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"Clostridium difficile" "proton pump inhibitor"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301676/deprescribing-versus-continuation-of-chronic-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-in-adults
#1
REVIEW
Taline A Boghossian, Farah Joy Rashid, Wade Thompson, Vivian Welch, Paul Moayyedi, Carlos Rojas-Fernandez, Kevin Pottie, Barbara Farrell
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of medications that reduce acid secretion and are used for treating many conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), dyspepsia, reflux esophagitis, peptic ulcer disease, and hypersecretory conditions (e.g. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), and as part of the eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori bacteria. However, approximately 25% to 70% of people are prescribed a PPI inappropriately. Chronic PPI use without reassessment contributes to polypharmacy and puts people at risk of experiencing drug interactions and adverse events (e...
March 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295646/the-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-national-kidney-transplant-centre
#2
C Kennedy, C Waldron, M Skally, L Gaughan, C Magee, K Burns, F Fitzpatrick
BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of CDI in a national kidney transplant centre from 2008-2015. METHODS: Adult kidney and kidney-pancreas transplant recipients were included for analysis if they met the surveillance CDI case definition. Rates of new healthcare-associated CDI (HA-CDI) were expressed per 10,000 KTR/KTPR bed days used (BDU) to facilitate comparisons. RESULTS: Fifty-two cases of CDI were identified in 42 KTRs and KPTRs...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258834/the-effect-of-omeprazole-treatment-on-the-gut-microflora-and-neutrophil-function
#3
Maja Kostrzewska, Agnieszka Świdnicka-Siergiejko, Dorota Olszańska, Grażyna Jurkowska, Marzena Garley, Wioletta Ratajczak-Wrona, Ewa Jabłońska, Jacek Jamiołkowski, Andrzej Dabrowski
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may increase the risk of Clostridium difficile infections. There are interactions between gut microbiota and innate immune cells including neutrophils. We evaluated the effect of treatment with omeprazole on the gut microflora and neutrophil function. METHODS: In 50 patients, we evaluated the effect of 4-week omeprazole treatment (n=25 with 20mg per day and n=25 with 20mg twice daily) on intragastric pH, results of stool culture and lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) and neutrophil function...
March 1, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226419/evaluation-of-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#4
Tonya L Scardina, Elena Kang Martinez, Neelam Balasubramanian, Mary Fox-Geiman, Scott E Smith, Jorge P Parada
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the impact of hematologic malignancies and/or conditioning regimens on the risk of developing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Secondary objectives were to determine if traditional CDI risk factors applied to patients undergoing HSCT and to determine the presence of CDI markers of severity of illness among this patient population. DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective, case-control study...
February 22, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155020/risks-factors-and-outcomes-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-with-cancer-a-matched-case-control-study
#5
Andrew I T Hebbard, Monica A Slavin, Caroline Reed, Jason A Trubiano, Benjamin W Teh, Gabrielle M Haeusler, Karin A Thursky, Leon J Worth
PURPOSE: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of diarrhoea in hospitalised patients. Cancer populations are at high-risk for infection, but comprehensive evaluation in the current era of cancer care has not been performed. The objective of this study was to describe characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes of CDI in cancer patients. METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients with CDI at a large Australian cancer centre (2013-2015) were identified from the hospital pathology database...
February 2, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131640/the-burden-of-healthcare-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-non-metropolitan-setting
#6
S E Bond, C S Boutlis, W W Yeo, W A B Pratt, M E Orr, S Miyakis
OBJECTIVE: Healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HCA-CDI) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. However, few data exist on the burden of HCA-CDI in multi-site non-metropolitan settings. This study examined the introduction of an antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP) in relation to HCA-CDI rates, and the effect of HCA-CDI on length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs. METHODS: A comparative before-and-after intervention study of patients aged ≥16 years with HCA-CDI from December 2010 to April 2016 across the nine hospitals of a non-metropolitan health district in New South Wales, Australia was undertaken...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089100/community-onset-clostridium-difficile-infection-at-a-tertiary-medical-center-in-southern-taiwan-2007-2015
#7
Chin-Shiang Tsai, Yuan-Pin Hung, Jen-Chieh Lee, Nan-Yao Lee, Po-Lin Chen, Ling-Shan Syue, Ming-Chi Li, Chia-Wen Li, Wen-Chien Ko
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is well-known as the major cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Community-onset CDI (CO-CDI) is an emerging threat. However, clinical information of CO-CDI in Taiwan remains scarce. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at a medical center in southern Taiwan. Symptomatic patients between 2007 and 2015 with C. difficile toxin or tcdB detected in stool were identified as CDI, and were classified as CO-CDI [including community-associated CDI (CA-CDI) and community-onset health care facility-associated CDI (CO-HCFA-CDI)] and health care facility-onset CDI (HCFO-CDI)...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075419/surveillance-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-results-from-a-six-year-retrospective-study-in-nine-hospitals-of-a-north-italian-local-health-authority
#8
Greta Roncarati, Laura Dallolio, Erica Leoni, Manuela Panico, Angela Zanni, Patrizia Farruggia
Clostridium difficile is an emerging cause of healthcare associated infections. In nine hospitals of an Italian Local Health Authority the episodes of C. difficile infection (CDI) were identified using the data registered by the centralized Laboratory Information System, from 2010 to 2015. CDI incidence (positive patients for A and/or B toxins per patients-days) was analysed per year, hospital, and ward. A number of cases approximately equivalent to the mean of identified cases per year were studied retrospectively to highlight the risk factors associated to CDI and their severity...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054368/acid-suppression-medications-and-bacterial-gastroenteritis-a-population-based-cohort-study
#9
Li Wei, Lasantha Ratnayake, Gabby Phillips, Chris C McGuigan, Steve V Morant, Robert W Flynn, Isla S Mackenzie, Thomas M MacDonald
AIMS: To investigate whether acid-suppression medicines (ASMs) increase the risk of bacterial gastroenteritis. METHODS: A population-based, propensity-score matched cohort study using a record-linkage database in Tayside, UK. The study consisted of 188 323 exposed to ASMs (proton-pump inhibitors and histamine-2 receptor antagonists) and 376 646 controls (a propensity-score matched cohort from the rest of population who were not exposed to ASMs) between 1999 and 2013...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052855/the-oral-%C3%AE-lactamase-syn-004-ribaxamase-degrades-ceftriaxone-excreted-into-the-intestine-in-phase-2a-clinical-studies
#10
John F Kokai-Kun, Tracey Roberts, Olivia Coughlin, Eric Sicard, Marianne Rufiange, Richard Fedorak, Christian Carter, Marijke H Adams, James Longstreth, Heidi Whalen, Joseph Sliman
SYN-004 (ribaxamase) is a β-lactamase designed to be orally administered concurrently with intravenous β-lactam antibiotics, including most penicillins and cephalosporins. Ribaxamase's anticipated mechanism of action is to degrade excess β-lactam antibiotic that is excreted into the small intestine. This enzymatic inactivation of excreted antibiotic is expected to protect the gut microbiome from disruption and thus prevent undesirable side effects, including secondary infections such as Clostridium difficile infections, as well as other antibiotic-associated diarrheas...
March 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920416/re-evaluating-the-inhibition-of-stress-erosions-revise-a-protocol-for-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Waleed Alhazzani, Gordon Guyatt, John C Marshall, Richard Hall, John Muscedere, Francois Lauzier, Lehana Thabane, Mohammed Alshahrani, Shane W English, Yaseen M Arabi, Adam M Deane, Tim Karachi, Bram Rochwerg, Simon Finfer, Nick Daneman, Nicole Zytaruk, Diane Heel-Ansdell, Deborah Cook, On Behalf Of
INTRODUCTION: Clinicians routinely administer stress ulcer prophylaxis to mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), most commonly prescribing proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). However, the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from stress ulceration is low and recent observational studies suggest these agents may increase infections. Therefore, a large randomized clinical trial (RCT) is needed to inform modern practice. The aim of this multicenter pilot trial is to determine the feasibility of performing a large RCT to investigate the efficacy and safety of withholding intravenous pantoprazole...
November 2016: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825595/effect-of-a-national-4c-antibiotic-stewardship-intervention-on-the-clinical-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-a-region-of-scotland-a-non-linear-time-series-analysis
#12
Timothy Lawes, José-María Lopez-Lozano, Cesar A Nebot, Gillian Macartney, Rashmi Subbarao-Sharma, Karen D Wares, Carolyn Sinclair, Ian M Gould
BACKGROUND: Whereas many antibiotics increase risk of Clostridium difficile infection through dysbiosis, epidemic C difficile ribotypes characterised by multidrug resistance might depend on antibiotic selection pressures arising from population use of specific drugs. We examined the effect of a national antibiotic stewardship intervention limiting the use of 4C antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, clindamycin, co-amoxiclav, and cephalosporins) and other infection prevention and control strategies on the clinical and molecular epidemiology of C difficile infections in northeast Scotland...
February 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823794/clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhoea-an-increased-problem
#13
Leticia Urbina Soto, Sara García Ávila, Ana Isabel Córdoba Alonso, M Pía Roiz Mesones, Ana M Arnaiz García, M Carmen Valero Díaz de Lamadrid
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea is a major health problem that seems to be on the increase. In our study, we analyse the changes in the incidence of this infection over the last 11 years. METHODS: A descriptive study in hospitalised patients with Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea in University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla (Santander, Spain) from 2004 to 2014. RESULTS: A total of 244 adults were identified [53% men; 66 (SD 15) years]...
December 16, 2016: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809338/cost-effectiveness-of-histamine2-receptor-antagonists-versus-proton-pump-inhibitors-for-stress-ulcer-prophylaxis-in-critically-ill-patients
#14
Drayton A Hammond, Niranjan Kathe, Anuj Shah, Bradley C Martin
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of stress ulcer prophylaxis with histamine2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) versus proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in critically ill and mechanically ventilated adults. DESIGN: A decision analytic model estimating the costs and effectiveness of stress ulcer prophylaxis (with H2RAs and PPIs) from a health care institutional perspective. PATIENTS: Adult mixed intensive care unit (ICU) population who received an H2RA or PPI for up to 9 days...
January 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804875/clostridium-difficile-infection-associations-with-chemotherapy-radiation-therapy-and-targeting-therapy-treatments
#15
REVIEW
Avi Peretz, Izhar Ben Shlomo, Orna Nitzan, Luigi Bonavina, Pmela M Schaffer, Moshe Schaffer
BACKGROUND: Although mucositis, diarrhea, and constipation as well as immunosuppression are well recognized side-effects of cancer treatment, the underlying mechanisms including changes in the composition of gut microbiota and Clostridium difficile infection have not yet been thoroughly reviewed. OBJECTIVE: We herein set out to review the literature regarding the relations between cancer chemotherapy, radiation treatment, and Clostridium difficile-associated colitis...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788814/identification-of-risk-factors-associated-with-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-liver-transplantation-recipients-a-single-center-analysis
#16
B G Rogala, G E Malat, D H Lee, M N Harhay, A M Doyle, T E Bias
Clostridium difficile remains the leading cause of health care-associated infectious diarrhea, and its incidence and severity are increasing in liver transplant recipients. Several known risk factors for C difficile infection (CDI) are inherently associated with liver transplantation, such as severe underlying illness, immunosuppression, abdominal surgery, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use. We conducted a single-center retrospective case control study to characterize risk factors for CDI among patients who received a liver transplant from January 2008 to December 2012...
October 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785569/-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-geriatric-patients
#17
R Simmerlein, A Basta, M Gosch
Clostridium difficile is the main cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adults in Europe and North America. Infections with C. difficile typically occur in elderly patients with comorbidities and prior antibiotic therapy. Other risk factors are proton pump inhibitors, which are taken by many elderly patients. The main virulence factors are toxins A and B. The clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic colonization to severe disease with abdominal complications and sepsis. The current diagnostic gold standard is anaerobic culture but is impractical in routine use due to the long duration...
December 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677811/assessing-the-risk-of-hospital-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-with-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-a-meta-analysis
#18
Vanessa Arriola, Jessica Tischendorf, Jackson Musuuza, Anna Barker, Jeffrey W Rozelle, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile is the principal infectious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and accounts for 12% of hospital-acquired infections. Recent literature has shown an increased risk of C. difficile infection (CDI) with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use. OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic assessment of the risk of hospital-acquired CDI following exposure to PPI. METHODS We searched multiple databases for studies examining the relationship between PPI and hospital-acquired CDI. Pooled odds ratios were generated and assessment for heterogeneity performed...
December 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650918/a-comparison-of-histamine-receptor-antagonists-versus-proton-pump-inhibitor-gastrointestinal-ulcer-prophylaxis-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#19
Ginger E Rouse, Karen Hardinger, Demetra Tsapepas, Eric M Tichy
INTRODUCTION: There are several different agents that can be used for gastrointestinal (GI) ulcer prophylaxis in posttransplant recipients, such as histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). RESEARCH QUESTION: This study was conducted to compare the incidence of adverse kidney events in transplant recipients who received prophylaxis with H2RAs or PPIs. DESIGN: This retrospective study included all kidney transplant recipients from 3 transplant centers who were transplanted in 2009 through 2011...
September 20, 2016: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645304/proton-pump-inhibitors-and-risk-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-multi-country-study-using-sequence-symmetry-analysis
#20
Elizabeth E Roughead, Esther W Chan, Nam-Kyong Choi, Jenna Griffiths, Xue-Mei Jin, Joongyub Lee, Michio Kimura, Tomomi Kimura, Kiyoshi Kubota, Edward Chia-Cheng Lai, Kenneth Kc Man, Tuan Anh Nguyen, Nobuhiro Ooba, Byung-Joo Park, Tsugumichi Sato, Ju-Young Shin, TongTong Wang, Ian Ck Wong, Yea-Huei Kao Yang, Nicole L Pratt
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between incident proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and Clostridium difficile infections across multiple countries Method: National data covering the total population in Australia and Korea, the Canadian population over 65 years and a 3 million person random sample data set from Taiwan were assessed, as were data from a worker insurance population and a hospital inpatient/outpatient population in Japan. Sequence symmetry analysis was used to assess the association with oral vancomycin dispensing as the outcome of interest...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
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