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"Clostridium difficile" "proton pump inhibitor"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644310/predictors-of-mortality-in-cirrhosis-inpatients-with-clostridium-difficile-infection
#1
Elliot Z Smith, Patrick G Northup, Curtis K Argo
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a bacterial pathogen associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. GOALS: Our primary aim is to identify variables that are predictive of poor outcomes in cirrhosis patients with C. difficile infection (CDI). We also aim to further characterize the risk factors for developing CDI and risk of mortality in this patient population. STUDY: A total of 200 subjects with a diagnosis of cirrhosis and CDI were matched to 200 cirrhosis inpatients without CDI...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608496/stress-ulcer-prophylaxis-in-the-intensive-care-unit-trial-detailed-statistical-analysis-plan
#2
M Krag, A Perner, J Wetterslev, T Lange, M P Wise, M Borthwick, S Bendel, P Pelosi, F Keus, A B Guttormsen, J C Schefold, T S Meyhoff, S Marker, M H Møller
BACKGROUND: In this statistical analysis plan, we aim to provide details of the pre-defined statistical analyses of the Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis in the Intensive Care Unit (SUP-ICU) trial. The aim of the SUP-ICU trial is to assess benefits and harms of stress ulcer prophylaxis with a proton pump inhibitor in adult patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: The SUP-ICU trial is an investigator-initiated, international, multicentre, randomised, blinded, parallel-group trial of intravenously pantoprazole 40 mg once daily vs...
June 12, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607673/risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infections-an-overview-of-the-evidence-base-and-challenges-in-data-synthesis
#3
Paul Eze, Evelyn Balsells, Moe H Kyaw, Harish Nair
BACKGROUND: Recognition of a broad spectrum of disease and development of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and recurrent CDI (rCDI) in populations previously considered to be at low risk has renewed attention on differences in the risk profile of patients. In the absence of primary prevention for CDI and limited treatment options, it is important to achieve a deep understanding of the multiple factors that influence the risk of developing CDI and rCDI. METHODS: We conducted a review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on risk factors for CDI and rCDI published between 1990 and October 2016...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527248/-clinical-and-demographic-profile-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#4
Carlos Carvajal, Carlos Pacheco, Fabián Jaimes
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. The increasing incidence added to a lower rate of response to the initial treatment and higher rates of relapse has generated a higher burden of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with C. difficile infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We made a nested case-cohort study. We reviewed medical records of the patients with nosocomial diarrhea for whom an assay for toxin A-B of C...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520953/evolving-insights-into-the-epidemiology-and-control-of-clostridium-difficile-in-hospitals
#5
Daniel A Caroff, Deborah S Yokoe, Michael Klompas
Typing studies suggest most cases of hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection are unrelated to other cases of active disease in the hospital. New cases may instead be due to transmissions from asymptomatic carriers or progression of latent C.difficile present-on-admission to active infection. Direct exposure to antibiotics remains the primary risk factor for C.difficile infection but ward-level antibiotic use, antibiotic exposure of the prior room occupant, and C.difficile status of the prior room occupant increase risk for C...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506028/comparison-of-the-hospital-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-risk-of-using-proton-pump-inhibitors-versus-histamine-2-receptor-antagonists-for-prophylaxis-and-treatment-of-stress-ulcers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Mohamed Azab, Loomee Doo, Daniel H Doo, Yousif Elmofti, Muazer Ahmed, John Jay Cadavona, Xibei B Liu, Amaan Shafi, Moon Kyung Joo, Ji Won Yoo
Background/Aims: Although proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of stress gastric ulcers in hospital settings, there are concerns that PPIs increase the risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). However, little is known about the risk of CDI following PPI and histamine-2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) use. We evaluated the comparative hospital-acquired CDI occurrence risk associated with the concurrent use of PPIs versus H2RAs. Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, MEDLINE/ Ovid, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science, and Google Scholar through August 19, 2016, identified 12 studies that reported the hospital-acquired CDI occurrence following H2RA and PPI use for the prevention and treatment of stress gastric ulcers...
May 17, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501926/an-outbreak-of-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotype-027-in-spain-risk-factors-for-recurrence-and-a-novel-treatment-strategy
#7
E Bouza, L Alcalá, M Marín, M Valerio, E Reigadas, P Muñoz, M González-Del Vecchio, V de Egea
An outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) caused by ribotype 027 (B1/NAP1) began in our hospital in November 2014, and produced 141 episodes in the following months. The aim of this study is to describe this outbreak, assess risk factors for recurrence of CDI-027 and to analyze the implementation of a novel treatment strategy. This is a prospective study of all patients with CDI-027, from November 2014 to November 2015. The epidemiological data were collected daily for each patient. We compared clinical characteristics and treatment between patients with and without recurrence of CDI-027...
May 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469228/proton-pump-inhibitors-and-clostridium-difficile-infection
#8
Hemant Goyal, Harold Katner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459708/withholding-pantoprazole-for-stress-ulcer-prophylaxis-in-critically-ill-patients-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial-and-meta-analysis
#9
Waleed Alhazzani, Gordon Guyatt, Mohammed Alshahrani, Adam M Deane, John C Marshall, Richard Hall, John Muscedere, Shane W English, François Lauzier, Lehana Thabane, Yaseen M Arabi, Tim Karachi, Bram Rochwerg, Simon Finfer, Nick Daneman, Fayez Alshamsi, Nicole Zytaruk, Diane Heel-Ansdell, Deborah Cook
INTRODUCTION: A decreased frequency of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and a possible association of proton pump inhibitor use with Clostridium difficile and ventilator-associated pneumonia have raised concerns recently. The Reevaluating the Inhibition of Stress Erosions Pilot Trial determined the feasibility of undertaking a larger trial investigating the efficacy and safety of withholding proton pump inhibitors in critically ill patients. METHODS: In 10 ICUs, we randomized adult ICU patients anticipated to be mechanically ventilated for greater than or equal to 48 hours to receive 40 mg of IV pantoprazole daily or placebo...
July 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429247/a-review-of-the-novel-application-and-potential-adverse-effects-of-proton-pump-inhibitors
#10
REVIEW
Li-Yuan Yu, Lu-Ning Sun, Xue-Hui Zhang, Yue-Qi Li, Lei Yu, Zi-Qing-Yun Yuan, Ling Meng, Hong-Wen Zhang, Yong-Qing Wang
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are known as a class of pharmaceutical agents that target H(+)/K(+)-ATPase, which is located in gastric parietal cells. PPIs are widely used in the treatment of gastric acid-related diseases including peptic ulcer disease, erosive esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease, and so on. These drugs present an excellent safety profile and have become one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in primary and specialty care. Except for gastric acid-related diseases, PPIs can also be used in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, viral infections, respiratory system diseases, cancer and so on...
May 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396027/risk-factors-for-community-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-children
#11
Daniel J Adams, Matthew D Eberly, Michael Rajnik, Cade M Nylund
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the medication and other exposures associated with pediatric community-associated Clostridium difficile infections (CA-CDIs). STUDY DESIGN: We performed a case-control study using billing records from the US military health system database. CA-CDI cases included children 1-18 years of age with an outpatient International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic code for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) from 2001 to 2013...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361440/acid-suppressive-therapy-and-risk-of-infections-pros-and-cons
#12
REVIEW
Leon Fisher, Alexander Fisher
This narrative review summarises the benefits, risks and appropriate use of acid-suppressing drugs (ASDs), proton pump inhibitors and histamine-2 receptor antagonists, advocating a rationale balanced and individualised approach aimed to minimise any serious adverse consequences. It focuses on current controversies on the potential of ASDs to contribute to infections-bacterial, parasitic, fungal, protozoan and viral, particularly in the elderly, comprehensively and critically discusses the growing body of observational literature linking ASD use to a variety of enteric, respiratory, skin and systemic infectious diseases and complications (Clostridium difficile diarrhoea, pneumonia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, septicaemia and other)...
March 30, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346596/withholding-proton-pump-inhibitors-to-prevent-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-time-for-a-randomized-trial
#13
Scott R Bauer, Patrick O'Malley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346595/association-of-gastric-acid-suppression-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Raseen Tariq, Siddharth Singh, Arjun Gupta, Darrell S Pardi, Sahil Khanna
Importance: Gastric acid suppression has been associated with an increased risk of primary Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but the risk of recurrent CDI in patients taking gastric acid suppressant medications is unclear. Objective: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between gastric acid suppressants and recurrent CDI. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register, the Cochrane Database, and Web of Science were searched from January 1, 1995, to September 30, 2015, for studies assessing the association between gastric acid suppressant exposure and recurrent CDI...
June 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301676/deprescribing-versus-continuation-of-chronic-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-in-adults
#15
REVIEW
Taline A Boghossian, Farah Joy Rashid, Wade Thompson, Vivian Welch, Paul Moayyedi, Carlos Rojas-Fernandez, Kevin Pottie, Barbara Farrell
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of medications that reduce acid secretion and are used for treating many conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), dyspepsia, reflux esophagitis, peptic ulcer disease, and hypersecretory conditions (e.g. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), and as part of the eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori bacteria. However, approximately 25% to 70% of people are prescribed a PPI inappropriately. Chronic PPI use without reassessment contributes to polypharmacy and puts people at risk of experiencing drug interactions and adverse events (e...
March 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295646/the-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-national-kidney-transplant-center
#16
Claire Kennedy, Carmel Waldron, Mairead Skally, Leah Gaughan, Colm Magee, Karen Burns, Fidelma Fitzpatrick
BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of CDI in a national kidney transplant center from 2008 to 2015. METHODS: Adult kidney and kidney-pancreas transplant recipients were included for analysis if they met the surveillance CDI case definition. Rates of new healthcare-associated CDI (HA-CDI) were expressed per 10 000 KTR/KTPR bed days used (BDU) to facilitate comparisons. RESULTS: Fifty-two cases of CDI were identified in 42 KTRs and KPTRs...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258834/the-effect-of-omeprazole-treatment-on-the-gut-microflora-and-neutrophil-function
#17
Maja Kostrzewska, Agnieszka Świdnicka-Siergiejko, Dorota Olszańska, Grażyna Jurkowska, Marzena Garley, Wioletta Ratajczak-Wrona, Ewa Jabłońska, Jacek Jamiołkowski, Andrzej Dabrowski
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may increase the risk of Clostridium difficile infections. There are interactions between gut microbiota and innate immune cells including neutrophils. We evaluated the effect of treatment with omeprazole on the gut microflora and neutrophil function. METHODS: In 50 patients, we evaluated the effect of 4-week omeprazole treatment (n=25 with 20mg per day and n=25 with 20mg twice daily) on intragastric pH, results of stool culture and lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) and neutrophil function...
March 1, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226419/evaluation-of-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#18
Tonya L Scardina, Elena Kang Martinez, Neelam Balasubramanian, Mary Fox-Geiman, Scott E Smith, Jorge P Parada
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the impact of hematologic malignancies and/or conditioning regimens on the risk of developing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Secondary objectives were to determine if traditional CDI risk factors applied to patients undergoing HSCT and to determine the presence of CDI markers of severity of illness among this patient population. DESIGN: Single-center retrospective case-control study...
April 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155020/risks-factors-and-outcomes-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-with-cancer-a-matched-case-control-study
#19
Andrew I T Hebbard, Monica A Slavin, Caroline Reed, Jason A Trubiano, Benjamin W Teh, Gabrielle M Haeusler, Karin A Thursky, Leon J Worth
PURPOSE: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of diarrhoea in hospitalised patients. Cancer populations are at high-risk for infection, but comprehensive evaluation in the current era of cancer care has not been performed. The objective of this study was to describe characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes of CDI in cancer patients. METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients with CDI at a large Australian cancer centre (2013-2015) were identified from the hospital pathology database...
February 2, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131640/the-burden-of-healthcare-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-non-metropolitan-setting
#20
S E Bond, C S Boutlis, W W Yeo, W A B Pratt, M E Orr, S Miyakis
OBJECTIVE: Healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HCA-CDI) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. However, few data exist on the burden of HCA-CDI in multi-site non-metropolitan settings. This study examined the introduction of an antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP) in relation to HCA-CDI rates, and the effect of HCA-CDI on length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs. METHODS: A comparative before-and-after intervention study of patients aged ≥16 years with HCA-CDI from December 2010 to April 2016 across the nine hospitals of a non-metropolitan health district in New South Wales, Australia was undertaken...
April 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
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