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"Clostridium difficile" "proton pump inhibitor"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152554/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-after-radical-cystectomy-and-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#1
Katherine J Cotter, Yunhua Fan, Gretchen K Sieger, Christopher J Weight, Badrinath R Konety
Background and Objectives: Clostridium Difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. This study evaluates the prevalence and predictors of Clostridium Difficile infections in patients undergoing radical cystectomy with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: Retrospective chart review was performed of all patients undergoing cystectomy and urinary diversion at a single institution from 2011-2017. Infection was documented in all cases with testing for Clostridium Difficile polymerase chain reaction toxin B...
October 27, 2017: Bladder Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139189/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hospitalized-octogenarian-patients
#2
Anca Trifan, Irina Girleanu, Carol Stanciu, Egidia Miftode, Camelia Cojocariu, Ana-Maria Singeap, Catalin Sfarti, Stefan Chiriac, Tudor Cuciureanu, Oana Stoica
AIM: To evaluate the risk factors and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized octogenarian patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of risk factors and outcome of C. difficile infection in hospitalized octogenarians was carried out at two academic centers in Romania from January 2014 to September 2016. Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics; antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors use in-hospital and 2 months before admission; comorbidities; length of hospital stay; treatment; and outcome were carefully collected from the patients' medical charts and compared with those from octogenarians hospitalized during the same period...
November 15, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132520/gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#3
REVIEW
Rick Kellerman, Thomas Kintanar
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a gastrointestinal motility disorder that results from the reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus or oral cavity resulting in symptoms or complications. The typical symptoms of GERD are heartburn and regurgitation of gastric contents into the oropharynx. GERD affects quality of life and may cause erosive esophagitis, esophageal strictures, and Barrett esophagus, a precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma. GERD is a clinical diagnosis and is most effectively treated with proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs)...
December 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122635/nosocomial-proton-pump-inhibitor-administration-and-the-impact-on-hospital-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-development-evidence-and-possible-mechanism
#4
REVIEW
Eric Wombwell, Megan E Chittum, Kayla R Leeser
The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection continues to rise globally. Particularly concerning are hospital-acquired cases which attribute significant morbidity, mortality, and expenditures to the healthcare system. Proton pump inhibitors which are widely prescribed and generally considered to have minimal adverse effects, have recently come under scrutiny for positive associations with C. difficile infection development. This article will specifically review the current state of evidence demonstrating a positive association between nosocomial proton pump inhibitor administration and the incidence of hospital-acquired C...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095766/proton-pump-inhibitors-and-risk-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-association-or-causation
#5
Javier A Villafuerte-Gálvez, Ciarán P Kelly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rising burden of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) requires urgent identification of preventable risk factors. Observational studies suggest an association between proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) use and CDI risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Key historical literature on PPI and CDI associations is reviewed as a prelude to evaluating the plausibility of a causative association. Impactful literature from the past 18 months is examined in detail and critically appraised through the lens of the Bradford Hill Criteria for determination of causality...
November 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081208/does-proton-pump-inhibitor-increase-the-clostridium-difficile-infection-risk-in-the-treatment-and-prophylaxis-of-stress-ulcers-than-histanime-2-receptor-antagonist
#6
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075620/the-influence-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-on-the-fecal-microbiome-of-infants-with-gastroesophageal-reflux-a-prospective-longitudinal-interventional-study
#7
Christoph Castellani, Georg Singer, Karl Kashofer, Andrea Huber-Zeyringer, Christina Flucher, Margarita Kaiser, Holger Till
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the standard therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease. In adults, PPI treatment is associated with Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). In contrast to adults the microbiome of infants develops from sterility at birth toward an adult-like profile in the first years of life. The effect of PPIs on this developing microbiome has never been studied. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of oral PPIs on the fecal microbiome in infants with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067276/characteristics-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-hospitalized-with-myelodysplastic-syndrome-or-acute-myelogenous-leukemia
#8
Kamini Shah, Bryan F Curtin, Christopher Chu, Daniel Hwang, Mark H Flasar, Erik von Rosenvinge
AIM: To evaluate factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and outcomes of CDI in the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) population. METHODS: After IRB approval, all MDS/AML patients hospitalized at the University of Maryland Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center between August 2011 and December 2013 were identified. Medical charts were reviewed for demographics, clinical information, development of CDI, complications of CDI, and mortality...
October 10, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861211/adverse-effects-of-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-in-older-adults-a-review-of-the-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Marina L Maes, Danielle R Fixen, Sunny Anne Linnebur
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a widely prescribed class of medications used to treat acid-related disorders and use has significantly increased over the last few decades. PPIs are often inappropriately prescribed and since they have been on the market, a number of post-marketing studies have been published demonstrating associations between longer duration of PPI therapy and a number of adverse effects that are a concern in older adults. The objective of this review is to discuss the existing literature of potential adverse effects with long-term PPI use in older adults and to summarize the implications in clinical practice...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842261/an-updated-meta-analysis-of-controlled-observational-studies-proton-pump-inhibitors-and-risk-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#10
REVIEW
Fei Cao, Chunxiang Chen, Min Wang, Hairong Liao, Meixiang Wang, Shuizhen Hua, Bin Huang, Yan Xiong, Jieyu Zhang, Yanliang Xu
BACKGROUND: Attention has recently been directed toward a plausible link between Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). However, the results of studies on the association between CDI and PPI remain controversial. METHODS: We searched the literature from their inception to December 2016 without restriction of language. We included all controlled observational studies examining the association between acid suppressive therapy and CDI...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821215/implementation-of-global-strategies-to-prevent-hospital-onset-clostridium-difficile-infection-targeting-proton-pump-inhibitors-and-probiotics
#11
Paul O Lewis, Timothy S Lundberg, Jennifer L Tharp, Clay W Runnels
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been identified as a significant risk factor for the development of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Probiotics given concurrently with antibiotics have been shown to have a moderate impact on preventing CDI. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of hospital-wide interventions designed to reduce PPI use and increase probiotics and whether these interventions were associated with a change in the incidence of hospital onset (HO)-CDI...
October 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744822/magnitude-and-direction-of-the-association-between-clostridium-difficile-infection-and-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-adults-and-pediatric-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Tadayuki Oshima, Liping Wu, Min Li, Hirokazu Fukui, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a cause of increased morbidity and health care costs among hospitalized patients. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are mainly used for the treatment of acid-related upper gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the risks associated with initial and recurrent CDI in adult and pediatric patients treated with PPIs. METHODS: A systematic search was performed using PubMed (Medline), Embase, and Web of Science with the following search terms: ("proton pump inhibitor," "PPI," or "acid suppression") AND ("infection," "diarrhea," "diarrhoea," "colitis," or "disease") AND ("Clostridium difficile")...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704538/intestinal-calcium-and-bile-salts-facilitate-germination-of-clostridium-difficile-spores
#13
Travis J Kochan, Madeline J Somers, Alyssa M Kaiser, Michelle S Shoshiev, Ada K Hagan, Jessica L Hastie, Nicole P Giordano, Ashley D Smith, Alyxandria M Schubert, Paul E Carlson, Philip C Hanna
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is an anaerobic gram-positive pathogen that is the leading cause of nosocomial bacterial infection globally. C. difficile infection (CDI) typically occurs after ingestion of infectious spores by a patient that has been treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. While CDI is a toxin-mediated disease, transmission and pathogenesis are dependent on the ability to produce viable spores. These spores must become metabolically active (germinate) in order to cause disease. C. difficile spore germination occurs when spores encounter bile salts and other co-germinants within the small intestine, however, the germination signaling cascade is unclear...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680175/outcome-after-discontinuation-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-at-a-residential-care-site-quality-improvement-project
#14
Candy Lee, Anita Lo, Kiran Ubhi, Michael Milewski
BACKGROUND: Increased prescribing of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in the past few decades can be attributed mainly to long-term use of this type of therapy. Recent evidence indicates signals of harm associated with long-term use of PPIs, such as increased risk of Clostridium difficile infection, recurrence of C. difficile infection, and fracture. A few studies have assessed the effectiveness of step-down management of patients receiving long-term PPI therapy in ambulatory care settings...
May 2017: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672282/increasing-incidence-of-multiply-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-united-states-a-cohort-study
#15
Gene K Ma, Colleen M Brensinger, Qufei Wu, James D Lewis
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the most common health care-associated infection, often recurs. Fecal microbiota transplantation is increasingly used to treat multiply recurrent CDI (mrCDI). Objective: To determine whether the incidence of mrCDI is increasing in proportion to CDI and to identify risk factors for mrCDI. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: United States. Participants: 38 911 718 commercially insured patients in the OptumInsight Clinformatics Database, of whom 45 341 developed CDI...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655581/clinical-and-molecular-characteristics-of-community-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-comparison-with-those-of-hospital-acquired-c-%C3%A2-difficile
#16
Soon Sung Kwon, Jung Lim Gim, Myung Sook Kim, Heejung Kim, Jun Yong Choi, Dongeun Yong, Kyungwon Lee
Community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) is a growing concern. CA-CDI differs from hospital-acquired C. difficile infection (HA-CDI) in its epidemiology, risk factors, severity, and outcomes. In this study, we investigated C. difficile infections in a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, Korea, and compared the CA-CDI and HA-CDI cases diagnosed in the same period. Total 593 cases were confirmed as CDI in 2014, of which CA-CDI accounted for 68 (11.5%) of the total CDI cases. Compared with HA-CDI, the mean age of CA-CDI cases was lower than that of HA-CDI (42...
June 24, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644310/predictors-of-mortality-in-cirrhosis-inpatients-with-clostridium-difficile-infection
#17
Elliot Z Smith, Patrick G Northup, Curtis K Argo
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a bacterial pathogen associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. GOALS: Our primary aim is to identify variables that are predictive of poor outcomes in cirrhosis patients with C. difficile infection (CDI). We also aim to further characterize the risk factors for developing CDI and risk of mortality in this patient population. STUDY: A total of 200 subjects with a diagnosis of cirrhosis and CDI were matched to 200 cirrhosis inpatients without CDI...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608496/stress-ulcer-prophylaxis-in-the-intensive-care-unit-trial-detailed-statistical-analysis-plan
#18
M Krag, A Perner, J Wetterslev, T Lange, M P Wise, M Borthwick, S Bendel, P Pelosi, F Keus, A B Guttormsen, J C Schefold, T S Meyhoff, S Marker, M H Møller
BACKGROUND: In this statistical analysis plan, we aim to provide details of the pre-defined statistical analyses of the Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis in the Intensive Care Unit (SUP-ICU) trial. The aim of the SUP-ICU trial is to assess benefits and harms of stress ulcer prophylaxis with a proton pump inhibitor in adult patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: The SUP-ICU trial is an investigator-initiated, international, multicentre, randomised, blinded, parallel-group trial of intravenously pantoprazole 40 mg once daily vs...
August 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607673/risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infections-an-overview-of-the-evidence-base-and-challenges-in-data-synthesis
#19
Paul Eze, Evelyn Balsells, Moe H Kyaw, Harish Nair
BACKGROUND: Recognition of a broad spectrum of disease and development of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and recurrent CDI (rCDI) in populations previously considered to be at low risk has renewed attention on differences in the risk profile of patients. In the absence of primary prevention for CDI and limited treatment options, it is important to achieve a deep understanding of the multiple factors that influence the risk of developing CDI and rCDI. METHODS: We conducted a review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on risk factors for CDI and rCDI published between 1990 and October 2016...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527248/-clinical-and-demographic-profile-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#20
Carlos Carvajal, Carlos Pacheco, Fabián Jaimes
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. The increasing incidence added to a lower rate of response to the initial treatment and higher rates of relapse has generated a higher burden of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with C. difficile infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We made a nested case-cohort study. We reviewed medical records of the patients with nosocomial diarrhea for whom an assay for toxin A-B of C...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
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