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"Clostridium difficile" "proton pump inhibitor"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730946/-adverse-effects-of-long-term-proton-pump-inhibitor-therapy-on-adults
#1
Iván Igaz, Gábor Simonyi, Sándor Balogh, Miklós Szathmári
In the last few decades, proton-pump inhibitors have become the mainstay of the treatment of acid-related disorders. Despite their efficacy, these drugs are not without risks. Recently several articles have been published on their long-term adverse effects. Among these adverse effects, the higher risk of bone fractures, the vitamin B12 and magnesium deficiencies and the higher risk of Clostridium difficile infection may be relevant. As these drugs are prescribed more and more frequently all over the world, the knowledge of the long-term adverse effects is very important not only for the specialists but for the general practitioners as well...
May 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713638/omeprazole-minimally-alters-the-fecal-microbial-community-in-six-cats-a-pilot-study
#2
Sarah M Schmid, Jan S Suchodolski, Josh M Price, M K Tolbert
Although they have historically been thought of as safe medications, proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole have been associated with an increased risk of enteric, particularly Clostridium difficile , infections in people. In cats, omeprazole is often the first choice acid suppressant prescribed for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal (GI) ulceration and bleeding. Despite this, no studies to date have explored the effect of omeprazole on the feline fecal microbiome and metabolome. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged omeprazole administration on the fecal microbiome and metabolome in healthy cats to identify targets for analysis in a larger subset of cats with GI disease...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668562/the-association-between-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-with-acute-kidney-injury-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Faisal Kamal, Muhammad A Khan, Miklos Z Molnar, Colin W Howden
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most commonly prescribed medicines and are the mainstay of treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Recently, there has been an increase in the use of these medicines for unclear and inappropriate indications. Although generally well tolerated and considered to be safe, several observational studies have linked PPI use with a variety of conditions such as pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, fractures, hypomagnesemia, and dementia. The well-established association between PPIs and acute interstitial nephritis has raised questions about whether they may also cause acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655966/secular-trends-in-the-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-cdi-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-barcelona-2006-2015-a-prospective-observational-study
#4
Thais Larrainzar-Coghen, Dolors Rodríguez-Pardo, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, Mireia Puig-Asensio, Carles Pigrau, Carmen Ferrer, Virginia Rodríguez, Rosa Bartolomé, David Campany, Benito Almirante
OBJECTIVE: Describe secular trends in the epidemiology and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) at a tertiary hospital. METHODS: All consecutive primary CDI episodes in adults (January 2006-December 2015) were included. CDI was diagnosed on the presence of diarrhoea and a positive stool test for C. difficile toxin A and/or B. To define trends, a time-series analysis was performed using yearly data on demographics, clinical characteristics, management, antimicrobial treatment, and outcome of CDI...
April 12, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606940/successful-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-a-patient-with-severe-complicated-clostridium-difficile-infection-after-liver-transplantation
#5
REVIEW
Kai Markus Schneider, Theresa H Wirtz, Daniela Kroy, Stefanie Albers, Ulf Peter Neumann, Till Strowig, Gernot Sellge, Christian Trautwein
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) represents one of the most common healthcare-associated infections. Due to increasing numbers of recurrences and therapy failures, CDI has become a major disease burden. Studies have shown that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can both be a safe and highly efficacious therapy for patients with therapy-refractory CDI. However, patients undergoing solid organ transplantation are at high risk for CDI due to long-term immunosuppression, previous antibiotic therapy, and proton pump inhibitor use...
January 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454848/multicentre-derivation-and-validation-of-a-simple-predictive-index-for-healthcare-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection
#6
M L Davis, H G Sparrow, J O Ikwuagwu, W L Musick, K W Garey, K K Perez
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of healthcare-associated infections in the United States. Despite well-established risk factors, little research has focused on use of these variables to identify a patient population at high risk for CDI to target with primary prevention strategies. A predictive index for healthcare-associated CDI could improve clinical care and guide research for primary prevention trials. Our objective was to develop a predictive index to identify patients at high risk for healthcare-associated CDI...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441500/the-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-japan-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Thomas V Riley, Tomomi Kimura
To increase understanding of the epidemiology, risks, consequences and resource utilization of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Japan, a systematic literature review was undertaken of relevant publications from January 2006 to November 2017. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and methods, 55 articles met the criteria for full review. The majority (58%) of studies were from a single site, with the most recent data from 2015. The incidence, reported prevalence and recurrence rate of CDI in Japan were 0...
March 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428498/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#8
REVIEW
Michael Samarkos, Elpida Mastrogianni, Olga Kampouropoulou
Clostridium difficile infection has emerged as a major health problem. Because it is a spore-forming microorganism, C. difficile is difficult to eradicate and recurrences of the infection are frequent. The strong association of CDI with prior use of antibiotics led to the recognition that disturbances in the gut microbiota apparently plays a central role in CDI. Except for antibiotics, several other risk factors for CDI have been recognised, such as advanced age and use of proton pump inhibitors. The common characteristic of these factors is that they are associated with changes in the composition of gut microbiota...
April 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427406/risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-intestinal-transplant-recipients-during-the-first-year-post-transplant
#9
L Guzman, F Qiu, A C Kalil, D F Mercer, A Langnas, D F Florescu
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of healthcare-associated infectious diarrhea. Risk factors for C. difficile infections (CDI) in intestinal transplant recipients (ITR) are not well-defined. The aim of our study was to assess specific risk factors for CDI in ITR. METHODS: This is a 1:3 case-control study that included 29 ITR who developed CDI (cases) and 87 ITR without CDI (controls) observed during the first year post-transplantation. Wilcoxon rank sum and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare variables...
April 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413218/evidence-based-practice-in-the-treatment-for-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#10
REVIEW
Robin Squellati
Unit nurses provide care to patients with serious health conditions. Often antibiotics are recommended to fight infections. Sometimes patients are on proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Antibiotics and PPIs may lead to diarrhea, causing the patient more discomfort, and possibly leading to a more serious infection. One serious infection is caused by Clostridium difficile, which causes death in some cases. About 75% of patients on antibiotics may not need antibiotics. Several studies showed less diarrhea in patients on probiotics...
March 2018: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410012/community-acquired-clostridium-difficile-epidemiology-ribotype-risk-factors-hospital-and-intensive-care-unit-outcomes-and-current-and-emerging-therapies
#11
REVIEW
E Ofori, D Ramai, M Dhawan, F Mustafa, J Gasperino, M Reddy
BACKGROUND: The epidemiological landscape of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed over the past 30 years. AIM: To review studies of CDI in the community setting. METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov and Cochrane Databases were searched for human studies performed between 2000 and 2017 that assessed the epidemiology, risk factors, ribotypes, hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes, and management of community-acquired CDI...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406201/proton-pump-inhibitors-review-of-emerging-concerns
#12
REVIEW
Avinash K Nehra, Jeffrey A Alexander, Conor G Loftus, Vandana Nehra
First introduced in 1989, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most widely utilized medications worldwide, both in the ambulatory and inpatient clinical settings. The PPIs are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the management of a variety of gastrointestinal disorders including symptomatic peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and nonulcer dyspepsia as well as for prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving antiplatelet therapy. PPIs inhibit gastric acid secretion, and the most commonly associated adverse effects include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and headache...
February 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397800/electronically-available-comorbid-conditions-for-risk-prediction-of-healthcare-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection
#13
Anthony D Harris, Alyssa N Sbarra, Surbhi Leekha, Sarah S Jackson, J Kristie Johnson, Lisa Pineles, Kerri A Thom
OBJECTIVE To analyze whether electronically available comorbid conditions are risk factors for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-defined, hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) after controlling for antibiotic and gastric acid suppression therapy use. PATIENTS Patients aged ≥18 years admitted to the University of Maryland Medical Center between November 7, 2015, and May 31, 2017. METHODS Comorbid conditions were assessed using the Elixhauser comorbidity index. The Elixhauser comorbidity index and the comorbid condition components were calculated using the International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes extracted from electronic medical records...
March 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393522/derivation-and-validation-of-a-clostridium-difficile-infection-recurrence-prediction-rule-in-a-national-cohort-of-veterans
#14
Kelly R Reveles, Eric M Mortensen, Jim M Koeller, Kenneth A Lawson, Mary Jo V Pugh, Sarah A Rumbellow, Jacqueline R Argamany, Christopher R Frei
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Prior studies have identified risk factors for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but few studies have integrated these factors into a clinical prediction rule that can aid clinical decision-making. The objectives of this study were to derive and validate a CDI recurrence prediction rule to identify patients at risk for first recurrence in a national cohort of veterans. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. DATA SOURCE: Veterans Affairs Informatics and Computing Infrastructure...
March 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373767/-characteristics-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-high-complexity-hospital-and-report-of-the-circulation-of-the-nap1-027-hypervirulent-strain-in-colombia
#15
Sandra Milena Gualtero, Lina Alejandra Abril, Nathalia Camelo, Susi Daniela Sanchez, Fabián Antonio Davila, Gerson Arias, Edwin Silva, Ingrid Gissel Bustos, Diego Fernando Josa, Isabel Cristina Torres, Luis Carlos Zambrano, María José Pareja
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile is the main pathogen related to healthcare-associated diarrhea and it is the cause of 20 to 30% of diarrhea cases caused by antibiotics. In Colombia and Latin America, the knowledge about the epidemiological behavior of this infection is limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of a series of patients with C. difficile infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive case series study of patients with C...
December 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371761/the-influence-of-long-term-use-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-on-the-gut-microbiota-an-age-sex-matched-case-control-study
#16
Tomohisa Takagi, Yuji Naito, Ryo Inoue, Saori Kashiwagi, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Katsura Mizushima, Saeko Tsuchiya, Tetsuya Okayama, Osamu Dohi, Naohisa Yoshida, Kazuhiro Kamada, Takeshi Ishikawa, Osamu Handa, Hideyuki Konishi, Kayo Okuda, Yoshimasa Tsujimoto, Hiromu Ohnogi, Yoshito Itoh
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used to treat gastro-esophageal reflux and prevent gastric ulcers, and have been considered as low risk. However, recent studies have identified possible associations between PPI use and gut microbiota, suggesting that PPIs use increases the risk of enteric infections, including Clostridium difficile infection. To investigate gut microbiota in Japanese PPIs users, we conducted 16S metagenomics analysis of fecal samples collected from PPI users and healthy adults. In total, 36 PPI users and 36 PPI non-users (as control subjects) matched by age and sex were recruited and fecal samples were obtained to analyze the gut microbiome using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361091/clostridium-difficle-enteropathy-is-associated-with-a-higher-risk-for-acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-with-an-ileostomy-a-case-control-study
#17
Gursimran Kochhar, Preston Edge, Courtney Blomme, Xian-Rui Wu, Rocio Lopez, Jean Ashburn, Bo Shen
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is traditionally considered a colon-affecting disease with frequent pseudomembrane formation. However, multiple case reports have documented the existence of CDI in the small bowel, and the literature on outcome of C difficile enteropathy (CDE) is sparse. The aims of our study are to identify risk factors and to assess patient-related outcomes associated with CDE. Methods: This is a case-control study involving 112 patients at our tertiary care center...
January 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321041/effects-of-stress-ulcer-prophylaxis-in-adult-icu-patients-receiving-renal-replacement-therapy-sup-icu-renal-siren-study-protocol-for-a-pre-planned-observational-study
#18
Joerg C Schefold, Anders Perner, Theis Lange, Jørn Wetterslev, Matt P Wise, Mark Borthwick, Stepani Bendel, Frederik Keus, Anne Berit Guttormsen, Søren Marker, Mette Krag, Morten Hylander Møller
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors are often used in critically ill patients to prevent gastrointestinal bleeding despite limited evidence for benefit. Patients with acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) are at high risk of gastrointestinal bleeding as (pre-)uremia induces coagulopathy through effects on platelets and coagulation cascades. No high-quality randomized clinical trials have previously assessed the benefits and harms of prophylactic proton pump inhibitor use in this high-risk population of adult critically ill patients...
January 10, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316555/intestinal-dysbiosis-secondary-to-proton-pump-inhibitor-use
#19
Yuji Naito, Kaori Kashiwagi, Tomohisa Takagi, Akira Andoh, Ryo Inoue
BACKGROUND: Gut dysbiosis associated with the use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been found to lead to the occurrence of infectious and inflammatory adverse events. A longitudinal observational cohort study has demonstrated the heightened risk of death associated with PPI use. SUMMARY: We evaluated meta-analyses to determine the association between PPI use and infectious and inflammatory diseases. Meta-analyses showed that PPI use is a potential risk for the development of enteric infections caused by Clostridium difficile, as well as small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, community-acquired pneumonia, hepatic encephalopathy, and adverse outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease...
2018: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245331/when-omeprazole-met-with-asymptomatic-clostridium-difficile-colonization-in-a-postoperative-colon-cancer-patient-a-case-report
#20
Boyu Li, Huachong Ma, Zhenjun Wang, Lihong Liu
RATIONALE: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a symptomatic infection due to the spore-forming bacterium, C. difficile. Asymptomatic C. difficile colonization is the stage in absence of symptoms, with a prevalence of 1.4% to 21% on hospital admission. Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) was implicated as a novel potential contributor to CDI. PPIs injection could make asymptomatic C. difficile colonization progress to C. difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD). PATIENT CONCERNS: A postoperative colon cancer patient, who had been taking omeprazole for 4 years after operation, got asymptomatic C...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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