECTIVE: To assist clinicians in counseling patients regarding the risk of adverse events from proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), by synthesizing evidence from published systematic reviews of antireflux therapy. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PubMed, Web of Knowledge. REVIEW METHODS: Overview based on PRISMA reporting standards (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) of English-language meta-analyses and systematic reviews of PPI therapy for reflux disease through December 2014...
October 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Fayez Alshamsi, Emilie Belley-Cote, Deborah Cook, Saleh A Almenawer, Zuhoor Alqahtani, Dan Perri, Lehana Thabane, Awad Al-Omari, Kim Lewis, Gordon Guyatt, Waleed Alhazzani
BACKGROUND: The relative efficacy and safety of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) compared to histamine-2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) should guide their use in reducing bleeding risk in the critically ill. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ACPJC, clinical trials registries, and conference proceedings through November 2015 without language or publication date restrictions. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of PPIs vs H2RAs for stress ulcer prophylaxis in critically ill adults for clinically important bleeding, overt gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, nosocomial pneumonia, mortality, ICU length of stay and Clostridium difficile infection were included...
May 4, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Ophélie Dos Santos-Schaller, Sandrine Boisset, Arnaud Seigneurin, Olivier Epaulard
GOALS: To determine whether patients with a pre-existing PPI treatment had a higher risk of poor evolution (recurrence or death) when diagnosed with a toxicogenic Clostridium difficile digestive infection. BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified pump proton inhibitor (PPI) prescription as a risk factor for C. difficile infection. The influence of PPI on the outcome of C. difficile infection is controversial. STUDY: This was a retrospective monocentric cohort study...
2016: SpringerPlus
Mette Krag, Anders Perner, Jørn Wetterslev, Matt P Wise, Mark Borthwick, Stepani Bendel, Paolo Pelosi, Frederik Keus, Anne Berit Guttormsen, Joerg C Schefold, Morten Hylander Møller
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of clinically important gastrointestinal bleeding, and acid suppressants are frequently used prophylactically. However, stress ulcer prophylaxis may increase the risk of serious adverse events and, additionally, the quantity and quality of evidence supporting the use of stress ulcer prophylaxis is low. The aim of the SUP-ICU trial is to assess the benefits and harms of stress ulcer prophylaxis with a proton pump inhibitor in adult patients in the ICU...
2016: Trials
Cristóbal de la Coba Ortiz, Federico Argüelles Arias, Carlos Martín de Argila de Prados, Javier Júdez Gutiérrez, Antonio Linares Rodríguez, Aida Ortega Alonso, Enrique Rodríguez de Santiago, Manuel Rodríguez-Téllez, María Isabel Vera Mendoza, Lara Aguilera Castro, Ángel Álvarez Sánchez, Raúl Jesús Andrade Bellido, Fidencio Bao Pérez, Manuel Castro Fernández, Froilán Giganto Tomé
INTRODUCTION: In the last few years a significant number of papers have related the use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) to potential serious adverse effects that have resulted in social unrest. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this paper was to provide a literature review for the development of an institutional position statement by Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva (SEPD) regarding the safety of long-term PPI use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A comprehensive review of the literature was performed to draw conclusions based on a critical assessment of the following: a) current PPI indications; b) vitamin B12 deficiency and neurological disorders; c) magnesium deficiency; d) bone fractures; e) enteric infection and pneumonia; f) interactions with thienopyridine derivatives; e) complications in cirrhotic patients...
April 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Antonio Ramos Martínez, Jorge Ortiz Balbuena, Ángel Asensio Vegas, Isabel Sánchez Romero, Elena Múñez Rubio, Mireia Cantero Caballero, Alberto Cózar Llistó, Francisca Portero Azorín, Rocío Martínez Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Clinical features of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) cases diagnosed by detection of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with negative toxin enzyme immunoassay results (EIA) have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of CDI patients who had negative EIA toxin determinations but positive PCR tests, and their differences in clinical presentation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study comparing the clinical features of CDI cases detected by EIA (toxins A + B) with cases detected by PCR (toxin negative, PCR positive) over a 16-month period...
June 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Youngouk Ro, Chang Soo Eun, Hyun Soo Kim, Ji Yeoun Kim, Young Jae Byun, Kyo-Sang Yoo, Dong Soo Han
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) are commonly prescribed for stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) in critically ill patients. Several studies have suggested that the use of PPIs is a potential risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We compared the incidences of CDI in the PPI group and H2RA group for SUP in critically ill patients. METHODS: From August 2005 to July 2012, the incidences of CDI were retrospectively analyzed in patients who were admitted directly to intensive care units and stayed for more than 3 days...
July 15, 2016: Gut and Liver
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